Glycerol and insoluble
starch xanthates were synthesised and effectively used in the removal of Pb, Cd
and Cu from aqueous solutions. The insoluble metal complex formed between the
sulphur atoms in the xanthates and the heavy metals were easily separated.
Lower dosage of glycerol xanthate was required in each case, with the optimum
molar ratio (M2+/GX) of 2. Moreover, the use of glycerol xanthate
required no pH adjustments to give a 100 % heavy metal removal within the range
of the detection limit. As for the ISX, there was a remarkable metal scavenging
activity when the ISX contained high amount of Sulphur per molecule (10.12% S)
and when the pH was adjusted to 6. Butyl xanthate was also synthesised to make
a good comparison with the glycerol and insoluble starch xanthate. The
xanthates from these two sustainable materials (Starch and glycerol) are proven
to be more effective in metal scavenging activity. FTIR and CHNS elemental
analyses were used to prove the evidence of xanthation, in addition, 13C
NMR was used to characterise the glycerol xanthate.
Glycerol, Heavy metals, Starch, Sulphur