Research Article
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Natural pozzolan-based green geopolymer foam for thermal insulation

Year 2022, Volume 7, Issue 3, 128 - 144, 30.09.2022
https://doi.org/10.47481/jscmt.1142100

Abstract

The purpose of the current study is to investigate the possibility of volcanic Tuff of Earth of Datça (ED) in Turkey to be used as an aluminosilicate source in the production of a geopolymer foam for thermal insulation. An extensive evaluation of the effects of fine sand-to-pozzolan and Al powder-to-pozzolan ratios on the physical, mechanical, and thermal properties and morphology (porosity, average and maximum pore diameter, pore size distribution) of the pores were carried out. The sodium silicate and potassium hydroxide (12.5 M) solutions with an activator ratio of 2.5 were used as alkali activators and Al powder was used as a foaming agent. Research results reveal that Earth of Datça is a suitable precursor for the production of a geopolymer foam. Fine sand and aluminum powder contents are key factors on optimum foam structure. Addition of finely ground silica sand ensured the volumetric stability of the binder and prevented the collapse after swelling of the binder. The optimum Al powder-to-pozzolan ratio was determined as 0.5 % because it gives higher physical, mechanical and thermal properties due to the more homogenous microstructure with finer pore size, narrower pore size distribution and lower degree of interconnectivity between the pores. Research results also show that natural volcanic Tuff of Datça Peninsula as aluminosilicate source gives promising results in the field of producing highly porous geopolymers with low thermal conductivity (0.087-0.134 W/mK), high porosity (72.3-82.6 %) and an acceptable compressive strength (0.40-2.09 MPa). This study contributes to the literature that Earth of Datça-based geopolymer foam may function well as an insulation material for building enclosure.

References

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Year 2022, Volume 7, Issue 3, 128 - 144, 30.09.2022
https://doi.org/10.47481/jscmt.1142100

