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DRAG REDUCTION WITH POLYMER MIXTURES IN OIL-WATER FLOWS: EFFECT OF SYNERGY

Year 2020, Volume 3, Issue 1, 1 - 8, 30.05.2020

Abstract

The pressure drop encountered during horizontal pipeline flows in chemical and petroleum industries require high pumping energy. An economical approach has been reported where small amount of higher molecular weight polymeric solution can lead to large decrease in pressure drop. In this work, drag reduction (DR) in oil-water flows was investigated in 20 mm horizontal pipe diameter and length of 140 times the diameter (140D). Partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM; magnafloc 1011), polyethylene oxide (PEO) and Aloe Vera mucilage (AVM) as well as their mixtures (HPAM-AVM and PEO-AVM) at mixture Reynolds number of 37773 were used. Master solution of 2000 ppm and 20000 ppm for HPAM, PEO and AVM as well as their respective mixtures at total concentration (TC) of 30 ppm and 400 ppm were used. The two liquids used were tap water (ρ = 1000 Kg/m3, µ = 0.89 cP) and diesel oil (ρ = 832 Kg/m3, µ = 1.66 cP) at ambient conditions (25 oC, 1 atm). Different oil input volume fractions (δo) and mixture velocities (Umix) for the two phases were used. The results show that the DR of 61.67 & 63.33%, and 66.67 & 68.33% were obtained for HPAM-AVM and PEO-AVM respectively, at mixing ratios of 3:1 & 1:19, for 25% oil input and water phase Reynolds number (Rew) of 28329. These values were found to be higher than the DR obtained by individual polymer alone at the same conditions. Drag reduction decreased with increase in the δo due to the decrease in the Rew. The synergistic effect observed in DR of the polymer mixture solution may be due to the presence of interaction among the polymer molecules and their rigidity. The result implies that drag reduction efficiency can be enhanced by combining natural and synthetic polymers. 



