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Year 2021, Volume 6, Issue 4, 143 - 155, 31.12.2021
https://doi.org/10.14744/jscmt.2021.03

Abstract

References

  • [1] Rosa, M., D., Bianco, V., Scarpa, F., & Tagliafico, L., A. (2015). Historical trends and current state of heating and cooling degree days in Italy. Energy Con- version and Management, 90, 323–335. [CrossRef ]
  • [2] Buildings Performance Institute Europe (BPIE). (2011). Europe’s buildings under the microscope. https://www.bpie.eu/publication/europes-build- ings-under-the-microscope/#
  • [3] Ramírez-Villegas, R., Eriksson, O., & Olofsson, T. (2016). Assessment of renovation measures for a dwelling area-Impacts on energy efficiency and building certification. Building and Environment, 97, 26–33. [CrossRef ]
  • [4] Meng, Q., Mourshed, M., & Wei, S. (2018). going be- yond the mean: distributional degree-day base tem- peratures for building energy analytics using change point quantile regression. IEEE Access, 6, 39532- 39540. [CrossRef ]
  • [5] Özkan, D., B., & Onan, C. (2011). Optimization of insulation thickness for different glazing areas in buildings for various climatic regions in Turkey. Ap- plied Energy, 88, 1331–1342. [CrossRef]
  • [6] deLlano-Paz, F., Calvo-Silvosa, A., Antelo, S., I., & Soares, I. (2018). Power generation and pollutant emissions in the European Union: a mean-variance model. Journal of Cleaner Production, 181, 123–135. [CrossRef ]
  • [7] Çay Y., & Gürel A. E. (2013). Determination of op- timum insulation thickness, energy savings, and en- vironmental impact for different climatic regions of Turkey. Environmental Progress & Sustainable Ener- gy, 32, 2, 365–372. [CrossRef]
  • [8] D’Agostino, D., Cuniberti, B., & Bertoldi, P., (2017). Energy consumption and efficiency technology measures in European non-residential buildings. Energy and Buildings, 153, 72–86. [CrossRef]
  • [9] Rodríguez-Soria, B., Domínguez-Hernández, J., M.Pérez-Bella, J., & Coz-Díaz, J., J. (2014). Review of international regulations governing the thermal insulation requirements of residential buildings and the harmonization of envelope energy loss. Re- newable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 34, 78–90. [CrossRef ]
  • [10] Christenson, M., Manz, H., & Gyalistras, D. (2006). Climate warming impact on degree-days and build- ing energy demand in Switzerland. Energy Conver- sion and Management, 47, 671–686. [CrossRef]
  • [11] Rosa, M., D., Bianco, V., Scarpa, F., & Tagliafico, L., A. (2014). Heating and cooling building energy de- mand evaluation; a simplified model and a modified degree days approach. Applied Energy, 128, 217–229. [CrossRef ]
  • [12] Annunziata, E., Frey, M., & Rizzi, F. (2013), Towards nearly zero-energy buildings: the state-of-art of na- tional regulations in Europe. Energy, 57, 125-133. [CrossRef ]
  • [13] Meng, Q., & Mourshed, M. (2017). Degree-day based non-domestic building energy analytics and modelling should use building and type specific base temperatures. Energy and Buildings, 155, 260– 268. [CrossRef ]
  • [14] Al-Hadhrami, L., M. (2013). Comprehensive review of cooling and heating degreedays Characteristics over Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Renewable and Sus- tainable Energy Reviews, 27, 305–314. [CrossRef]
  • [15] Akıner, İ., Akıner, M., E., & Tijhuis, W. (2015). A re- search on environmental rating systems considering building energy performances in different climatic regions of Turkey. KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering, 19(5), 1230-1237. [CrossRef]
  • [16] Pusat, S., & Ekmekci, I. (2016.) A study on de- gree-day regions of Turkey. Energy Efficiency, 9, 525–532. [CrossRef ]
  • [17] Spinoni, J., Vogt, J., V., Barbosa, P., Dosio, A., Mc-Cormick, N., Bigano, A., & Füssel, H.-M. (2018). [21] Changes of heating and cooling degree-days in Europe from 1981 to 2100. The International Journal of Climatology, 38(1), 191–208. [CrossRef]
  • [18] An, N., Turp, M., T., Akbaş, A., Öztürk, Ö., & Kurnaz, M., L. (2018). Future projections of heating and [22] cooling degree days in a changing climate of Turkey. Marmara Fen Bilimleri Dergisi, 3, 227-240.
  • [19] Altun, M., Akçamete, A., & Akgül, Ç., M. (2020). Dış sıcaklık verisinin bina ısıtma enerji gereksini-mine etkisinin ve TS 825 derece-gün bölge kümelendirmesinin geçerliliğinin incelenmesi. Pamukkale Universitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi, 26(6), 1062–1075.
  • [20] Çomaklı, K., & Yüksel, B. (2004). Environmental impact of thermal insulation thickness in buildings. Applied Thermal Engineering, 24(5-6), 933–940. [CrossRef ]
  • [21] Bolattürk, A. (2008). Optimum insulation thick- nesses for building walls with respect to cooling and heating degree-hours in the warmest zone of Turkey. Building and Environment, 43(6), 1055–1064. [Cross- Ref ]
  • [22] Goggins, J., Moran, P., Armstrong, A., & Haj- dukiewicz, M. (2016). Lifecycle environmental and economic performance of nearly zeroenergy build- ings (NZEB) in Ireland. Energy and Buildings, 116, 622–637. [CrossRef ]
  • [23]TS 825, Building Insulation Standard, Turkish Stan- dard, May 2013.
  • [24] Eurima, the European Insulation Manufacturers Association. (2021, August 16). U-values in Europe https://www.eurima.org/u-values-in-europe/
  • [25] Degree Days. (2021, August 10). Degree Days Cal- culated Accurately for Locations Worldwide. https:// www.degreedays.net/

