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The Roots of Tourism: Hippies

Year 2022, Volume 7, Issue 2, 85 - 94, 31.12.2022
https://doi.org/10.31822/jomat.2022-7-2-85

Abstract

Tourism has developed in Nevşehir and Antalya, two of the most significant destinations of today’s Turkey, in 1960s. In line with the previous study in the related literature, it is possible to mention that the tourism activities in those regions have been triggered by the visits of the hippies. In this study, it is aimed to reveal the contribution of the hippies to the development of tourism in Cappadocia (Nevşehir), Side and Alanya (Antalya), which have become significant tourism destinations in Turkey. For this purpose, the transcripts of the interviews of the Turkey Tourism History Project, which describes the tourism development and history in these regions, were subjected to document analysis. The impact of hippies on Turkey’s tourism has been explained within the framework of Social Exchange Theory. As a result, it has been determined that all stages of the social exchange theory have been observed between hippies and local people. The local people, who initially approached hippies with prejudice, changed their perspective towards hippies in a positive way with the effect of many externalities.



References

  • Allen, L., Hafer, H., Long, P. T., & Perdue, R. (1993). Rural residents' attitudes toward recreation and tourism development. Journal of Travel Research, 31(4), 27-37.
  • Berber, Ş. (2003). Sosyal değişme katalizörü olarak turizm ve etkileri. Selçuk Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 9, 205-221.
  • Besculides, A., Lee, M., & McCornick, P. (2002). Residents’ perceptions of the cultural benefits of tourism. Annals of Tourism Research, 29(2), 303-319.
  • Black, A. (1996). Negotiating the tourist gaze. In J. Boissevain (Ed.), Coping with Tourists: European Reactions To Mass Tourism (pp. 112-142). New York: Berghahn Books.
  • Blau, P. M. (2017). Exchange and Power in Social Life. London: John Wiley & Sons Inc.
  • Butler, R. (1980). The Concept of A Tourist Area Cycle of Evaluation: Implications for Management of Resources. Canadian Geographer, 24(1), 5-12.
  • Chibucos, T., Leite, R., & Weis, D. (2005). Reading in Family Theory. Sage.
  • Colquitt, J., Scott, B., & Lepine, J. (2007). Trust, Trustworthiness and Trust Propensity: A Meta-Analytic Test of Their Unique Relationships with Risk Taking a Job Performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(4), 909-927.
  • Crips, R., & Turner, R. (2010). Essentials Social Psychology. Sage.
  • Doxey, G. (1975). A Causation Theory of Visitor-Resident Irritants: Methodology and Research Inferences. Travel and Tourism Research Association Sixth Annual Conference, (s. 195-198). San Diego.
  • Emerson, R. M. (1962). Power-dependence relations. American Sociological Review,27(1), 31-41.
  • Erlandson, D. A., Harris, E. L., Skipper, B. L., & Allen, S. D. (1993). Doing naturalistic inquiry: A guide to methods. Sage Publications, Inc.
  • Gemie, S., & Ireland, B. (2017). The hippie trail: A history. Manchester University Press.
  • Götting, A. (2010). New Social Movements. Grin Verlag.
  • Gursoy, D., & Rutherford, D. (2004). Host Attitudes toward Tourism An Improved Structural Model. Annals of Tourism Research, 31(3), 495-516.
  • Gürbüz, A. (2002). Turizmin Sosyal Çevreye Etkisi Üzerine bir Araştırma. Teknoloji, 5(1-2), 49-59.
  • Homans, G. C. (1958). Social Behavior as Exchange. American Journal of Sociology, 63 (2), 597-606.
  • Howard, J. (1969). The Flowering of the Hippie Movement. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 382(1), 43-55.
  • Ireland, B., & Gemie, S. (2015). From Kerouac to the hippy trail: Some notes on the attraction of on the road to British hippies. Studies in Travel Writing, 19(1),66-82.