References

  • 1. Edomwonyi-Otu LC & Angeli P. Effects of Polymer Addition on Pressure Drop and Interfacial Waves in Horizontal Oil-Water Flows. Petroleum Technology Develoment Journal. 2014 July; (2): 41–48.
  • 2. Al-Sarkhi A. Drag reduction with polymers in gas–liquid/liquid–liquid flows in pipes: a literature review. Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering. 2010; 2: 41–48.
  • 3. Gyr A & Bewersdorff HW. Drag reduction of turbulent flows by additives. Fluid Mechanics and Its Applications. 1995. 32, xi, p 234.
  • 4. Ting RY & Little RC. Characterization of drag reduction and degradation effects in the turbulent pipe flow of dilute polymer solutions. Journal of Applied Polymer Science. 1973; 17(11): 3345–3356.
  • 5. Virk PS, Merrill EW, Mickley HS, Smith KA, & Mollo-Christensen EL. The Toms phenomenon: turbulent pipe flow of dilute polymer solutions. Journal of Fluid Mechanics. 1967; 30(2): 305–328.
  • 6. Yusuf N, Al-Wahaibi T, Al-Wahaibi Y, Al-Ajmi A, Al-Hahmi AR, Olawale AS. Mohammed IA. Experimental study on the effect of drag reducing polymer on flow patterns and drag reduction in a horizontal oil–water flow. International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow. 2012; 37: 74–80.
  • 7. Edomwonyi-Otu LC, Chinaud M & Angeli P. Effect of drag reducing polymer on horizontal liquid-liquid flows. Experimental Tharmal and Fluid Science. 2015; 64: 164 -174.
  • 8. Marmy RMS, Hayder AB & Rosli MY. Improving the flow in pipelines by Cocos nucifera fiber waste. International Journal of Physical Science. 2012; 7(26): 4073–4080.
  • 9. Edomwonyi-Otu LC, Simeoni M, Angeli P & Campolo M. Synergistic Effect Of Drag Reducing Agents In Pipes Of Different Diameters. Nigerian Journal Of Engieering. 2016; 22: 1- 5.
  • 10. Deshmukh SR & Singh RP. Drag reduction characteristics of graft copolymers of xanthan gum and polyacrylamide. Journal of Applied Polymer Science. 1986; 32: 6163–6176.
  • 11. Edomwonyi-Otu LC & Adelakun DO. Effect of Heavy Molecular Weight Polymer on Quality of Drinking Water. Materials Today Communications. Elsevier Publication. 2018; 15: 337-343.
  • 12. Nour AH, Nuraffini K & Hayder AS. Grafted Natural Polymer as New Drag Reducing Agent : An Experemental Approach. Chemical Industry and Chemical Engineering Quarterly. 2012; 18(3): 361–371.
  • 13. Singh RP. Advanced Turbulent Drag Reducing and Flocculating Materials Based on Polysaccharides. Polymers and Other Advanced Materials. 1995; 75: 227–249.
  • 14. Abubakar A, Al-Wahaibi T, Al-Wahaibi Y, Al-hashmi AR & Al-Ajmi A. Drag reduction with polymer in oil-water flow in relatively large pipe diameter. International Journal of Advanced and Applied Science. 2016; 2(12): 1–6.
  • 15. Eshrati M, Al-Hashmi AR, Al-Wahaibi T, Al-Wahaibi Y, Al-Ajmi A, & Abubakar A. Drag reduction using high molecular weight polyacrylamides during multiphase flow of oil and water: A parametric study. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering. 2015; 135: 403–409.
  • 16. Al-Wahaibi T, Al-Wahaibi Y, Al-Ajmi A, Yusuf N, Al-Hashmi AR, Olawale AS & Mohammed IA. Experimental investigation on the performance of drag reducing polymers through two pipe diameters in horizontal oil-water flows. Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science. 2013; 50: 139–146.
  • 17. Langsholt M. An Experimental Study on Polymeric Type DRA used in Single- and Multiphase Flow with Emphasis on Degradation, Diameter Scaling and the Effects in Three-phase Oil–Water–Gas Flow. Institute for Energy Technology (IFE), Norway, 2012.
  • 18. Omer A, Pal R. Pipeline flow behavior of water-in-oil emulsions with and without a polymeric additive. Chemical Engineering Technology. 2010; 33(6): 983–992.
  • 19. Al-Yaari M, Soleimani A, Abu-Sharkh B, Al-Mubaiyedh U & Al-Sarkhi A. Effect of drag reducing polymers on oil–water flow in a horizontal pipe. International Journal of Multiphase Flow. 2009; 35: 516–524.
  • 20. Al-Wahaibi T, Smith M & Angeli P. Effect of drag-reducing polymers on horizontal oil-water flows. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering. 2007; 57(3-4): 334–346.
  • 21.AbubakarA,Al-WahaibiT,Al-WahaibiY,Al-HashmiAR&Al-AjmiA.Rolesofdragreducingpolymersinsingle-and multiphase flows. ChemicalEngineeringResearchandDesign.2014a;92(11):1–29.
  • 22.BariHAA,LetchmananK&MohdYR.DragReductionCharacteristicsUsingAloeVeraNaturalMucilage:AnExperimentalStudy.JournalofAppliedScience.2011;11(6):1039–1043.
  • 23.BozziA,PerrinC,AustinS.QualityandAuthenticityofCommercialAloeVeraGelPower.FoodChemistry.2007;103:22-30.
  • 24.DavisR.H.AloeVera-AScientific,Approach.VantagePressInc.,New-York,USA,1997;p.290-306.
  • 25.ReddyGV SinghRP. Dragreductioneffectivenessandshearstabilityofpolymer-polymerandpolymer-fibremixturesinrecirculatoryturbulentflowofwater.RheologicaActa.1985;24:296–311.
  • 26.MalhotraJP,ChaturvediPN,&SinghRP.DragReductionbyPolymer-PolymerMixtures.JournalofAppliedPolymerScience.1988;36:837–858.
  • 27.AbubakarA,Al-HashmiAR,Al-WahaibiT,Al-WahaibiY.,Al-AjmiA,&EshratiM.Performanceofadrag-reducingpolymerinhorizontalanddownward-inclinedoil-waterflow.ChemicalEngineeringResearchandDesign.2015;104:1–28.
  • 28.Yusuf N, Olawale AS &Mohammed IA. Chemical Engineering Research and Design. Effect of ol viscosity on the flow structure and pressure gradient in horizontal oil-water flow. Chemical Engineering Research and Design. 2011; 90(8):1019–1030.
  • 29.Dingilian G & Ruckenstein E. Positive and Negative Deviations from Additivity in Drag Reduction of Binary Dilute Polymer Solutions. AlChE Journal.1974;20(6):1222–1224.

