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Year 2022, Volume 7, Issue 2, 95 - 107, 28.06.2022
https://doi.org/10.47481/jscmt.1106592

Abstract

References

  • [1] İpek S, Diri A, Mermerdaş K (2020) Recycling the low-density polyethylene pellets in the pervious concrete production. Journal of Materials Cycle and Waste Management. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10163-020-01127-x
  • [2] Holka H, Jarzyna T (2017) Recycling of car tires by means of waterjet technologies. AIP Conference Proceedings 1822, 020008. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4977682
  • [3] Siddika A, Al Mamun Md A, Alyousef R, Amran YHM, Aslani F, Alabduljabbar H (2019) Properties and utilizations of waste tire rubber in concrete: A review. Construction and Building Materials, 224: 711-731. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2019.07.108
  • [4] İpek S, Mermerdaş K (2020) Studying the impact of crumb rubber on the setting time of self-compacting mortar. Proceeding Books: International Conference On Engineering & Natural Sciences-9, November 13- 15, Ankara-Turkey.
  • [5] Karger-Kocsis, J., Meszaros, L., and Barany, T. (2013). Ground tyre rubber (GTR) in thermoplastics, thermosets, and rubbers. Journal of Materials Science, 48(1), 1-38. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10853-012-6564-2
  • [6] THBB: Dünyada sektör. (2021, 20 October). Erişim adresi https://www.thbb.org/sektor/dunyada-sektor/ [in Turkish]
  • [7] Hilburg, J. (2021, 20 October). Concrete production produces eight percent of the world's carbon dioxide emissions, The Architects’ Newspaper. https://www.archpaper.com/2019/01/concrete-production-eight-percent-co2-emissions
  • [8] Güneyisi, E. (2010). Fresh properties of self-compacting rubberized concrete incorporated with fly ash. Materials and Structures, 43, 1037-1048. https://doi.org/10.1617/s11527-009-9564-1
  • [9] Dondi, G., Tataranni, P., Pettinari., M., Sangiorgi, C., Simone, A., and Vignali, V. (2014). Crumb Rubber in cold recycled bituminous mixes: comparison between traditional crumb rubber and cryogenic crumb rubber. Construction and Building Materials, 68, 370-375. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2014.06.093
  • [10] Davidovits, J. (1994) Properties of geopolymer cements. in Proceedings First International Conference on Alkaline Cements and Concretes, Kiev, Ukraine, pp. 131-149. https://www.geopolymer.org/fichiers_pdf/KIEV.pdf
  • [11] Palomo, A., Blanco-Varela, M.T., Granizo, M.L., Puertas, F., Vazquez, T., Grutzeck, M.W. (1999) Chemical stability of cementitious materials based on metakaolin. Cement and Concrete Research, 29(7), 997-1004, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0008-8846(99)00074-5
  • [12] Ma, C.K., Awang, A.Z., Omar, W. (2018) Structural and material performance of geopolymer concrete: a review. Construction and Building Materials, 186, 90-102. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2018.07.111
  • [13] Mermerdaş, K., İpek, S., Mahmood, Z. (2021) Visual inspection and mechanical testing of fly ash-based fibrous geopolymer composites under freeze-thaw cycles. Construction and Building Materials, 283, 122756. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2021.122756
  • [14] Turner, L.K., Collins, F.G. (2013) Carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2-e) emissions: a comparison between geopolymer and OPC cement concrete. Construction and Building Materials, 43, 125-130. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2013.01.023
  • [15] ASTM C311/C311M-18. (2018) Standard Test Methods for Sampling and Testing Fly Ash or Natural Pozzolans for Use in Portland-Cement Concrete. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA. https://doi.org/10.1520/C0311_C0311M-18
  • [16] ASTM C618-19. (2019) Standard Specification for Coal Fly Ash and Raw or Calcined Natural Pozzolan for Use in Concrete. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA. https://doi.org/10.1520/C0618-19
  • [17] ASTM C136/C136M-19. (2019) Standard Test Method for Sieve Analysis of Fine and Coarse Aggregates. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA. https://doi.org/10.1520/C0136_C0136M-19
  • [18] ASTM C33. (2018) Standard Specification for Concrete Aggregates. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA. https://doi.org/10.1520/C0033_C0033M-18
  • [19] ASTM C1437-20. (2020) Standard Test Method for Flow of Hydraulic Cement Mortar. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA. https://doi.org/10.1520/C1437-20
  • [20] ASTM C138/C138M-17a. (2017) Standard Test Method for Density (Unit Weight), Yield, and Air Content (Gravimetric) of Concrete. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA. https://doi.org/10.1520/C0138_C0138M-17A
  • [21] ASTM C348-20. (2020) Standard Test Method for Flexural Strength of Hydraulic-Cement Mortars. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA. https://doi.org/10.1520/C0348-20
  • [22] ASTM C109/C109M-20b. (2020) Standard Test Method for Compressive Strength of Hydraulic Cement Mortars (Using 2-in. or [50 mm] Cube Specimens). ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA. https://doi.org/10.1520/C0109_C0109M-20B
  • [23] ASTM C597-16. (2016) Standard Test Method for Pulse Velocity Through Concrete. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA. https://doi.org/10.1520/C0597-16
  • [24] Wongsa, A., Sata, V., Nematollahi, B., Sanjayan, J. (2018) Mechanical and thermal properties of lightweight geopolymer mortar incorporating crumb rubber. Journal of Cleaner Production, 195, 1069-1080. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.06.003
  • [25] Zhong, H., Poon, E.W., Chen, K., Zhang, M. Engineering properties of crumb rubber alkali-activated mortar reinforced with recycled steel fibres. Journal of Cleaner Production, 238, 117950. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.117950
  • [26] TS-EN 206-1. Concrete Part 1. Turkish Standard Institute, Turkey; 2000.
  • [27] ACI Committee 213R. American Concrete Institute. Guide for structural lightweight aggregate concrete. Manual of Concrete Practice. Farmington Hills, Michigan, USA; 2003.
  • [28] Azmi, A.A., Abdullah, M.M.B., Ghazali, C.M.R., Sandu, A.V., Hussin, K. (2016) Effect of crumb rubber on compressive strength of fly ash based geopolymer concrete. MATEC Web of Conferences, 78, 01063. https://doi.org/10.1051/matecconf/20167801063
  • [29] Hwang, C.L., Bui, L.A.T., Lin, K.L., Lo, C.T. (2012) Manufacture and performance of lightweight aggregate from municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash and reservoir sediment for self-consolidating lightweight concrete. Cement and Concrete Composites, 34(10), 1159-1166. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2012.07.004

