Research Article
PDF EndNote BibTex RIS Cite

Why are the cook chefs always male: Research on the cook chefs who works at hotel cuisines

Year 2023, Volume 8, Issue 1, 13 - 18, 31.07.2023
https://doi.org/10.31822/jomat.2023-8-1-13

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to determine the reasons; “why are chefs always male” in the kitchens of hotels. Food cultures of countries, cooking techniques, eating styles are some of the subjects in the study area of gastronomy science. Chefs are one of the primary elements that contribute to the development of food culture. Cook chefs are at the center of the present study. The scientific discipline “Workforce in Working Life” continues to do research about Cook Chefs. In this study, the gender and reasons of chefs working in the kitchens of 4 and 5 star hotels serving in the field of tourism in the world were researched demographically. Four continents, five countries from each continent, two cities from each country and ten international 4 and 5 star chain hotels in each city were selected. In the first section of the study, it was observed that most of the chefs working in hotels were male. In the second section, the reasons why most of the chefs are male were examined scientifically. As a result, it was determined that the working conditions of chefs are difficult for women hence the high number of male chefs.



References

  • Bartholomew, P. S., & Garey, J. G. (1996). An analysis of determinants of career success for elite female executive chefs. Journal of Hospitality Tourism, 20 (2), 125–135. https://doi.org/10.1177/109634809602000209.
  • Bilmes, M. (2007). International Forum of Psychoanalysis. 1(3):163-168. https://doi.org/10.1080/08037069208412321
  • Cairns, K., & Johnston, J. (2015). Food and femininity. Bloomsbury Publishing.
  • Childers, L., & Kryza, A. (2015). The 17 best female chefs in America. Thrillist https://www.thrillist.com/eat/nation/america-s-best-female-chefs.
  • Connell, R. (2005). Masculinities (2 ed.). Cambridge: Polity Press.
  • Cruz, A. (2013). Gettin’ Down Home With the Neelys: gastro-porn and televisual performances of gender, race, and sexuality, Women & Performance: a journal of feminist theory, 23(3), 323-349. https://doi.org/10.1080/0740770X.2013.853916
  • Dayıoğlu, M., & Kırdar, M. (2010). TC DPT Çalışma Raporu, Sayı: 5, Ankara.
  • DeVault, M. L. (1991). Feeding the family: The social organization of caring as gendered work. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • Druckman, C. (2010). Why are there no great women chefs? Gastronomica, 24(1), 24-31. https://doi.org/10.1525/gfc.2010.10.1.24
  • Eagly, A., & Carli, L. L. (2007). Women and the labyrinth of leadership. Harv. Bus. Rev. https://hbr.org/2007/09/women-and-the-labyrinth-of-leadership.
  • Fürst, E. L. (1997). Cooking and femininity. Women's Studies International Forum, 20(3), 441-449. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0277-5395(97)00027-7
  • GARD. (2021). www.delta-check.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/01/DC_GARD_Samples_DC-de_asof-2015.xls, web site access dated 16.05.2021
  • Gill, R. (2007). Postfeminist Media Culture: Elements of a Sensibility. European Journal of Cultural Studies, 10(2): 147–166. https://doi.org/10.1177/1367549407075898
  • Glauber, R. (2011). Gender, occupational composition, and flexible work scheduling. The Sociological Quarterly, 52 (3), 472–494. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1533-8525.2011.01215.x
  • Guerrina, R. (2002). Mothering in Europe Feminist critique of European policies on motherhood and employment. European Journal of Women ׳s Studies, 9 (1), 49–68. https://doi.org/10.1177/1350506802009001381.
  • Harris, D. A., & Giuffre, P. (2010). The price you pay: how female professional chefs negotiate work and family. Gender Issues 27, 27–52. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12147-010-9086-8.
  • Harris, D. A., & Giuffre, P. A. (2015). Taking the heat: Women chefs and gender inequality in the professional kitchen. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.
  • Heilman, M. E., & Haynes, M. C. (2005). No credit where credit is due: attribution rationalization of women׳s success in male-female teams. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90 (5), 905–916. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.90.5.905.
  • Hochschild, A. R. (1989). The second shift: Working parents and the revolution at home. New York: Viking.
  • Hollows, J. (2003). Oliver’s twist: Leisure, labor and domestic masculinity in The Naked Chef. International Journal of Cultural Studies, 6(2), 229-248. https://doi.org/10.1177/13678779030062005
  • Hurley, A. E. (1999). Incorporating feminist theories into social theories of entrepreneurship. Women Manag. Rev. 14 (2), 54–62. https://doi.org/10.1108/09649429910261396.
  • Kimmel, M. S. (2003). Globalization and its mal(e)contents: The gendered moral and political economy of terrorism. International Sociology, 18(3), 603-620. https://doi.org/10.1177/02685809030183008
  • Martin, P., & Bernard, A. (2013). The experience of women in male-dominated occupations: a constructivist grounded theory inquiry. SA Journal of Industrial Psychology. Vol 39, No 2, a1099. https://doi.org/10.4102/sajip.v39i2.1099.
  • McClintock, A. (1991). No longer in a future heaven: Women and nationalism in South Africa. Transition, (51), 104-123.
  • McElroy, R. (2002). Whose body, whose nation?: Surrogate motherhood and its representation. European Journal of Cultural Studies, 5(3), 325-342. https://doi.org/10.1177/1364942002005003068
  • McNay, L. (2004). Agency and experience: Gender as a lived relation. The Sociological Review, 52, 173-190. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-954X.2005.00530.x
  • Naccarato, P., & LeBesco, K. (2012). Culinary Capital. Oxford: Berg.
  • Nagel, J. (1998). Masculinity and nationalism: Gender and sexuality in the making nations. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 21(2), 242-269. https://doi.org/10.1080/014198798330007
  • Nagel, J. (2005). Nation. In M. S. Kimmel, J. Hearn, & R. Connell (Eds.), Handbook of studies on men and masculinities (pp. 397-413). Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications.
  • O Brien, P. W. (2010). The Careers of Chefs: A Study of Swiss Expatriates Working in Thailand. Nagoya University of Foreign Studies.
  • Oktay, S. (2018). Study on Gastronomic Cultures of Post Neolithic Civilizations in Anatolia. Journal of Culinary Science & Technology. https://doi.org/10.1080/15428052.2018.1489322.
  • Onder, N. (2013). Female Labor Force in Turkey, Labor World, Volume: 1, Issue: 1, July-September 2013
  • Orser, B., & Leck, J. (2010). Gender influence on career success outcomes. Gend. Manag.: Int. J. 25 (5), 386–407. https://doi.org/10.1108/17542411011056877.
  • Rouhanizadeh, B., & Kermanshachi, S. (2021). A gender-based analysis of workforce promotion factors in U.S. transportation agencies. Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives, Volume 12, December 2021, 100457. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trip.2021.100457
  • Sharp, J. R. (1996). Gendering nationhood: A feminist engagement with national identity. In N. Duncan (Ed.), Bodyspace: Destabilizing geographies of gender and sexuality. pp. 97-107. London: Routledge.
  • Sundström, M., & Stafford, F. P. (1992). Female Labor Force Participation, Fertility and Public Policy in Sweden, European Journal of Population,Vol. 8, No:3
  • Swinbank, V. A. (2002). The sexual politics of cooking: A feminist analysis of culinary hierarchy in western culture. Journal of Historical Sociology, 15(4), 464-494. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-6443.00188
  • Yuval-Davis, N. (1997). Gender & Nation. London: SAGE Publications.

