Research Article
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Behavior intention to adopt IRCTC application for railway ticket reservation service: A case study of Goan consumers

Year 2022, Volume 7, Issue 2, 19 - 30, 31.12.2022
https://doi.org/10.31822/jomat.2022-7-2-19

Abstract

Last decade witnessed an increase in usage of internet which led to increase in smartphone usage with various applications developed for making the life of people easy, resulting in dynamic change in the lifestyle of people. One such dynamic change taken place in India is in the area of transport, especially rail travel application started by Indian Railways, namely, Indian Railway Catering and Tourism Corporation (IRCTC) portal. Present paper tries to identify the reason why people consider the IRCTC application as the most reliable application. Model was proposed by adopting the factors from Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT2) along with an addition of perceived trust as an influencing factor. Data from 193 usable questionnaires was collected from Goa and were tested against the research model. Result indicated that habit, hedonic motivation, performance expectancy, and perceived trust were the main predictors of behavior intention to adopt and use IRCTC application. The proposed model was able to explain 65% variance on behavior intention. The study also provides valuable insight for the management to improve the IRCTC application in order to motivate customers to adopt and continuously use the services of this application.



References

  • Ahmed, K.A.A. & Kranthi, A.K. (2019). Determinants of m-ticketing adoption using smartphone app among IT employees of Bengaluru city – an extended UTAUT2 approach. International Journal of Business Innovation and Research, 19(1), 57-79.
  • Alalwan, A.A., Dwivedi, Y.K. & Rana, N. P. (2017). Factors influencing adoption of mobile banking by Jordanian bank customers: Extending UTAUT2 with trust. International Journal of Information Management, 37(3), 99-110.
  • Baabdullah, A.M. (2018). Consumer adoption of Mobile Social Network Games (M-SNGs) in Saudi Arabia: The role of social influence, hedonic motivation and Trust. Technology in Society, 53, 91-102.
  • Baabdullah, A.M., Alalwan, A.A., Rana, N.P., Kizgin, H. & Patil, P. (2019). Consumer use of mobile banking (M-Banking) in Saudi Arabia: Towards an integrated model. International journal of information management, 44, 38-52.
  • Business Line (2016). IRCTC hacking: Railways claims no leakage of ‘sensitive’ data. Access on 28 June 2020. Retrieved from https://www.thehindubusinessline.com/economy/irctc-hacking-railways-claims-no-leakage-of-sensitive-data/article8561744.ece
  • Castanha, J., Pillai, S.K.B. & Indrawati. (2021). What influences Consumer Behavior towards Information and Communication Technology Applications: A Systematic Literature Review of UTAUT2 Model. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing: ICT Systems and Sustainability: Proceedings of ICT4SD 2020, Volume 1, 317-327, Springer Nature, Singapore. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-8289-9_30
  • Compeau, D.R. & Higgins, C.A. (1995). Computer self-efficacy: development of a measure and initial test. MIS Quarterly, 19(2), 189-211.
  • Cronbach, L.J. & Meehl, P.E. (1955). Construct validity in psychological tests. Psychological Bulletin, 52(4), 281–302.
  • Cudjoe, A.G., Anim, P.A. & Nyanyofio, J.G.N.T. (2015). Determinants of mobile banking adoption in the Ghanaian banking industry: A case of access bank Ghana limited. Journal of Computer and Communications, 3(1), 1-19.
  • Escobar-Rodríguez, T. & Carvajal-Trujillo, E. (2013). Online drivers of consumer purchase of website airline tickets. Journal of Air Transport Management, 32, 58–64.
  • Escobar-Rodríguez, T. & Carvajal-Trujillo, E. (2014). Online purchasing tickets for low-cost carriers: An application of the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) model. Tourism Management, 43, 70-88.
