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SOUTHEAST EUROPE; TRADITIONAL RIGHT-WING ORIGINS, ORGANIZED CRIME, AND EU'S AND NATO'S POLITICIZATION

Year 2021, Volume 4, Issue 2, 132 - 153, 31.10.2021

Abstract

The paper argues that the region remains structurally weak, fragile, and right-wing radical, economic and political undervalued, with external anti-EU and NATO geopolitical entities' influence, organized crime solicitude, and the need for cooperation implements. The Balkan history is the building material of collective identities within the discourse of "our vs. their victims." The security and stability of Southeast Europe continue to be undermined by unresolved status issues. After the conflicts between the countries manifested in varying intensities fearing region by metaphor Balkanization as the final eschatological calamity, the Western Balkans entered into a post-conflict vacuum whose essential determination is a crisis. The division of B&H, Montenegro, Kosovo, and North Macedonia in bifurcation leads to the fact that the different concepts are being tested from the international political laboratories. Ethnopolitics pursue containment policies; "hybrid wars," radical right-wing movements, and historical revisionism affect the regional security paradigm. Ethnic-confessional nationalism is a concept opposite to Western nationalism; prevailing ideology in former Yugoslav states are legitimized by the majority denominations, influencing fragile security. The war and post-war illegitimate legacy is entrenched in most countries of the region, enabled by a political economy of crime and sociopolitical climate. Close broader cooperation is crucial to preventing trans-European criminal expansion and radicalization due to Balkan historical roots. The EU and NATO's affirmative action is required on Croatia's past and EU, and NATO membership misapply implementing its foreign policies, adjudicated by the International criminal court- ICTY. The regions' collective accession to the EU would encourage better regulation of ethnic relations, reduce organized crime and protect national minorities within a complete normative definition and a better human rights exercise.