  • Kozak, N. (2018). Cultural visitors and local residents’ interactions: hippies’ movement at Sultanahmet in the 1960s. Anatolia: An International Journal of Tourism and Hospitality Research, 29(2), 225-236.
  • Köksal, O. (2012). Sosyal Değişim Teorisi Çerçevesinde Güven ve Algılanan Aidiyet Durumunun Örgütsel Vatandaşlık Davranışı ve Saldırgan Davranışlar Üzerine Etkisi. Yayımlanmamış Doktora Tezi. Kayseri: Erciyes Üniversitesi.
  • Lambe, C., Wittmann, C., & Spekman, R. (2001). Social exchange theory and research on business-to-business relational exchange. Journal of Business-to-Business Marketing, 8(3), 1-36.
  • Lawler, E., & Thye, S. (1999). Bringing Emotions into Social Exchange Theory. Annual Review of Sociology, 25(2), 217-244.
  • Leland, J. (2005). Hip: The History. Harper Perennial.
  • Lincoln, Y. & Guba, E. (1985). Naturalistic inquiry: Establishing Trustworthiness, Beverly Hills.
  • Long, P., Perdue, R., & Allen, L. (1990). Rural resident tourism perceptions and attitudes by community level of tourism. Journal of Travel Research, 28(3), 3-9.
  • Maclean, R. (2006). Magic Bus. Penguin Group.
  • Marwick, A. (1998). The Sixties: Cultural Revolution in Britain, France, Italy and The United States. Oxford University.
  • Melucci, A. (1996). Challenging Codes: Collective Action in The Information Age. Cambridge University.
  • Miles, M. B., Huberman, A. M., & Saldaña, J. (2014). Qualitative data analysis: A methods sourcebook. Sage
  • Özdemir, M. (2010). Nitel veri analizi: Sosyal bilimlerde yöntembilim sorunsalı üzerine bir çalışma. Eskişehir Osmangazi Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 11(1), 323-343.
  • Özel, Ç. H. (2014). Turizmin sosyo-kültürel boyutta ortaya çıkardığı etkilerin incelenmesi: Marmaris Örneği. Dumlupınar Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 42(2), 57-68.
  • Pettersson, K., & Heldt Cassel, S. (2014). Women tourism entrepreneurs: Doing gender on farms in Sweden. Gender in Management: An International Journal, 29(8), 487-504.
  • Shapiro, J., & Conway, N. (2005). Exchange relationships: Examining psychological contracts and perceived organizational support. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90(4), 774-781.
  • Taylor, S., Peplau, L., & Sears, D. (1997). Social Psychology. Prentice Hall Inc.
  • Thibaut, J., & Kelley, H. (2017). The Social Psychology of Groups. John Wiley & Sons Inc.
  • Tilly, C. (2004). Social Movements 1768-2004. Paradigm Publishers.
  • Touraine, A. (1988). Return of The Actor: Social Theory in Postindustrial Society. University of Minnesota.
  • Tuna, M., & Özbek, Ç. (2012). Yerlileşen Yabancılar: Güney Ege Bölgesinde Göç, Yurttaşlık ve Kimliğin Dönüşümü. Detay.
  • Turan, A., & Kozak, N. (2016). Residents’ support for tourism in Cappadocia: Case of the hippies. The Social Sciences, 11(20), 4875-4881.
  • Wall, G., & Mathieson, A. (2006). Tourism: Change, Impacts and Opportunities. Pearson Prentice Hall.
  • Ward, C., & Berno, T. (2011). Beyond Social Change Attitudes towards Tourists. Annals of Tourism Research, 38(4), 1556-1569.
  • Verbi Software. (2020). MAXQDA 2020 [computer software]. Berlin, Germany: VERBI Software.
  • Yoon, Y., Gursoy, D., & Chen, J. (2001). Validating a tourism development theory with structural equation modeling. Tourism Management, 22(1), 363-372.
  • Zamani-Farahani, H., & Henderson, J. (2010). Islamic tourism and managing tourism development in Islamic societies: The cases of Iran and Saudi Arabia. International Journal of Tourism Research, 12(1), 79-89.
  • Zamani-Farahani, H., & Musa, G. (2012). The relationship between Islamic religiosity and residents’ perceptions of socio-cultural impacts of tourism in Iran: Case studies of Sare’in and Masooleh. Tourism Management, 33(4), 802-814.