  • Fornell, C. & Larcker, D.F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39–50.
  • Gefen, D., Karahanna, E. & Straub, D.W. (2003). Trust and TAM in online shopping: An integrated model. MIS Quarterly, 27(1), 51–90.
  • Gefen, D., Straub, D. & Boudreau, M. (2000). Structural equation modeling and regression: guidelines for research practice. Communication of Association for information system, 4.
  • Ghosh, P., Ojha, M.K. & Geetika. (2017). Determining passenger satisfaction out of platform-based amenities: A study of Kanpur Central Railway Station. Transport Policy, 60, 108–118.
  • Gupta, A., Dogra, N. & George, B. (2018). What determines tourist adoption of smartphone apps? An analysis based on the UTAUT-2 framework. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology, 9(1), 50-64.
  • Hair, J. F., Anderson, R. E., Tatham, R. L., & Black, W. C. (1998). Multivariate data analysis. London, UK: Prentice Hall.
  • Hair, J. F., Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C. & Sarstedt, M. (2016). A primer on partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). Sage Publications.
  • Hair, J.F., Black, W.C., Babin, B.J. & Anderson, R.E. (2010). Multivariate data analysis: A global perspective (7th ed.). Pearson Education International.
  • Hair, J.F., Gabriel, M.L.D.S., Silva, D. & Junior, S.B. (2019). Development and validation of attitudes measurement scales: fundamental and practical aspects. Management Journal, 54(4), 490-507.
  • Hair, J.F., Hult, G.T., Ringle, C.M. & Sarstedt, M. (2014). A Primer on Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM). California: SAGE Publications, Inc
  • Hair, J.F., Ringle, C.M., & Sarstedt, M. (2011). PLS-SEM: Indeed a silver bullet. The Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 19(2), 139–152.
  • Henseler, J., Ringle, C.M. & Sinkovics, R.R. (2009). The use of partial least squares path modeling in international marketing. Advances in International Marketing, 20, 277–319
  • Hew, J.J., Lee, V.H., Ooi, K.B. & Wei, J. (2015). What catalyses mobile apps usage intention: an empirical analysis. Industrial Management & Data Systems, 115(7), 1269-1291.
  • IBEF (2020). Telecom industry in India. Access on 28th June 2020. Retrieved from https://www.ibef.org/industry/telecommunications.aspx
  • Indrawati & Yusliansyah, S (2017). Adoption factors of online-web railway ticket reservation service (A case from Indonesia), 5th International Conference on Information and Communication Technology (ICoIC7), Malacca City, 2017, pp. 403-408, Access on 28 June 2020. Retrieved from doi: 10.1109/ICoICT.2017.8074709.
  • Indrawati, Hasana, S.A. & Pillai, S.K.B. (2020a). User’s continuance intention towards hospitality service application. Understanding digital industry- Noviaristani, hanafi & Trihanondo (eds) Taylor & Francis Group, London, 76-80.
  • Indrawati, Pradhina, N.P. & Pillai, S.K.B. (2020b). Customer continuance intention towards digital banking application. Understanding digital industry- Noviaristani, hanafi & Trihanondo (eds) Taylor & Francis Group, London, 103-106.
  • Jensen, J.M. (2012). Shopping orientation and online travel shopping: the role of travel experience. International Journal of Tourism Research, 14(1), 56-70.
  • Kapoor, K.K., Dwivedi, Y.K., & Williams, M.D. (2015). Empirical Examination of the Role of Three Sets of Innovation Attributes for Determining Adoption of IRCTC Mobile Ticketing Service. Information Systems Management, 32(2), 153–173.
  • Kapoor, K; Dwivedi, Y; and Williams, M (2013), Role Of Innovation Attributes In Explaining Intention And Adoption: A Case Of The IRCTC Mobile Ticketing Application In The Indian Context (2013). UK Academy for Information Systems Conference Proceedings 2013. 19. Access on 28 June 2020. Retrieved from https://aisel.aisnet.org/ukais2013/19