References

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  • Aron, Raymond (1990). Aron's Pragmatic Liberalism - Raymond Aron: Memoirs: Fifty Years of Political Reflection. Translated by George Holoch. New York: Holmes & Meier at EU Borders. https://www.doctorswithoutborders.org/sites/usa/files/msf_obstacle _course_to_europe_report2.pdf
  • Balkan Insight, (2020). UN Court Archives Reveal the Political Economy of the Balkan Wars.
  • Bieber, Florian (2020). DW Deutche Welle, Gubi li EU Balkan? [Is the EU losing the Balkans]. https://www.dw.com/hr/gubi-li-eu-balkan/a-51915900
  • Carnegie endowment for International Peace, International Commission on the Balkans, (1996), "Unfinished Peace,” p. 12–19 , Wahington, https://carnegieendowment.org/1996/09/01/unfinished-peace-report-of-international-commission-on-balkans-pub-202
  • Chandler Daniel (2010). Anti-corruption Strategy and Democratization in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Democratization. https://doi.org/10.1080/714000252
  • DAC Guidelines, (2001). Help in Preventing Violent Conflict. Paris:OECD-DAC. p. 23. https://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/docserver/9789264194786-en.pdf?expires=1616002824&id=id&accname=guest&checksum=05F73B77620FE64B26E12DE68B91BC24
  • European Comission, (2018), Communication from the commission to the European parliament, the council, the European economic commission committee, and the committee, Credible enlargement perspective for the Western Balkans Enhanced engagement of the EU in the Western Balkans, https://www.dei.gov.ba/uploads/documents/vjerodostojna-perspektiva-prosirenja-za-2017-godinu_1604654950.pdf
  • Fatić Aleksandar (2004). The criminal syndicate as para-state in the Balkans: is the 'New War-Making Criminal Entity' a reality? Journal for Labour and Social Affairs in Eastern Europe. Vol 7. Issue 4. pp. 137–156. www.jstor.org/stable/43293080
  • Freedom House, 2018., 2017., 2016., A nation in Transit Bosnia and Herzegovina https://freedomhouse.org/report/nations-transit/2018/bosnia-and-herzegovina Freedom House, 2018., 2017., 2016., A nation in Transit Croatia, https://freedomhouse.org/report/nationstransit/2018/croatia, Freedom House, 2018., 2017., 2016., A nation in Transit Kosovo https://freedomhouse.org/report/nationstransit/2018/kosovo Freedom House, 2018., 2017., 2016., A nation in Transit Serbia https://freedomhouse.org/report/nationstransit/2018/
  • Goodwin Matthew (2011). Right Response: Understanding and Countering Populist Extremism in Europe. A Chatham House Report. p. 174 https://www.chathamhouse.org/sites/default/files/r0911_goodwin.pdf
  • Gorieveson, Richard, (2020), A change of EU strategy in the Western Balkans is long overdue, New study by Bertelsmann Stiftung & wiiw evaluates regional economic cooperation in the Western Balkans for two decades, https://wiiw.ac.at/a-change-of-eu-strategy-in-the-western-balkans-is-long-overdue-n-459.html
  • Hadžić, Faruk (2020). Hybrid and Psychological Geopolitical Warfare -The Western Balkans Case Study. SOF News Journal. https://sof.news/pubs/journal/SOF-News-Monthly-Journal-Jan-2021.pdf
  • Hadžić, Faruk (2020). Post-Yugoslav spaces between defective democracies, authoritarianism, and kleptocracies, International Affairs and Global Strategy. vol. 86, 10.7176/IAGS/86-04
  • Hadžić, Faruk (2020). The European Union (EU) Political Identity within the migrant crisis, and the Balkan – Bosnian route; xenophobia and religious identity. Research, Society and Development, [S. l.], v. 9, n. 10. 10.33448/rsd-v9i10.8685.
  • Hadžić, Faruk (2020). The global context of authoritarian populism as democratic pylon to FascismFascism, and a tutorial from the Balkans. Journal of Scientific Papers Social Development and Security. Vol. 10, No. 6. 10.33445/sds.2020.10.6.7
  • Hadžić, Faruk (2020). The Politicization of Religion and the Sacralized Balkan Nations Regarding Bosnia and Herzegovina. Occasional Papers on Religion in Eastern Europe: Vol. 40: Iss. 7, Article 8., pp. 120. https://digitalcommons.georgefox.edu/ree/vol40/iss7/8