Abstract

References

  • [1] Liu, M.Y.J., Alengaram, U.J., Jumaat, M.Z., & Mo, K.H. (2014). Evaluation of thermal conductivity, mechanical and transport properties of lightweight aggregate foamed geopolymer concrete. Energy and Buildings, 72, 238–245. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2013.12.029
  • [2] Allouhi, A., El Fouih, Y., Kousksou, T., Jamil, A., Zeraouli, Y., & Mourad, Y. (2015). Energy consumption and efficiency in buildings: current status and future trends. Journal of Cleaner Production, 109, 118–130. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.05.139
  • [3] Feng, J., Zhang, R., Gong, L., Li, Y., Cao, W., & Cheng, X. (2015). Development of porous fly ash-based geopolymer with low thermal conductivity. Materials Design, 65, 529–533. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2014.09.024
  • [4] Garcia-Lodeiro, I., Palomo, A., & Fernández-Jiménez, A. (2015). An overview of the chemistry of alkali-activated cement-based binders. In: Pacheco-Torgal F, Labrincha JA, Leonelli C, Palomo A, Chindaprasirt P (ed). Handbook of Alkali-Activated Cements, Mortars and Concretes, Woodhead Publishing, UK, 19-47.
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  • [12] Phavongkham, V., Wattanasiriwech, S., Cheng, T-W., & Wattanasiriwech, D. (2020). Effects of surfactant on thermo-mechanical behavior of geopolymer foam paste made with sodium perborate foaming agent. Construction and Building Materials, 243, 118282, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2020.118282
  • [13] Henon, J., Alzina, A., Absi, J., Smith, D.S., & Rossignol, S. (2013). Potassium geopolymer foams made with silica fume pore forming agent for thermal insulation. Journal of Porous Materials, 20, 37–46. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10934-012-9572-3
  • [14] Bai, C., Ni, T., Qiaoling, W., Hongqiang, L., & Colombo, P. (2018). Porosity, mechanical and insulating properties of geopolymer foams using vegetable oil as the stabilizing agent. Journal of European Ceramic Society, 38, 799–805. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jeurceramsoc.2017.09.021
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  • [17] Peng, X., Li, H., Shuai, Q., & Wang L. (2020). Fire resistance of alkali activated geopolymer foams produced from metakaolin and Na2O2. Materials (Basel), 13(3), 535. doi: 10.3390/ma13030535
  • [18] Sornlar, W., Wannagon, A., & Supothina, S. (2021). Stabilized homogeneous porous structure and pore type effects on the properties of lightweight kaolinite-based geopolymers. Journal of Building Engineering, 44, 103273. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jobe.2021.103273
  • [19] Bai, C., Li, H., Bernardo, E., & Colombo, P. (2019). Waste-to-resource preparation of glass-containing foams from geopolymers. Ceramics International, 45(6), 7196–7202. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ceramint.2018.12.227
  • [20] Haq, E.U., Padmanabhan, S.K., & Licciulli, A. (2015). Microwave synthesis of thermal insulating foams from coal derived bottom ash. Fuel Processing Technology, 130, 263–267. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuproc.2014.10.017
  • [21] Dembovska, L., Bajare, D., Ducman, V., Korat, L., & Bumanis, G. (2017). The use of different by-products in the production of lightweight alkali activated building materials. Construction and Building Materials, 135, 315–322. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2017.01.005
  • [22] Akgül, E., & Tanaçan, L. (2011). Evaluation of the pozzolanic activity of the earth of Datça as a building material. International Journal of Architectural Heritage, 5, 1–26. 10.1080/15583050903171609
  • [23] Ercan, T., Günay, E., Baş, H., & Can, B. (1984). Datça Yarımadasındaki kuvaterner yaşlı volkanik kayaçların petrolojisi ve kökensel yorumu [Petrology of quaternary volcanic rocks in the Datca Peninsula and comment on their origin]. Bulletin of the Mineral Research and Exploration, 97/98, 21–23
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  • [25] TS 25 (2008). Tras. Turkish Standard Institution, Ankara.
  • [26] Barış, K.E., & Tanaçan, L. (2021). Improving the geopolymeric reactivity of Earth of Datça as a Natural Pozzolan in developing green binder. Journal of Building Engineering, 41, 102760. https:// doi.org/10.1016/j.jobe.2021.102760
  • [27] Hajimohammadi, A., Ngo, T., & Kashani, A. (2018). Glass waste versus sand as aggregates: The characteristics of the evolving geopolymer binders. Journal of Cleaner Production, 193, 593–603. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.05.086
  • [28] Wang, Y., Wang, Y., & Zhang, M. (2021). Effect of sand content on engineering properties of fly ash-slag based strain hardening geopolymer composites. Journal of Building Engineering, 34, 101951. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jobe.2020.101951
  • [29] Jones, M.R., Ozlutas, K., & Zheng, L. (2015). Stability and instability of foamed concrete. Magazine of Concrete Research, 68(11), 1–8. 10.1680/macr.15.00097
  • [30] ASTM C1437-20 (2020). Standard Test Method for Flow of Hydraulic Cement Mortar. ASTM International, West Conshohocken.
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  • [32] TS EN 13755 (2009). Natural stone test methods – Determination of water absorption at atmospheric pressure. Turkish Standard Institution, Ankara.
  • [33] TS EN 14579 (2006). Natural stone test methods – Determination of sound speed propagation. Turkish Standard Institution, Ankara.
  • [34] TS EN 196-1 (2009). Methods of testing cement – Part 1: Determination of strength. Turkish Standard Institution, Ankara.
  • [35] ASTM C518-17 (2017). Standard Test Method for Steady-State Thermal Transmission Properties by Means of the Heat Flow Meter Apparatus. ASTM International, West Conshohocken.
  • [36] Cui, Y., Wang, D., Zhao, J., Li, D., Ng, S., & Rui, Y. (2018). Effect of calcium stearate based foam stabilizer on pore characteristics and thermal conductivity of geopolymer foam material. Journal of Building Engineering, 20, 21–29. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jobe.2018.06.002
  • [37] Zhang, Z., Provis, J.L., Reid, A., & Wang, H. (2014). Geopolymer foam concrete: An emerging material for sustainable construction. Construction and Building Materials, 56, 113–127. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2014.01.081
  • [38] Gualtieri, M.L., Cavallini, A., & Romagnoli, M. (2016). Interactive powder mixture concept for the preparation of geopolymers with fine porosity. Journal of European Ceramic Society, 36(10), 2641–2646. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jeurceramsoc.2016.03.030
  • [39] Kamseu, E., Ngouloure, Z.N.M., Ali, B.N., Zekeng, S., & Melo, U.C., Rossignol, S., Leonelli, C. (2015). Cumulative pore volume, pore size distribution and phases percolation in porous inorganic polymer composites: Relation microstructure and effective thermal conductivity. Energy and Buildings, 88, 45–56. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2014.11.066
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Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Materials Science, Multidisciplinary
Published Date September 2022
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Kübra EKİZ BARIŞ> (Primary Author)
İSTANBUL TEKNİK ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-3830-7185
Türkiye


Leyla TANAÇAN>
İSTANBUL TEKNİK ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0001-7649-2441
Türkiye

Supporting Institution Center for Scientific Research Projects of Istanbul Technical University
Project Number MGA-2019-41837
Thanks The authors express their gratitude to Prof. Dr. Emin Çiftçi, who provided the laboratory facilities of the ITU Department of Geological Engineering for optical microscope analysis.
Publication Date September 30, 2022
Application Date July 7, 2022
Published in Issue Year 2022, Volume 7, Issue 3

Cite

APA Ekiz Barış, K. & Tanaçan, L. (2022). Natural pozzolan-based green geopolymer foam for thermal insulation . Journal of Sustainable Construction Materials and Technologies , 7 (3) , 128-144 . DOI: 10.47481/jscmt.1142100

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Journal of Sustainable Construction Materials and Technologies is open access journal under the CC BY-NC license  (Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License)

Based on a work at https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/jscmt

E-mail: jscmt@yildiz.edu.tr