Engineering properties and SEM analysis of eco-friendly geopolymer mortar produced with crumb rubber

Year 2022, Volume 7, Issue 2, 95 - 107, 28.06.2022
https://doi.org/10.47481/jscmt.1106592

Abstract

In the present study, the influence of the crumb rubber utilization as fine aggregate on the engineering properties of fly ash-based geopolymer mortar was experimentally investigated. In this context, the natural sand used in the production of geopolymer mortars was substituted with the crumb rubber, which comes out in the course of applying the retreading process to the end-of-life tires, at the substitution levels of 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50% by volume of aggregate content. In this way, 6 different geopolymer mixtures, one of which was the control mixture, were designed and produced. Then, the effect of crumb rubber on the fresh-state properties like flowability and fresh unit weight and the hardened-state properties like dry unit weight, compressive and flexural strengths of geopolymer mortars were examined. Besides, the properties of crumb rubber such as grading, specific gravity, water absorption capacity, fineness modulus as well as surface texture and particle shapes were compared with that of the river sand. Moreover, the interfacial transition zone (ITZ) occurring between both natural sand and crumb rubber and geopolymer paste was viewed using the SEM images. The results obtained in the scope of this study showed that crumb rubber had no significant influence on the flowing capability of the geopolymer mortars; however, incorporation of crumb rubber and increasing its substitution level had important effects on the unit weight, strength characteristics and ITZ. Moreover, the photographic view of the mixtures revealed that the crumb rubber particles were well-distributed on the mortar cross-section, namely no bleeding and segregation problems were faced. As a consequence, the results obtained in the scope of this study showed that crumb rubber could be used in geopolymer mortar production, provided that it is at certain substitution levels.