Year 2023, Volume 8, Issue 1, 13 - 18, 31.07.2023
https://doi.org/10.31822/jomat.2023-8-1-13

Abstract

References

  • Bartholomew, P. S., & Garey, J. G. (1996). An analysis of determinants of career success for elite female executive chefs. Journal of Hospitality Tourism, 20 (2), 125–135. https://doi.org/10.1177/109634809602000209.
  • Bilmes, M. (2007). International Forum of Psychoanalysis. 1(3):163-168. https://doi.org/10.1080/08037069208412321
  • Cairns, K., & Johnston, J. (2015). Food and femininity. Bloomsbury Publishing.
  • Childers, L., & Kryza, A. (2015). The 17 best female chefs in America. Thrillist https://www.thrillist.com/eat/nation/america-s-best-female-chefs.
  • Connell, R. (2005). Masculinities (2 ed.). Cambridge: Polity Press.
  • Cruz, A. (2013). Gettin’ Down Home With the Neelys: gastro-porn and televisual performances of gender, race, and sexuality, Women & Performance: a journal of feminist theory, 23(3), 323-349. https://doi.org/10.1080/0740770X.2013.853916
  • Dayıoğlu, M., & Kırdar, M. (2010). TC DPT Çalışma Raporu, Sayı: 5, Ankara.
  • DeVault, M. L. (1991). Feeding the family: The social organization of caring as gendered work. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • Druckman, C. (2010). Why are there no great women chefs? Gastronomica, 24(1), 24-31. https://doi.org/10.1525/gfc.2010.10.1.24
  • Eagly, A., & Carli, L. L. (2007). Women and the labyrinth of leadership. Harv. Bus. Rev. https://hbr.org/2007/09/women-and-the-labyrinth-of-leadership.
  • Fürst, E. L. (1997). Cooking and femininity. Women's Studies International Forum, 20(3), 441-449. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0277-5395(97)00027-7
  • GARD. (2021). www.delta-check.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/01/DC_GARD_Samples_DC-de_asof-2015.xls, web site access dated 16.05.2021
  • Gill, R. (2007). Postfeminist Media Culture: Elements of a Sensibility. European Journal of Cultural Studies, 10(2): 147–166. https://doi.org/10.1177/1367549407075898
  • Glauber, R. (2011). Gender, occupational composition, and flexible work scheduling. The Sociological Quarterly, 52 (3), 472–494. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1533-8525.2011.01215.x
  • Guerrina, R. (2002). Mothering in Europe Feminist critique of European policies on motherhood and employment. European Journal of Women ׳s Studies, 9 (1), 49–68. https://doi.org/10.1177/1350506802009001381.
  • Harris, D. A., & Giuffre, P. (2010). The price you pay: how female professional chefs negotiate work and family. Gender Issues 27, 27–52. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12147-010-9086-8.
  • Harris, D. A., & Giuffre, P. A. (2015). Taking the heat: Women chefs and gender inequality in the professional kitchen. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.
  • Heilman, M. E., & Haynes, M. C. (2005). No credit where credit is due: attribution rationalization of women׳s success in male-female teams. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90 (5), 905–916. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.90.5.905.
  • Hochschild, A. R. (1989). The second shift: Working parents and the revolution at home. New York: Viking.
  • Hollows, J. (2003). Oliver’s twist: Leisure, labor and domestic masculinity in The Naked Chef. International Journal of Cultural Studies, 6(2), 229-248. https://doi.org/10.1177/13678779030062005
  • Hurley, A. E. (1999). Incorporating feminist theories into social theories of entrepreneurship. Women Manag. Rev. 14 (2), 54–62. https://doi.org/10.1108/09649429910261396.
  • Kimmel, M. S. (2003). Globalization and its mal(e)contents: The gendered moral and political economy of terrorism. International Sociology, 18(3), 603-620. https://doi.org/10.1177/02685809030183008