  • Hejdinjak, Marko (2004). The Root Cause of Instability in the Balkans: Ethnic Hatred or Trans-Border Crime?. International Centre for Minority Studies and Intercultural Relations (IMIR) https://balkaninsight.com/2020/12/28/un-court-archives-reveal-the-political-economy-of-the-balkan-wars/
  • Balkan Insight, (2020). UN Court Archives Reveal the Political Economy of the Balkan Wars. https://balkaninsight.com/2020/12/28/un-court-archives-reveal-the-political-economy-of-the-balkan-wars/
  • Informacija o strategiji razvoja Jugoistočne evrope do 2020 godine (strategija JIE 2020) [Information on the southeast Europe Development Strategy until 2020 (SEE 2020 Strategy)] https://vladars.net/sr-SP Cyrl/Vlada/Ministarstva/meoi/Documents/%D0%A1%D1%82%D1%80%D0%B0%D1%82%D0%B5%D0%B3%D0%B8%D1%98%D0%B0%20%D0%88%D1%83%D0%B3%D0%BE%D0%B8%D1%81%D1%82%D0%BE%D1%87%D0%BD%D0%B5%20%D0%95%D0%B2%D1%80%D0%BE%D0%BF%D0%B5%20%D0%B4%D0%BE%202020.%20%D0%B3%D0%BE%D0%B4%D0%B8%D0%BD%D0%B5_434955462.pdf
  • International Commission on the Balkans, (2008). Unfinished Peace. https://carnegieendowment.org/1996/09/01/unfinished-peace-report-of-international-commission-on-balkans
  • IWPR, The Institute for for and peace, The Institiute for war and peace reporting, (2003). IWRP Report. https://iwpr.net/
  • Juric, Tado, (2018), Iseljavanje Hrvata u Njemačku. Gubimo li Hrvatsku? [Emigration of Croats to Germany. Are we losing Croatia ?], Zagreb, Skolska knjiga
  • Lorina, Hoxha (2017), Kosovotwopointzero, Panel diskusija K2.0 o odnosu Kosova i Evropske unije, Šta ‘evropeizacija’ znači za Kosovo? https://kosovotwopointzero.com/sr/sta-evropeizacija-znaci-za-kosovo/
  • Minorities at Risk Project, (2004). Chronology for Albanians in Macedonia. https://www.refworld.org/docid/469f38b7a.html
  • MSF (2016), An Obstacle course to Europe. A policy-made humanitarian crisis
  • OECD (2017), Preventing Policy Capture: Integrity in Public Decision Making, OECD Publisher, France, Paris, https://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264065239-en.
  • OECD, (2020), Government at a Glance: Western Balkans, OECD Report, https://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/governance/government-at-a-glance-western-balkans_a8c72f1b-en
  • Perica, Vjekoslav (2016). Radio Gornji Grad. https://radiogornjigrad.wordpress.com/2016/02/19/dr-vjekoslav-perica-hrvatska-je-danas-najjaca-scena-etnickog-i-klerikalnog-nacionalizma-na-balkanu/
  • Perica, Vjekoslav (2018). Patuljci pojma nemaju ili balkanizacija nije nacionalizam [Dwarves have no idea or Balkanization is not nationalism]. https://pescanik.net/patuljci-pojma-nemaju-ili-balkanizacija-nije-nacionalizam/
  • Petrucic, Mirsada (2018), The Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project in the Western Balkans, Südosteuropa Gesellschaft e.V No 4, pp. 18-25https://www.ceeol.com/search/article-detail?id=717277
  • Petrusheva Ana (2002). War Crimes and The Hague, Inter-ethnic investigation of the Macedonian crisis. http://www.eurac.edu/en/research/autonomies/minrig/Documents/Mirico/Macedonia%20Report.pdf
  • RFE/RL's Balkan Service, (2019). Croatian president denies militant islam insult of Bosnia. https://www.rferl.org/a/croatian-president-denies-militant-islam-insult-of-bosnia/30087557.html
  • Shelley, L.ouise (1997). Post-Soviet Organized Crime: A New Form of Autotarism.The national council for Soviet and East European research Sunter, Daniel (2020). Nato Review. Misinformation in the Western Balkans, https://www.nato.int/docu/review/articles/2020/12/21/disinformation-in-the-western-balkans/index.html
  • Tomovic, Predrag (2019). Slobodna Europa. Hibridni rat dezinformacijama nad Balkanom [A hybrid war of disinformation over the Balkans]. https://www.slobodnaevropa.org/a/sajber-napadi-crna-gora/30230596.html
  • Transparency International (2016), Fighting corruption in the Western Balkans and Turkey: priorities for reform, Report, http://dx.doi.org/978-3-96076-032-0.
  • UNODC (2020). Organized Crime and Terrorism in the Balkans: Future Risks and Possible Solutions.http://www.etcgraz.at/cms/fileadmin/user_upload/humsec/Workin_Paper_Series/Working_Paper_Anastasijevic.pdf
  • UNODC, (2020), Measuring organized crime in the Western Balkans. https://www.unodc.org/documents/data-and-analysis/OC/Measuri