References

  • [1] İpek S, Diri A, Mermerdaş K (2020) Recycling the low-density polyethylene pellets in the pervious concrete production. Journal of Materials Cycle and Waste Management. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10163-020-01127-x
  • [2] Holka H, Jarzyna T (2017) Recycling of car tires by means of waterjet technologies. AIP Conference Proceedings 1822, 020008. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4977682
  • [3] Siddika A, Al Mamun Md A, Alyousef R, Amran YHM, Aslani F, Alabduljabbar H (2019) Properties and utilizations of waste tire rubber in concrete: A review. Construction and Building Materials, 224: 711-731. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2019.07.108
  • [4] İpek S, Mermerdaş K (2020) Studying the impact of crumb rubber on the setting time of self-compacting mortar. Proceeding Books: International Conference On Engineering & Natural Sciences-9, November 13- 15, Ankara-Turkey.
  • [5] Karger-Kocsis, J., Meszaros, L., and Barany, T. (2013). Ground tyre rubber (GTR) in thermoplastics, thermosets, and rubbers. Journal of Materials Science, 48(1), 1-38. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10853-012-6564-2
  • [6] THBB: Dünyada sektör. (2021, 20 October). Erişim adresi https://www.thbb.org/sektor/dunyada-sektor/ [in Turkish]
  • [7] Hilburg, J. (2021, 20 October). Concrete production produces eight percent of the world's carbon dioxide emissions, The Architects’ Newspaper. https://www.archpaper.com/2019/01/concrete-production-eight-percent-co2-emissions
  • [8] Güneyisi, E. (2010). Fresh properties of self-compacting rubberized concrete incorporated with fly ash. Materials and Structures, 43, 1037-1048. https://doi.org/10.1617/s11527-009-9564-1
  • [9] Dondi, G., Tataranni, P., Pettinari., M., Sangiorgi, C., Simone, A., and Vignali, V. (2014). Crumb Rubber in cold recycled bituminous mixes: comparison between traditional crumb rubber and cryogenic crumb rubber. Construction and Building Materials, 68, 370-375. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2014.06.093
  • [10] Davidovits, J. (1994) Properties of geopolymer cements. in Proceedings First International Conference on Alkaline Cements and Concretes, Kiev, Ukraine, pp. 131-149. https://www.geopolymer.org/fichiers_pdf/KIEV.pdf
  • [11] Palomo, A., Blanco-Varela, M.T., Granizo, M.L., Puertas, F., Vazquez, T., Grutzeck, M.W. (1999) Chemical stability of cementitious materials based on metakaolin. Cement and Concrete Research, 29(7), 997-1004, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0008-8846(99)00074-5
  • [12] Ma, C.K., Awang, A.Z., Omar, W. (2018) Structural and material performance of geopolymer concrete: a review. Construction and Building Materials, 186, 90-102. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2018.07.111
  • [13] Mermerdaş, K., İpek, S., Mahmood, Z. (2021) Visual inspection and mechanical testing of fly ash-based fibrous geopolymer composites under freeze-thaw cycles. Construction and Building Materials, 283, 122756. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2021.122756
  • [14] Turner, L.K., Collins, F.G. (2013) Carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2-e) emissions: a comparison between geopolymer and OPC cement concrete. Construction and Building Materials, 43, 125-130. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2013.01.023
  • [15] ASTM C311/C311M-18. (2018) Standard Test Methods for Sampling and Testing Fly Ash or Natural Pozzolans for Use in Portland-Cement Concrete. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA. https://doi.org/10.1520/C0311_C0311M-18