Calculation of energy consumption and emissions of buildings in capitals of european with the degree-day method

Year 2021, Volume 6, Issue 4, 143 - 155, 31.12.2021
https://doi.org/10.14744/jscmt.2021.03

Abstract

In this study, firstly, for the building envelope properties of a reference building from TS 825 insulation standard, for 20 capitals selected from Europe, the minimum insulation thicknesses are calculated with different heat transmission coefficients depending on the requirements and/or recommendations thermal transmittance values in the building envelope such as building walls, roofs, floors. Then, CO2 and SO2 emissions, which will be produced by the consumption of coal, natural gas, and fuel-oil fuels, depending on the heating degree-day values and the thermal transmittance values of the building envelope, are investigated for the 20 selected capitals. In the cooling period, depending on the cooling degree-days and the thermal transmittance values of the building envelope, the electricity consumption and the CO2 and SO2 emissions to be released for the coal, natural gas, and fuel oil used in the production of electricity in the power plants are determined. The place of Ankara, the capital of our country, among the selected capitals in European countries has been examined. It has been calculated that Sarajevo, the capital of Bosnia-Herzegovina, has the highest fuel consumption and the highest CO2 and SO2 emissions for three building components and three fuel types for heating. In the study, the highest thermal transmittance value recommended for floor was found to be Athens with 1.90 W/m2.K. Accordingly, it has been determined that the highest electricity consumption for cooling and the highest associated CO2 and SO2 emission values occur in Athens, the capital of Greece.