Year 2021, Volume 4, Issue 2, 132 - 153, 31.10.2021

Abstract

References

  • Antunez, Juan (2007). The Real Situation of the Islamic Community in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Athena Intelligence. https://www.files.ethz.ch/isn/47318/Vol2%20No%204%20Art%208.pdf
  • Aron, Raymond (1990). Aron's Pragmatic Liberalism - Raymond Aron: Memoirs: Fifty Years of Political Reflection. Translated by George Holoch. New York: Holmes & Meier at EU Borders. https://www.doctorswithoutborders.org/sites/usa/files/msf_obstacle _course_to_europe_report2.pdf
  • Balkan Insight, (2020). UN Court Archives Reveal the Political Economy of the Balkan Wars.
  • Bieber, Florian (2020). DW Deutche Welle, Gubi li EU Balkan? [Is the EU losing the Balkans]. https://www.dw.com/hr/gubi-li-eu-balkan/a-51915900
  • Carnegie endowment for International Peace, International Commission on the Balkans, (1996), "Unfinished Peace,” p. 12–19 , Wahington, https://carnegieendowment.org/1996/09/01/unfinished-peace-report-of-international-commission-on-balkans-pub-202
  • Chandler Daniel (2010). Anti-corruption Strategy and Democratization in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Democratization. https://doi.org/10.1080/714000252
  • DAC Guidelines, (2001). Help in Preventing Violent Conflict. Paris:OECD-DAC. p. 23. https://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/docserver/9789264194786-en.pdf?expires=1616002824&id=id&accname=guest&checksum=05F73B77620FE64B26E12DE68B91BC24
  • European Comission, (2018), Communication from the commission to the European parliament, the council, the European economic commission committee, and the committee, Credible enlargement perspective for the Western Balkans Enhanced engagement of the EU in the Western Balkans, https://www.dei.gov.ba/uploads/documents/vjerodostojna-perspektiva-prosirenja-za-2017-godinu_1604654950.pdf
  • Fatić Aleksandar (2004). The criminal syndicate as para-state in the Balkans: is the 'New War-Making Criminal Entity' a reality? Journal for Labour and Social Affairs in Eastern Europe. Vol 7. Issue 4. pp. 137–156. www.jstor.org/stable/43293080
  • Freedom House, 2018., 2017., 2016., A nation in Transit Bosnia and Herzegovina https://freedomhouse.org/report/nations-transit/2018/bosnia-and-herzegovina Freedom House, 2018., 2017., 2016., A nation in Transit Croatia, https://freedomhouse.org/report/nationstransit/2018/croatia, Freedom House, 2018., 2017., 2016., A nation in Transit Kosovo https://freedomhouse.org/report/nationstransit/2018/kosovo Freedom House, 2018., 2017., 2016., A nation in Transit Serbia https://freedomhouse.org/report/nationstransit/2018/
  • Goodwin Matthew (2011). Right Response: Understanding and Countering Populist Extremism in Europe. A Chatham House Report. p. 174 https://www.chathamhouse.org/sites/default/files/r0911_goodwin.pdf
  • Gorieveson, Richard, (2020), A change of EU strategy in the Western Balkans is long overdue, New study by Bertelsmann Stiftung & wiiw evaluates regional economic cooperation in the Western Balkans for two decades, https://wiiw.ac.at/a-change-of-eu-strategy-in-the-western-balkans-is-long-overdue-n-459.html
  • Hadžić, Faruk (2020). Hybrid and Psychological Geopolitical Warfare -The Western Balkans Case Study. SOF News Journal. https://sof.news/pubs/journal/SOF-News-Monthly-Journal-Jan-2021.pdf
  • Hadžić, Faruk (2020). Post-Yugoslav spaces between defective democracies, authoritarianism, and kleptocracies, International Affairs and Global Strategy. vol. 86, 10.7176/IAGS/86-04
  • Hadžić, Faruk (2020). The European Union (EU) Political Identity within the migrant crisis, and the Balkan – Bosnian route; xenophobia and religious identity. Research, Society and Development, [S. l.], v. 9, n. 10. 10.33448/rsd-v9i10.8685.
  • Hadžić, Faruk (2020). The global context of authoritarian populism as democratic pylon to FascismFascism, and a tutorial from the Balkans. Journal of Scientific Papers Social Development and Security. Vol. 10, No. 6. 10.33445/sds.2020.10.6.7
  • Hadžić, Faruk (2020). The Politicization of Religion and the Sacralized Balkan Nations Regarding Bosnia and Herzegovina. Occasional Papers on Religion in Eastern Europe: Vol. 40: Iss. 7, Article 8., pp. 120. https://digitalcommons.georgefox.edu/ree/vol40/iss7/8
  • Hejdinjak, Marko (2004). The Root Cause of Instability in the Balkans: Ethnic Hatred or Trans-Border Crime?. International Centre for Minority Studies and Intercultural Relations (IMIR) https://balkaninsight.com/2020/12/28/un-court-archives-reveal-the-political-economy-of-the-balkan-wars/