Year 2022, Volume 7, Issue 2, 85 - 94, 31.12.2022
https://doi.org/10.31822/jomat.2022-7-2-85

Abstract

References

  • Allen, L., Hafer, H., Long, P. T., & Perdue, R. (1993). Rural residents' attitudes toward recreation and tourism development. Journal of Travel Research, 31(4), 27-37.
  • Berber, Ş. (2003). Sosyal değişme katalizörü olarak turizm ve etkileri. Selçuk Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 9, 205-221.
  • Besculides, A., Lee, M., & McCornick, P. (2002). Residents’ perceptions of the cultural benefits of tourism. Annals of Tourism Research, 29(2), 303-319.
  • Black, A. (1996). Negotiating the tourist gaze. In J. Boissevain (Ed.), Coping with Tourists: European Reactions To Mass Tourism (pp. 112-142). New York: Berghahn Books.
  • Blau, P. M. (2017). Exchange and Power in Social Life. London: John Wiley & Sons Inc.
  • Butler, R. (1980). The Concept of A Tourist Area Cycle of Evaluation: Implications for Management of Resources. Canadian Geographer, 24(1), 5-12.
  • Chibucos, T., Leite, R., & Weis, D. (2005). Reading in Family Theory. Sage.
  • Colquitt, J., Scott, B., & Lepine, J. (2007). Trust, Trustworthiness and Trust Propensity: A Meta-Analytic Test of Their Unique Relationships with Risk Taking a Job Performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(4), 909-927.
  • Crips, R., & Turner, R. (2010). Essentials Social Psychology. Sage.
  • Doxey, G. (1975). A Causation Theory of Visitor-Resident Irritants: Methodology and Research Inferences. Travel and Tourism Research Association Sixth Annual Conference, (s. 195-198). San Diego.
  • Emerson, R. M. (1962). Power-dependence relations. American Sociological Review,27(1), 31-41.
  • Erlandson, D. A., Harris, E. L., Skipper, B. L., & Allen, S. D. (1993). Doing naturalistic inquiry: A guide to methods. Sage Publications, Inc.
  • Gemie, S., & Ireland, B. (2017). The hippie trail: A history. Manchester University Press.
  • Götting, A. (2010). New Social Movements. Grin Verlag.
  • Gursoy, D., & Rutherford, D. (2004). Host Attitudes toward Tourism An Improved Structural Model. Annals of Tourism Research, 31(3), 495-516.
  • Gürbüz, A. (2002). Turizmin Sosyal Çevreye Etkisi Üzerine bir Araştırma. Teknoloji, 5(1-2), 49-59.
  • Homans, G. C. (1958). Social Behavior as Exchange. American Journal of Sociology, 63 (2), 597-606.
  • Howard, J. (1969). The Flowering of the Hippie Movement. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 382(1), 43-55.
  • Ireland, B., & Gemie, S. (2015). From Kerouac to the hippy trail: Some notes on the attraction of on the road to British hippies. Studies in Travel Writing, 19(1),66-82.
  • Kozak, N. (2018). Cultural visitors and local residents’ interactions: hippies’ movement at Sultanahmet in the 1960s. Anatolia: An International Journal of Tourism and Hospitality Research, 29(2), 225-236.
  • Köksal, O. (2012). Sosyal Değişim Teorisi Çerçevesinde Güven ve Algılanan Aidiyet Durumunun Örgütsel Vatandaşlık Davranışı ve Saldırgan Davranışlar Üzerine Etkisi. Yayımlanmamış Doktora Tezi. Kayseri: Erciyes Üniversitesi.
  • Lambe, C., Wittmann, C., & Spekman, R. (2001). Social exchange theory and research on business-to-business relational exchange. Journal of Business-to-Business Marketing, 8(3), 1-36.
  • Lawler, E., & Thye, S. (1999). Bringing Emotions into Social Exchange Theory. Annual Review of Sociology, 25(2), 217-244.
  • Leland, J. (2005). Hip: The History. Harper Perennial.
  • Lincoln, Y. & Guba, E. (1985). Naturalistic inquiry: Establishing Trustworthiness, Beverly Hills.