  • Komiak, S.X. & Benbasat, I. (2004). Understanding customer trust in agent-mediated electronic commerce, web-mediated electronic commerce, and traditional commerce. Information Technology and Management, 5(1/2), 181-207.
  • Live Mint (2020). Software developer who hacked IRCTC train tickets online caught. Access on 28 June 2020. Retrieved from https://www.livemint.com/news/india/software-developer-who-hacked-irctc-train-tickets-online-caught-11579665921480.html
  • Madan, K. & Yadav, R. (2016). Behavioral intentions to adopt mobile wallets: a developing country’s perspective. Journal of Indian Business Research, 8(3), 227-244.
  • Martins, G., Oliveira, T. & Popovic, A. (2014). Understanding the Internet banking adoption: A unified theory of acceptance and use of technology and perceived risk application. International Journal of Information Management, 34(1), 1–13.
  • Merhi, M., Hone, K. & Tarhini, A. (2019). A cross-cultural study of the intention to use mobile banking between Lebanese and British consumers: Extending UTAUT2 with security, privacy and trust. Technology in Society, 59, 1-12.
  • Mithun, M. K (2018). French researchers highlight security flaws in Indian Railways portals. Access on 28 June 2020. Retrieved from https://www.newindianexpress.com/cities/hyderabad/2018/may/09/french-researchers-highlight-security-flaws-in-indian-railways-portals-1812279.html
  • Patel, A., & Grover, I. (2010). Map-based interaction for inputting in mobile phones. Proceedings of the India HCI 2010 / Interaction Design & International Development 2010 (IHCI), Organized by Indian Institute of Technology Mumbai and British Computer Society, March 20-24 2010, pp 60-64. Access on 28 June 2020. Retrieved from https://www.scienceopen.com/hosted-document?doi=10.14236/ewic/IHCI2010.8
  • Sahney, S., Ghosh, K. & Shrivastava, A. (2013). Conceptualizing consumer ‘‘trust’’ in online buying behaviour: an empirical inquiry and model development in Indian context. Journal of Asia Business studies, 7(3), 278-296.
  • Sahney, S., Ghosh, K. & Shrivastava, A. (2014). Buyer’s motivation’’ for online buying: An empirical case of railway e-ticketing in Indian context. Journal of Asia business studies, 8(1), 43-64.
  • Sahu, G. P & Singh M (2017). Factors influencing consumer’s behavioral intention to adopt IRCTC Connect mobile application. In Digital Nations – Smart Cities, Innovations, and Sustainability, A. K. Kar er al (Eds), Springer International Publishing AG, pp 3-15. Access on 28 June 2020. Retrieved from DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-68557-1_1
  • Sharma, R. & Mishra, R. (2014). A Review of Evolution of Theories and Model of Technology Adoption. Indore Management Journal, 6(2), 17-29.
  • Shaw, N. & Sergueeva, K. (2019). The non-monetary benefits of mobile commerce: Extending UTUAT2 with perceived value. International Journal of Information Management, 45, 44-55.
  • Tan, E. & Lau, J.L. (2016). Behavioral intention to adopt mobile banking among the millennial generation. Young Consumers, 17(1), 18-31.
  • The Hindu (2020). Man held for ‘hacking’ in to IRCTC tatkal portal. Access on 28 June 2020. Retrieved from https://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/Visakhapatnam/man-held-for-hacking-into-irctc-tatkal-portal/article30825471.ece
  • Trojanowski, M. & Kulak, J. (2017). The impact of moderators and trust on consumer’s intention to use a mobile phone for purchases. Journal of management and business administration, 25(2), 91-116.
  • Venkatesh, V., Morris, M.G., Davis, G.B., & Davis, F.D. (2003). User acceptance of information technology: toward a unified view. MIS Quarterly, 27(3), 425-478.
  • Venkatesh, V., Thong, J.Y. & Xu, X. (2012). Consumer acceptance and use of information technology: extending the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology. MIS Quarterly, 36(1), 157–178.
  • Williams, M.D., Rana, N.P. & Dwivedi, Y.K. (2015). The unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT): A literature review. Journal of Enterprise Information Management, 28(3), 443-488.