  • Balkan Insight, (2020). UN Court Archives Reveal the Political Economy of the Balkan Wars. https://balkaninsight.com/2020/12/28/un-court-archives-reveal-the-political-economy-of-the-balkan-wars/
  • Informacija o strategiji razvoja Jugoistočne evrope do 2020 godine (strategija JIE 2020) [Information on the southeast Europe Development Strategy until 2020 (SEE 2020 Strategy)] https://vladars.net/sr-SP Cyrl/Vlada/Ministarstva/meoi/Documents/%D0%A1%D1%82%D1%80%D0%B0%D1%82%D0%B5%D0%B3%D0%B8%D1%98%D0%B0%20%D0%88%D1%83%D0%B3%D0%BE%D0%B8%D1%81%D1%82%D0%BE%D1%87%D0%BD%D0%B5%20%D0%95%D0%B2%D1%80%D0%BE%D0%BF%D0%B5%20%D0%B4%D0%BE%202020.%20%D0%B3%D0%BE%D0%B4%D0%B8%D0%BD%D0%B5_434955462.pdf
  • International Commission on the Balkans, (2008). Unfinished Peace. https://carnegieendowment.org/1996/09/01/unfinished-peace-report-of-international-commission-on-balkans
  • IWPR, The Institute for for and peace, The Institiute for war and peace reporting, (2003). IWRP Report. https://iwpr.net/
  • Juric, Tado, (2018), Iseljavanje Hrvata u Njemačku. Gubimo li Hrvatsku? [Emigration of Croats to Germany. Are we losing Croatia ?], Zagreb, Skolska knjiga
  • Lorina, Hoxha (2017), Kosovotwopointzero, Panel diskusija K2.0 o odnosu Kosova i Evropske unije, Šta ‘evropeizacija’ znači za Kosovo? https://kosovotwopointzero.com/sr/sta-evropeizacija-znaci-za-kosovo/
  • Minorities at Risk Project, (2004). Chronology for Albanians in Macedonia. https://www.refworld.org/docid/469f38b7a.html
  • MSF (2016), An Obstacle course to Europe. A policy-made humanitarian crisis
  • OECD (2017), Preventing Policy Capture: Integrity in Public Decision Making, OECD Publisher, France, Paris, https://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264065239-en.
  • OECD, (2020), Government at a Glance: Western Balkans, OECD Report, https://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/governance/government-at-a-glance-western-balkans_a8c72f1b-en
  • Perica, Vjekoslav (2016). Radio Gornji Grad. https://radiogornjigrad.wordpress.com/2016/02/19/dr-vjekoslav-perica-hrvatska-je-danas-najjaca-scena-etnickog-i-klerikalnog-nacionalizma-na-balkanu/
  • Perica, Vjekoslav (2018). Patuljci pojma nemaju ili balkanizacija nije nacionalizam [Dwarves have no idea or Balkanization is not nationalism]. https://pescanik.net/patuljci-pojma-nemaju-ili-balkanizacija-nije-nacionalizam/
  • Petrucic, Mirsada (2018), The Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project in the Western Balkans, Südosteuropa Gesellschaft e.V No 4, pp. 18-25https://www.ceeol.com/search/article-detail?id=717277
  • Petrusheva Ana (2002). War Crimes and The Hague, Inter-ethnic investigation of the Macedonian crisis. http://www.eurac.edu/en/research/autonomies/minrig/Documents/Mirico/Macedonia%20Report.pdf
  • RFE/RL's Balkan Service, (2019). Croatian president denies militant islam insult of Bosnia. https://www.rferl.org/a/croatian-president-denies-militant-islam-insult-of-bosnia/30087557.html
  • Shelley, L.ouise (1997). Post-Soviet Organized Crime: A New Form of Autotarism.The national council for Soviet and East European research Sunter, Daniel (2020). Nato Review. Misinformation in the Western Balkans, https://www.nato.int/docu/review/articles/2020/12/21/disinformation-in-the-western-balkans/index.html
  • Tomovic, Predrag (2019). Slobodna Europa. Hibridni rat dezinformacijama nad Balkanom [A hybrid war of disinformation over the Balkans]. https://www.slobodnaevropa.org/a/sajber-napadi-crna-gora/30230596.html
  • Transparency International (2016), Fighting corruption in the Western Balkans and Turkey: priorities for reform, Report, http://dx.doi.org/978-3-96076-032-0.
  • UNODC (2020). Organized Crime and Terrorism in the Balkans: Future Risks and Possible Solutions.http://www.etcgraz.at/cms/fileadmin/user_upload/humsec/Workin_Paper_Series/Working_Paper_Anastasijevic.pdf
  • UNODC, (2020), Measuring organized crime in the Western Balkans. https://www.unodc.org/documents/data-and-analysis/OC/Measuri

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Political Science
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Faruk HADŽİĆ (Primary Author)
Independent Researcher
0000-0003-1158-7858
Bosnia and Herzegovina

Publication Date October 31, 2021
Application Date May 31, 2021
Acceptance Date October 26, 2021
Published in Issue Year 2021, Volume 4, Issue 2

Cite

APA Hadžić, F. (2021). SOUTHEAST EUROPE; TRADITIONAL RIGHT-WING ORIGINS, ORGANIZED CRIME, AND EU'S AND NATO'S POLITICIZATION . Journal of Political Administrative and Local Studies , 4 (2) , 132-153 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/jpaljournal/issue/65712/946005

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