  • Long, P., Perdue, R., & Allen, L. (1990). Rural resident tourism perceptions and attitudes by community level of tourism. Journal of Travel Research, 28(3), 3-9.
  • Maclean, R. (2006). Magic Bus. Penguin Group.
  • Marwick, A. (1998). The Sixties: Cultural Revolution in Britain, France, Italy and The United States. Oxford University.
  • Melucci, A. (1996). Challenging Codes: Collective Action in The Information Age. Cambridge University.
  • Miles, M. B., Huberman, A. M., & Saldaña, J. (2014). Qualitative data analysis: A methods sourcebook. Sage
  • Özdemir, M. (2010). Nitel veri analizi: Sosyal bilimlerde yöntembilim sorunsalı üzerine bir çalışma. Eskişehir Osmangazi Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 11(1), 323-343.
  • Özel, Ç. H. (2014). Turizmin sosyo-kültürel boyutta ortaya çıkardığı etkilerin incelenmesi: Marmaris Örneği. Dumlupınar Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 42(2), 57-68.
  • Pettersson, K., & Heldt Cassel, S. (2014). Women tourism entrepreneurs: Doing gender on farms in Sweden. Gender in Management: An International Journal, 29(8), 487-504.
  • Shapiro, J., & Conway, N. (2005). Exchange relationships: Examining psychological contracts and perceived organizational support. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90(4), 774-781.
  • Taylor, S., Peplau, L., & Sears, D. (1997). Social Psychology. Prentice Hall Inc.
  • Thibaut, J., & Kelley, H. (2017). The Social Psychology of Groups. John Wiley & Sons Inc.
  • Tilly, C. (2004). Social Movements 1768-2004. Paradigm Publishers.
  • Touraine, A. (1988). Return of The Actor: Social Theory in Postindustrial Society. University of Minnesota.
  • Tuna, M., & Özbek, Ç. (2012). Yerlileşen Yabancılar: Güney Ege Bölgesinde Göç, Yurttaşlık ve Kimliğin Dönüşümü. Detay.
  • Turan, A., & Kozak, N. (2016). Residents’ support for tourism in Cappadocia: Case of the hippies. The Social Sciences, 11(20), 4875-4881.
  • Wall, G., & Mathieson, A. (2006). Tourism: Change, Impacts and Opportunities. Pearson Prentice Hall.
  • Ward, C., & Berno, T. (2011). Beyond Social Change Attitudes towards Tourists. Annals of Tourism Research, 38(4), 1556-1569.
  • Verbi Software. (2020). MAXQDA 2020 [computer software]. Berlin, Germany: VERBI Software.
  • Yoon, Y., Gursoy, D., & Chen, J. (2001). Validating a tourism development theory with structural equation modeling. Tourism Management, 22(1), 363-372.
  • Zamani-Farahani, H., & Henderson, J. (2010). Islamic tourism and managing tourism development in Islamic societies: The cases of Iran and Saudi Arabia. International Journal of Tourism Research, 12(1), 79-89.
  • Zamani-Farahani, H., & Musa, G. (2012). The relationship between Islamic religiosity and residents’ perceptions of socio-cultural impacts of tourism in Iran: Case studies of Sare’in and Masooleh. Tourism Management, 33(4), 802-814.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Hospitality Leisure Sport and Tourism
Published Date December (First Published Online 25-07-2022)
Journal Section Contents
Authors

Gözde TÜRKTARHAN> (Primary Author)
University of South Florida
0000-0003-4568-244X
United States


Arzu TOKER>
ANADOLU UNIVERSITY
0000-0002-0619-9941
Türkiye


Nazmi KOZAK>
ANADOLU UNIVERSITY
0000-0002-0859-8874
Türkiye

Supporting Institution Anadolu Universitesi
Publication Date December 31, 2022
Published in Issue Year 2022, Volume 7, Issue 2

Cite

APA Türktarhan, G. , Toker, A. & Kozak, N. (2022). The Roots of Tourism: Hippies . Journal of Multidisciplinary Academic Tourism , 7 (2) , 85-94 . DOI: 10.31822/jomat.2022-7-2-85



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