Year 2022, Volume 7, Issue 2, 19 - 30, 31.12.2022
https://doi.org/10.31822/jomat.2022-7-2-19

Abstract

References

  • Ahmed, K.A.A. & Kranthi, A.K. (2019). Determinants of m-ticketing adoption using smartphone app among IT employees of Bengaluru city – an extended UTAUT2 approach. International Journal of Business Innovation and Research, 19(1), 57-79.
  • Alalwan, A.A., Dwivedi, Y.K. & Rana, N. P. (2017). Factors influencing adoption of mobile banking by Jordanian bank customers: Extending UTAUT2 with trust. International Journal of Information Management, 37(3), 99-110.
  • Baabdullah, A.M. (2018). Consumer adoption of Mobile Social Network Games (M-SNGs) in Saudi Arabia: The role of social influence, hedonic motivation and Trust. Technology in Society, 53, 91-102.
  • Baabdullah, A.M., Alalwan, A.A., Rana, N.P., Kizgin, H. & Patil, P. (2019). Consumer use of mobile banking (M-Banking) in Saudi Arabia: Towards an integrated model. International journal of information management, 44, 38-52.
  • Business Line (2016). IRCTC hacking: Railways claims no leakage of ‘sensitive’ data. Access on 28 June 2020. Retrieved from https://www.thehindubusinessline.com/economy/irctc-hacking-railways-claims-no-leakage-of-sensitive-data/article8561744.ece
  • Castanha, J., Pillai, S.K.B. & Indrawati. (2021). What influences Consumer Behavior towards Information and Communication Technology Applications: A Systematic Literature Review of UTAUT2 Model. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing: ICT Systems and Sustainability: Proceedings of ICT4SD 2020, Volume 1, 317-327, Springer Nature, Singapore. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-8289-9_30
  • Compeau, D.R. & Higgins, C.A. (1995). Computer self-efficacy: development of a measure and initial test. MIS Quarterly, 19(2), 189-211.
  • Cronbach, L.J. & Meehl, P.E. (1955). Construct validity in psychological tests. Psychological Bulletin, 52(4), 281–302.
  • Cudjoe, A.G., Anim, P.A. & Nyanyofio, J.G.N.T. (2015). Determinants of mobile banking adoption in the Ghanaian banking industry: A case of access bank Ghana limited. Journal of Computer and Communications, 3(1), 1-19.
  • Escobar-Rodríguez, T. & Carvajal-Trujillo, E. (2013). Online drivers of consumer purchase of website airline tickets. Journal of Air Transport Management, 32, 58–64.
  • Escobar-Rodríguez, T. & Carvajal-Trujillo, E. (2014). Online purchasing tickets for low-cost carriers: An application of the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) model. Tourism Management, 43, 70-88.
  • Fornell, C. & Larcker, D.F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39–50.
  • Gefen, D., Karahanna, E. & Straub, D.W. (2003). Trust and TAM in online shopping: An integrated model. MIS Quarterly, 27(1), 51–90.
  • Gefen, D., Straub, D. & Boudreau, M. (2000). Structural equation modeling and regression: guidelines for research practice. Communication of Association for information system, 4.
  • Ghosh, P., Ojha, M.K. & Geetika. (2017). Determining passenger satisfaction out of platform-based amenities: A study of Kanpur Central Railway Station. Transport Policy, 60, 108–118.
  • Gupta, A., Dogra, N. & George, B. (2018). What determines tourist adoption of smartphone apps? An analysis based on the UTAUT-2 framework. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology, 9(1), 50-64.
  • Hair, J. F., Anderson, R. E., Tatham, R. L., & Black, W. C. (1998). Multivariate data analysis. London, UK: Prentice Hall.
  • Hair, J. F., Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C. & Sarstedt, M. (2016). A primer on partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). Sage Publications.
  • Hair, J.F., Black, W.C., Babin, B.J. & Anderson, R.E. (2010). Multivariate data analysis: A global perspective (7th ed.). Pearson Education International.