  • Martin, P., & Bernard, A. (2013). The experience of women in male-dominated occupations: a constructivist grounded theory inquiry. SA Journal of Industrial Psychology. Vol 39, No 2, a1099. https://doi.org/10.4102/sajip.v39i2.1099.
  • McClintock, A. (1991). No longer in a future heaven: Women and nationalism in South Africa. Transition, (51), 104-123.
  • McElroy, R. (2002). Whose body, whose nation?: Surrogate motherhood and its representation. European Journal of Cultural Studies, 5(3), 325-342. https://doi.org/10.1177/1364942002005003068
  • McNay, L. (2004). Agency and experience: Gender as a lived relation. The Sociological Review, 52, 173-190. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-954X.2005.00530.x
  • Naccarato, P., & LeBesco, K. (2012). Culinary Capital. Oxford: Berg.
  • Nagel, J. (1998). Masculinity and nationalism: Gender and sexuality in the making nations. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 21(2), 242-269. https://doi.org/10.1080/014198798330007
  • Nagel, J. (2005). Nation. In M. S. Kimmel, J. Hearn, & R. Connell (Eds.), Handbook of studies on men and masculinities (pp. 397-413). Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications.
  • O Brien, P. W. (2010). The Careers of Chefs: A Study of Swiss Expatriates Working in Thailand. Nagoya University of Foreign Studies.
  • Oktay, S. (2018). Study on Gastronomic Cultures of Post Neolithic Civilizations in Anatolia. Journal of Culinary Science & Technology. https://doi.org/10.1080/15428052.2018.1489322.
  • Onder, N. (2013). Female Labor Force in Turkey, Labor World, Volume: 1, Issue: 1, July-September 2013
  • Orser, B., & Leck, J. (2010). Gender influence on career success outcomes. Gend. Manag.: Int. J. 25 (5), 386–407. https://doi.org/10.1108/17542411011056877.
  • Rouhanizadeh, B., & Kermanshachi, S. (2021). A gender-based analysis of workforce promotion factors in U.S. transportation agencies. Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives, Volume 12, December 2021, 100457. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trip.2021.100457
  • Sharp, J. R. (1996). Gendering nationhood: A feminist engagement with national identity. In N. Duncan (Ed.), Bodyspace: Destabilizing geographies of gender and sexuality. pp. 97-107. London: Routledge.
  • Sundström, M., & Stafford, F. P. (1992). Female Labor Force Participation, Fertility and Public Policy in Sweden, European Journal of Population,Vol. 8, No:3
  • Swinbank, V. A. (2002). The sexual politics of cooking: A feminist analysis of culinary hierarchy in western culture. Journal of Historical Sociology, 15(4), 464-494. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-6443.00188
  • Yuval-Davis, N. (1997). Gender & Nation. London: SAGE Publications.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Hospitality Leisure Sport and Tourism
Published Date July 2023 (First Published Online 19-10-2022)
Journal Section Contents
Authors

Serdar OKTAY> (Primary Author)
FINAL INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY
0000-0002-9438-9920
Kuzey Kıbrıs Türk Cumhuriyeti


Nafiya GÜDEN>
FINAL INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY
0000-0002-3901-3146
Kuzey Kıbrıs Türk Cumhuriyeti

Publication Date July 31, 2023
Published in Issue Year 2023, Volume 8, Issue 1

Cite

APA Oktay, S. & Güden, N. (2023). Why are the cook chefs always male: Research on the cook chefs who works at hotel cuisines . Journal of Multidisciplinary Academic Tourism , 8 (1) , 13-18 . DOI: 10.31822/jomat.2023-8-1-13



88x31.png   All the contents of this journal licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) 4.0 License (From September 2022)


 

  face.png  

    insta.png