  • [16] ASTM C618-19. (2019) Standard Specification for Coal Fly Ash and Raw or Calcined Natural Pozzolan for Use in Concrete. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA. https://doi.org/10.1520/C0618-19
  • [17] ASTM C136/C136M-19. (2019) Standard Test Method for Sieve Analysis of Fine and Coarse Aggregates. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA. https://doi.org/10.1520/C0136_C0136M-19
  • [18] ASTM C33. (2018) Standard Specification for Concrete Aggregates. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA. https://doi.org/10.1520/C0033_C0033M-18
  • [19] ASTM C1437-20. (2020) Standard Test Method for Flow of Hydraulic Cement Mortar. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA. https://doi.org/10.1520/C1437-20
  • [20] ASTM C138/C138M-17a. (2017) Standard Test Method for Density (Unit Weight), Yield, and Air Content (Gravimetric) of Concrete. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA. https://doi.org/10.1520/C0138_C0138M-17A
  • [21] ASTM C348-20. (2020) Standard Test Method for Flexural Strength of Hydraulic-Cement Mortars. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA. https://doi.org/10.1520/C0348-20
  • [22] ASTM C109/C109M-20b. (2020) Standard Test Method for Compressive Strength of Hydraulic Cement Mortars (Using 2-in. or [50 mm] Cube Specimens). ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA. https://doi.org/10.1520/C0109_C0109M-20B
  • [23] ASTM C597-16. (2016) Standard Test Method for Pulse Velocity Through Concrete. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA. https://doi.org/10.1520/C0597-16
  • [24] Wongsa, A., Sata, V., Nematollahi, B., Sanjayan, J. (2018) Mechanical and thermal properties of lightweight geopolymer mortar incorporating crumb rubber. Journal of Cleaner Production, 195, 1069-1080. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.06.003
  • [25] Zhong, H., Poon, E.W., Chen, K., Zhang, M. Engineering properties of crumb rubber alkali-activated mortar reinforced with recycled steel fibres. Journal of Cleaner Production, 238, 117950. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.117950
  • [26] TS-EN 206-1. Concrete Part 1. Turkish Standard Institute, Turkey; 2000.
  • [27] ACI Committee 213R. American Concrete Institute. Guide for structural lightweight aggregate concrete. Manual of Concrete Practice. Farmington Hills, Michigan, USA; 2003.
  • [28] Azmi, A.A., Abdullah, M.M.B., Ghazali, C.M.R., Sandu, A.V., Hussin, K. (2016) Effect of crumb rubber on compressive strength of fly ash based geopolymer concrete. MATEC Web of Conferences, 78, 01063. https://doi.org/10.1051/matecconf/20167801063
  • [29] Hwang, C.L., Bui, L.A.T., Lin, K.L., Lo, C.T. (2012) Manufacture and performance of lightweight aggregate from municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash and reservoir sediment for self-consolidating lightweight concrete. Cement and Concrete Composites, 34(10), 1159-1166. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2012.07.004

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Civil Engineering
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Süleyman İPEK> (Primary Author)
BİNGÖL ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0001-8891-949X
Türkiye


Kasım MERMERDAŞ>
HARRAN UNIVERSITY
0000-0002-1274-6016
Türkiye

Publication Date June 28, 2022
Application Date April 20, 2022
Published in Issue Year 2022, Volume 7, Issue 2

Cite

APA İpek, S. & Mermerdaş, K. (2022). Engineering properties and SEM analysis of eco-friendly geopolymer mortar produced with crumb rubber . Journal of Sustainable Construction Materials and Technologies , 7 (2) , 95-107 . DOI: 10.47481/jscmt.1106592

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E-mail: jscmt@yildiz.edu.tr