  • Hair, J.F., Gabriel, M.L.D.S., Silva, D. & Junior, S.B. (2019). Development and validation of attitudes measurement scales: fundamental and practical aspects. Management Journal, 54(4), 490-507.
  • Hair, J.F., Hult, G.T., Ringle, C.M. & Sarstedt, M. (2014). A Primer on Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM). California: SAGE Publications, Inc
  • Hair, J.F., Ringle, C.M., & Sarstedt, M. (2011). PLS-SEM: Indeed a silver bullet. The Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 19(2), 139–152.
  • Henseler, J., Ringle, C.M. & Sinkovics, R.R. (2009). The use of partial least squares path modeling in international marketing. Advances in International Marketing, 20, 277–319
  • Hew, J.J., Lee, V.H., Ooi, K.B. & Wei, J. (2015). What catalyses mobile apps usage intention: an empirical analysis. Industrial Management & Data Systems, 115(7), 1269-1291.
  • IBEF (2020). Telecom industry in India. Access on 28th June 2020. Retrieved from https://www.ibef.org/industry/telecommunications.aspx
  • Indrawati & Yusliansyah, S (2017). Adoption factors of online-web railway ticket reservation service (A case from Indonesia), 5th International Conference on Information and Communication Technology (ICoIC7), Malacca City, 2017, pp. 403-408, Access on 28 June 2020. Retrieved from doi: 10.1109/ICoICT.2017.8074709.
  • Indrawati, Hasana, S.A. & Pillai, S.K.B. (2020a). User’s continuance intention towards hospitality service application. Understanding digital industry- Noviaristani, hanafi & Trihanondo (eds) Taylor & Francis Group, London, 76-80.
  • Indrawati, Pradhina, N.P. & Pillai, S.K.B. (2020b). Customer continuance intention towards digital banking application. Understanding digital industry- Noviaristani, hanafi & Trihanondo (eds) Taylor & Francis Group, London, 103-106.
  • Jensen, J.M. (2012). Shopping orientation and online travel shopping: the role of travel experience. International Journal of Tourism Research, 14(1), 56-70.
  • Kapoor, K.K., Dwivedi, Y.K., & Williams, M.D. (2015). Empirical Examination of the Role of Three Sets of Innovation Attributes for Determining Adoption of IRCTC Mobile Ticketing Service. Information Systems Management, 32(2), 153–173.
  • Kapoor, K; Dwivedi, Y; and Williams, M (2013), Role Of Innovation Attributes In Explaining Intention And Adoption: A Case Of The IRCTC Mobile Ticketing Application In The Indian Context (2013). UK Academy for Information Systems Conference Proceedings 2013. 19. Access on 28 June 2020. Retrieved from https://aisel.aisnet.org/ukais2013/19
  • Komiak, S.X. & Benbasat, I. (2004). Understanding customer trust in agent-mediated electronic commerce, web-mediated electronic commerce, and traditional commerce. Information Technology and Management, 5(1/2), 181-207.
  • Live Mint (2020). Software developer who hacked IRCTC train tickets online caught. Access on 28 June 2020. Retrieved from https://www.livemint.com/news/india/software-developer-who-hacked-irctc-train-tickets-online-caught-11579665921480.html
  • Madan, K. & Yadav, R. (2016). Behavioral intentions to adopt mobile wallets: a developing country’s perspective. Journal of Indian Business Research, 8(3), 227-244.
  • Martins, G., Oliveira, T. & Popovic, A. (2014). Understanding the Internet banking adoption: A unified theory of acceptance and use of technology and perceived risk application. International Journal of Information Management, 34(1), 1–13.
  • Merhi, M., Hone, K. & Tarhini, A. (2019). A cross-cultural study of the intention to use mobile banking between Lebanese and British consumers: Extending UTAUT2 with security, privacy and trust. Technology in Society, 59, 1-12.
  • Mithun, M. K (2018). French researchers highlight security flaws in Indian Railways portals. Access on 28 June 2020. Retrieved from https://www.newindianexpress.com/cities/hyderabad/2018/may/09/french-researchers-highlight-security-flaws-in-indian-railways-portals-1812279.html