References

  • [1] Rosa, M., D., Bianco, V., Scarpa, F., & Tagliafico, L., A. (2015). Historical trends and current state of heating and cooling degree days in Italy. Energy Con- version and Management, 90, 323–335. [CrossRef ]
  • [2] Buildings Performance Institute Europe (BPIE). (2011). Europe’s buildings under the microscope. https://www.bpie.eu/publication/europes-build- ings-under-the-microscope/#
  • [3] Ramírez-Villegas, R., Eriksson, O., & Olofsson, T. (2016). Assessment of renovation measures for a dwelling area-Impacts on energy efficiency and building certification. Building and Environment, 97, 26–33. [CrossRef ]
  • [4] Meng, Q., Mourshed, M., & Wei, S. (2018). going be- yond the mean: distributional degree-day base tem- peratures for building energy analytics using change point quantile regression. IEEE Access, 6, 39532- 39540. [CrossRef ]
  • [5] Özkan, D., B., & Onan, C. (2011). Optimization of insulation thickness for different glazing areas in buildings for various climatic regions in Turkey. Ap- plied Energy, 88, 1331–1342. [CrossRef]
  • [6] deLlano-Paz, F., Calvo-Silvosa, A., Antelo, S., I., & Soares, I. (2018). Power generation and pollutant emissions in the European Union: a mean-variance model. Journal of Cleaner Production, 181, 123–135. [CrossRef ]
  • [7] Çay Y., & Gürel A. E. (2013). Determination of op- timum insulation thickness, energy savings, and en- vironmental impact for different climatic regions of Turkey. Environmental Progress & Sustainable Ener- gy, 32, 2, 365–372. [CrossRef]
  • [8] D’Agostino, D., Cuniberti, B., & Bertoldi, P., (2017). Energy consumption and efficiency technology measures in European non-residential buildings. Energy and Buildings, 153, 72–86. [CrossRef]
  • [9] Rodríguez-Soria, B., Domínguez-Hernández, J., M.Pérez-Bella, J., & Coz-Díaz, J., J. (2014). Review of international regulations governing the thermal insulation requirements of residential buildings and the harmonization of envelope energy loss. Re- newable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 34, 78–90. [CrossRef ]
  • [10] Christenson, M., Manz, H., & Gyalistras, D. (2006). Climate warming impact on degree-days and build- ing energy demand in Switzerland. Energy Conver- sion and Management, 47, 671–686. [CrossRef]
  • [11] Rosa, M., D., Bianco, V., Scarpa, F., & Tagliafico, L., A. (2014). Heating and cooling building energy de- mand evaluation; a simplified model and a modified degree days approach. Applied Energy, 128, 217–229. [CrossRef ]
  • [12] Annunziata, E., Frey, M., & Rizzi, F. (2013), Towards nearly zero-energy buildings: the state-of-art of na- tional regulations in Europe. Energy, 57, 125-133. [CrossRef ]
  • [13] Meng, Q., & Mourshed, M. (2017). Degree-day based non-domestic building energy analytics and modelling should use building and type specific base temperatures. Energy and Buildings, 155, 260– 268. [CrossRef ]
  • [14] Al-Hadhrami, L., M. (2013). Comprehensive review of cooling and heating degreedays Characteristics over Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Renewable and Sus- tainable Energy Reviews, 27, 305–314. [CrossRef]
  • [15] Akıner, İ., Akıner, M., E., & Tijhuis, W. (2015). A re- search on environmental rating systems considering building energy performances in different climatic regions of Turkey. KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering, 19(5), 1230-1237. [CrossRef]
  • [16] Pusat, S., & Ekmekci, I. (2016.) A study on de- gree-day regions of Turkey. Energy Efficiency, 9, 525–532. [CrossRef ]
  • [17] Spinoni, J., Vogt, J., V., Barbosa, P., Dosio, A., Mc-Cormick, N., Bigano, A., & Füssel, H.-M. (2018). [21] Changes of heating and cooling degree-days in Europe from 1981 to 2100. The International Journal of Climatology, 38(1), 191–208. [CrossRef]
  • [18] An, N., Turp, M., T., Akbaş, A., Öztürk, Ö., & Kurnaz, M., L. (2018). Future projections of heating and [22] cooling degree days in a changing climate of Turkey. Marmara Fen Bilimleri Dergisi, 3, 227-240.
  • [19] Altun, M., Akçamete, A., & Akgül, Ç., M. (2020). Dış sıcaklık verisinin bina ısıtma enerji gereksini-mine etkisinin ve TS 825 derece-gün bölge kümelendirmesinin geçerliliğinin incelenmesi. Pamukkale Universitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi, 26(6), 1062–1075.
  • [20] Çomaklı, K., & Yüksel, B. (2004). Environmental impact of thermal insulation thickness in buildings. Applied Thermal Engineering, 24(5-6), 933–940. [CrossRef ]
  • [21] Bolattürk, A. (2008). Optimum insulation thick- nesses for building walls with respect to cooling and heating degree-hours in the warmest zone of Turkey. Building and Environment, 43(6), 1055–1064. [Cross- Ref ]
  • [22] Goggins, J., Moran, P., Armstrong, A., & Haj- dukiewicz, M. (2016). Lifecycle environmental and economic performance of nearly zeroenergy build- ings (NZEB) in Ireland. Energy and Buildings, 116, 622–637. [CrossRef ]
  • [23]TS 825, Building Insulation Standard, Turkish Stan- dard, May 2013.
  • [24] Eurima, the European Insulation Manufacturers Association. (2021, August 16). U-values in Europe https://www.eurima.org/u-values-in-europe/
  • [25] Degree Days. (2021, August 10). Degree Days Cal- culated Accurately for Locations Worldwide. https:// www.degreedays.net/

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Civil Engineering
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Okan KON This is me
BALIKESİR ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-5166-0258
Türkiye


İsmail CANER This is me (Primary Author)
BALIKESİR ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0003-1232-649X
Türkiye

Publication Date December 31, 2021
Application Date September 6, 2021
Published in Issue Year 2021, Volume 6, Issue 4

Cite

APA Kon, O. & Caner, İ. (2021). Calculation of energy consumption and emissions of buildings in capitals of european with the degree-day method . Journal of Sustainable Construction Materials and Technologies , 6 (4) , 143-155 . DOI: 10.14744/jscmt.2021.03

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Journal of Sustainable Construction Materials and Technologies is open access journal under the CC BY-NC license  (Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License)

Based on a work at https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/jscmt

E-mail: jscmt@yildiz.edu.tr