Year 2020, Volume 3, Issue 1, 1 - 8, 30.05.2020

Abstract

References

  • 1. Edomwonyi-Otu LC & Angeli P. Effects of Polymer Addition on Pressure Drop and Interfacial Waves in Horizontal Oil-Water Flows. Petroleum Technology Develoment Journal. 2014 July; (2): 41–48.
  • 2. Al-Sarkhi A. Drag reduction with polymers in gas–liquid/liquid–liquid flows in pipes: a literature review. Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering. 2010; 2: 41–48.
  • 3. Gyr A & Bewersdorff HW. Drag reduction of turbulent flows by additives. Fluid Mechanics and Its Applications. 1995. 32, xi, p 234.
  • 4. Ting RY & Little RC. Characterization of drag reduction and degradation effects in the turbulent pipe flow of dilute polymer solutions. Journal of Applied Polymer Science. 1973; 17(11): 3345–3356.
  • 5. Virk PS, Merrill EW, Mickley HS, Smith KA, & Mollo-Christensen EL. The Toms phenomenon: turbulent pipe flow of dilute polymer solutions. Journal of Fluid Mechanics. 1967; 30(2): 305–328.
  • 6. Yusuf N, Al-Wahaibi T, Al-Wahaibi Y, Al-Ajmi A, Al-Hahmi AR, Olawale AS. Mohammed IA. Experimental study on the effect of drag reducing polymer on flow patterns and drag reduction in a horizontal oil–water flow. International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow. 2012; 37: 74–80.
  • 7. Edomwonyi-Otu LC, Chinaud M & Angeli P. Effect of drag reducing polymer on horizontal liquid-liquid flows. Experimental Tharmal and Fluid Science. 2015; 64: 164 -174.
  • 8. Marmy RMS, Hayder AB & Rosli MY. Improving the flow in pipelines by Cocos nucifera fiber waste. International Journal of Physical Science. 2012; 7(26): 4073–4080.
  • 9. Edomwonyi-Otu LC, Simeoni M, Angeli P & Campolo M. Synergistic Effect Of Drag Reducing Agents In Pipes Of Different Diameters. Nigerian Journal Of Engieering. 2016; 22: 1- 5.
  • 10. Deshmukh SR & Singh RP. Drag reduction characteristics of graft copolymers of xanthan gum and polyacrylamide. Journal of Applied Polymer Science. 1986; 32: 6163–6176.
  • 11. Edomwonyi-Otu LC & Adelakun DO. Effect of Heavy Molecular Weight Polymer on Quality of Drinking Water. Materials Today Communications. Elsevier Publication. 2018; 15: 337-343.
  • 12. Nour AH, Nuraffini K & Hayder AS. Grafted Natural Polymer as New Drag Reducing Agent : An Experemental Approach. Chemical Industry and Chemical Engineering Quarterly. 2012; 18(3): 361–371.
  • 13. Singh RP. Advanced Turbulent Drag Reducing and Flocculating Materials Based on Polysaccharides. Polymers and Other Advanced Materials. 1995; 75: 227–249.
  • 14. Abubakar A, Al-Wahaibi T, Al-Wahaibi Y, Al-hashmi AR & Al-Ajmi A. Drag reduction with polymer in oil-water flow in relatively large pipe diameter. International Journal of Advanced and Applied Science. 2016; 2(12): 1–6.
  • 15. Eshrati M, Al-Hashmi AR, Al-Wahaibi T, Al-Wahaibi Y, Al-Ajmi A, & Abubakar A. Drag reduction using high molecular weight polyacrylamides during multiphase flow of oil and water: A parametric study. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering. 2015; 135: 403–409.