  • Patel, A., & Grover, I. (2010). Map-based interaction for inputting in mobile phones. Proceedings of the India HCI 2010 / Interaction Design & International Development 2010 (IHCI), Organized by Indian Institute of Technology Mumbai and British Computer Society, March 20-24 2010, pp 60-64. Access on 28 June 2020. Retrieved from https://www.scienceopen.com/hosted-document?doi=10.14236/ewic/IHCI2010.8
  • Sahney, S., Ghosh, K. & Shrivastava, A. (2013). Conceptualizing consumer ‘‘trust’’ in online buying behaviour: an empirical inquiry and model development in Indian context. Journal of Asia Business studies, 7(3), 278-296.
  • Sahney, S., Ghosh, K. & Shrivastava, A. (2014). Buyer’s motivation’’ for online buying: An empirical case of railway e-ticketing in Indian context. Journal of Asia business studies, 8(1), 43-64.
  • Sahu, G. P & Singh M (2017). Factors influencing consumer’s behavioral intention to adopt IRCTC Connect mobile application. In Digital Nations – Smart Cities, Innovations, and Sustainability, A. K. Kar er al (Eds), Springer International Publishing AG, pp 3-15. Access on 28 June 2020. Retrieved from DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-68557-1_1
  • Sharma, R. & Mishra, R. (2014). A Review of Evolution of Theories and Model of Technology Adoption. Indore Management Journal, 6(2), 17-29.
  • Shaw, N. & Sergueeva, K. (2019). The non-monetary benefits of mobile commerce: Extending UTUAT2 with perceived value. International Journal of Information Management, 45, 44-55.
  • Tan, E. & Lau, J.L. (2016). Behavioral intention to adopt mobile banking among the millennial generation. Young Consumers, 17(1), 18-31.
  • The Hindu (2020). Man held for ‘hacking’ in to IRCTC tatkal portal. Access on 28 June 2020. Retrieved from https://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/Visakhapatnam/man-held-for-hacking-into-irctc-tatkal-portal/article30825471.ece
  • Trojanowski, M. & Kulak, J. (2017). The impact of moderators and trust on consumer’s intention to use a mobile phone for purchases. Journal of management and business administration, 25(2), 91-116.
  • Venkatesh, V., Morris, M.G., Davis, G.B., & Davis, F.D. (2003). User acceptance of information technology: toward a unified view. MIS Quarterly, 27(3), 425-478.
  • Venkatesh, V., Thong, J.Y. & Xu, X. (2012). Consumer acceptance and use of information technology: extending the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology. MIS Quarterly, 36(1), 157–178.
  • Williams, M.D., Rana, N.P. & Dwivedi, Y.K. (2015). The unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT): A literature review. Journal of Enterprise Information Management, 28(3), 443-488.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Hospitality Leisure Sport and Tourism
Published Date December (First Published Online 03-04-2022)
Journal Section Contents
Authors

Jick CASTANHA This is me
Goa Business School, Goa University, Goa, India
0000-0003-0665-1691
India


Mayuri PRABHU This is me
Goa Business School, Goa University, Goa, India
0000-0001-6869-6858
India


Subhash Kizhakanveatil Bhaskaran PİLLAİ This is me
Goa Business School, Goa University, Goa, India
0000-0001-9518-9333
India


Indrawatı INDRAWATI This is me
Telkom University, Bandung, Indonesia
0000-0002-2997-3979
Indonesia


Thiago DUARTE PİMENTEL> (Primary Author)
Federal University of Juiz de Fora / UFJF
0000-0003-1889-069X
Brazil

Publication Date December 31, 2022
Published in Issue Year 2022, Volume 7, Issue 2

Cite

APA Castanha, J. , Prabhu, M. , Pillai, S. K. B. , Indrawatı, I. & Duarte Pimentel, T. (2022). Behavior intention to adopt IRCTC application for railway ticket reservation service: A case study of Goan consumers . Journal of Multidisciplinary Academic Tourism , 7 (2) , 19-30 . DOI: 10.31822/jomat.2022-7-2-19



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