  • 16. Al-Wahaibi T, Al-Wahaibi Y, Al-Ajmi A, Yusuf N, Al-Hashmi AR, Olawale AS & Mohammed IA. Experimental investigation on the performance of drag reducing polymers through two pipe diameters in horizontal oil-water flows. Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science. 2013; 50: 139–146.
  • 17. Langsholt M. An Experimental Study on Polymeric Type DRA used in Single- and Multiphase Flow with Emphasis on Degradation, Diameter Scaling and the Effects in Three-phase Oil–Water–Gas Flow. Institute for Energy Technology (IFE), Norway, 2012.
  • 18. Omer A, Pal R. Pipeline flow behavior of water-in-oil emulsions with and without a polymeric additive. Chemical Engineering Technology. 2010; 33(6): 983–992.
  • 19. Al-Yaari M, Soleimani A, Abu-Sharkh B, Al-Mubaiyedh U & Al-Sarkhi A. Effect of drag reducing polymers on oil–water flow in a horizontal pipe. International Journal of Multiphase Flow. 2009; 35: 516–524.
  • 20. Al-Wahaibi T, Smith M & Angeli P. Effect of drag-reducing polymers on horizontal oil-water flows. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering. 2007; 57(3-4): 334–346.
  • 21.AbubakarA,Al-WahaibiT,Al-WahaibiY,Al-HashmiAR&Al-AjmiA.Rolesofdragreducingpolymersinsingle-and multiphase flows. ChemicalEngineeringResearchandDesign.2014a;92(11):1–29.
  • 22.BariHAA,LetchmananK&MohdYR.DragReductionCharacteristicsUsingAloeVeraNaturalMucilage:AnExperimentalStudy.JournalofAppliedScience.2011;11(6):1039–1043.
  • 23.BozziA,PerrinC,AustinS.QualityandAuthenticityofCommercialAloeVeraGelPower.FoodChemistry.2007;103:22-30.
  • 24.DavisR.H.AloeVera-AScientific,Approach.VantagePressInc.,New-York,USA,1997;p.290-306.
  • 25.ReddyGV SinghRP. Dragreductioneffectivenessandshearstabilityofpolymer-polymerandpolymer-fibremixturesinrecirculatoryturbulentflowofwater.RheologicaActa.1985;24:296–311.
  • 26.MalhotraJP,ChaturvediPN,&SinghRP.DragReductionbyPolymer-PolymerMixtures.JournalofAppliedPolymerScience.1988;36:837–858.
  • 27.AbubakarA,Al-HashmiAR,Al-WahaibiT,Al-WahaibiY.,Al-AjmiA,&EshratiM.Performanceofadrag-reducingpolymerinhorizontalanddownward-inclinedoil-waterflow.ChemicalEngineeringResearchandDesign.2015;104:1–28.
  • 28.Yusuf N, Olawale AS &Mohammed IA. Chemical Engineering Research and Design. Effect of ol viscosity on the flow structure and pressure gradient in horizontal oil-water flow. Chemical Engineering Research and Design. 2011; 90(8):1019–1030.
  • 29.Dingilian G & Ruckenstein E. Positive and Negative Deviations from Additivity in Drag Reduction of Binary Dilute Polymer Solutions. AlChE Journal.1974;20(6):1222–1224.

Details

Primary Language English
Journal Section Full-length articles
Authors

Muhammad GİMBA This is me
Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria
Nigeria


Lawrence EDOMWONYI-OTU (Primary Author)
Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria
Nigeria

Publication Date May 30, 2020
Application Date September 27, 2018
Acceptance Date February 4, 2020
Published in Issue Year 2020, Volume 3, Issue 1

Cite

Vancouver Gimba M. , Edomwonyı-otu L. DRAG REDUCTION WITH POLYMER MIXTURES IN OIL-WATER FLOWS: EFFECT OF SYNERGY. Journal of the Turkish Chemical Society Section B: Chemical Engineering. 2020; 3(1): 1-8.

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J. Turk. Chem. Soc., Sect. B: Chem. Eng. (JOTCSB)