Research Article
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The impact of tourist’s hygiene-safety perception on their intention to travel during the Covid-19 pandemic in Turkey

Year 2022, Volume 8, Issue 1, 5 - 13, 31.01.2022
https://doi.org/10.24288/jttr.1021221

Abstract

This study examines the effects of tourists' hygiene-safety perceptions and travel concerns on their intention to travel during the Covid-19 pandemic. Study data were collected from Turkish citizens living in Turkey by online survey technique. The obtained data were analyzed with SPSS 22.0 program and Lisrel 8.80. For the construct validity of the scale, exploratory factor analysis was performed and then confirmatory factor analysis was performed. The model proposed in the study was tested with structural equation modeling. The findings show that tourists' perception of hygiene-safety increases travel anxiety related to the pandemic. Also, it was determined that the travel anxiety of the participants about the pandemic negatively affected their intention to travel.

References

  • Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50, 179-211.
  • Ajzen, I., & Fishbein, M. (1975). A bayesian analysis of attribution processes, Psychological bulletin, 82(2), 261.
  • Akgül, A. & Çevik, O. (2005). İstatistiksel Analiz Teknikleri SPPS’te İşletme Yönetimi Uygulamaları, Emek Ofset, Ankara.
  • Al-Tawfiq, J.A., Zumla, A., & Memish, Z.A. (2014). Travel implications of emerging coronaviruses: SARS and MERS-CoV, Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, 12(5), 422-428.
  • Altunışık, R., Çoşkun, R., Bayraktaroğlu, S., & Yıldırım, E. (2007). Sosyal Bilimlerde Araştırma Yöntemleri SPSS Uygulamalı, Sakarya: Sakarya Yayıncılık.
  • Asmundson, G. J. G., & Taylor, S. (2020). Coronaphobia: Fear and the 2019-nCov outbreak, Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 70: 102196.
  • Aydın, B. & Doğan, M. (2020). Yeni koronavirüs pandemisinin turistik tüketici davranışları ve Türkiye turizmi üzerindeki etkilerinin değerlendirilmesi, Pazarlama Teorisi ve Uygulamaları Dergisi, 6(1), 93-115.
  • Baxter, E., & Bowen, D. (2004). Anatomy of tourism crisis: Explaining the effects on tourism of the UK foot and mouth disease epidemics of 1967–68 and 2001 with special reference to media portrayal. International Journal of Tourism Research, 6(4), 263-273.
  • Boakye, K. A. (2012). Tourist’s views on safety and vulnerability: A study of some selected towns in Ghana. Tourism Management, 33, 327-333.
  • Chen, L., Evans, T., Anand, S., Boufford, J. I., Brown, H., Chowdhury, M., ... & Fee, E. (2004). Human resources for health: overcoming the crisis. The Lancet, 364(9449), 1984-1990.
  • Chua, BL., Al-Ansi, A., Lee, MJ., & Han, H. (2021) Tourists’ outbound travel behavior in the aftermath of the COVID-19: role of corporate social responsibility, response effort, and health prevention, Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 29(6), 879-906.
  • Cohen, E. (1986). Tourism and time. World Leisure and Recreation, 28 (5):13–16.
  • Cossens, J., & S. Gin, S. (1994). Tourism and AIDS: The Perceived Risk of HIV Infection and Destination Choice. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, 3(4):1–20.
  • Conchar, M.P., Zinkhan, G.M., Peters, C., & Olavarriete, S. (2004). An integrated framework for the conceptualization of consumers’perceived risk processing, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 32(4).
  • Çelik, H.E. & Yılmaz, V. (2016). Lisrel 9.1 ile yapısal eşitlik modellemesi, Ankara: Anı Yayıncılık.
  • Çetinkaya, Ö., Özer, Y., & Kandemir Altuner, G. (2020). Covid-19 sürecinde turistik seyahat risk algısı ve hijyen-güvenlik algısının değerlendirilmesi, Tourism and Recreation, 2(2), 78-83.
  • Çobaner, A. A. (2021). Covid-19 sürecinde değişen sağlık/risk algısı ve medya tüketim pratikleri, www.researchgate.net.
  • Demir, M., Demir, Ş.Ş., Dalgıç, A. & Ergen, F.D. (2021). Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on the tourism industry: An evaluation from the hotel managers' perspective. Journal of Tourism Theory and Research, 7(1), 44-57. https://doi.org/10.24288/jttr.857610.
  • Evren, C., Evren, B., Dalbudak, E., Topcu, M. & Kutlu, N. (2020). Measuring anxiety related to Covid-19: A Turkish validation study of the Coronavirus Anxiety Scale, Death Studies, DOI: 10.1080/07481187.2020.1774969.
  • Fischhoff, B., De Bruin, W.B., Perrin, W., & Downs, J. (2004). Travel risks in a time of terror: Judgments and choices, Risk Analysis, 24(5),1301-1309.
  • Godovykh, M., Pizam, A., & Bahja, F. (2021). Antecedents and outcomes of health risk perceptions in tourism, following the COVID-19 pandemic. Tourism Review, 76(4), 737-748. https://doi.org/10.1108/TR-06-2020-0257.
  • Gümüş, A., & Hacıevliyagil, N. (2020). Covid-19 salgın hastalığının borsaya etkisi: Turizm ve ulaştırma endeksleri üzerine bir uygulama, Akademik Yaklaşımlar Dergisi, 11(1), 76-98.
  • Hajibaba, H., Gretzel, U., Leisch, F., & Dolcinar, S. (2015). Crisis-resistant tourists. Annals of Tourism Research, 53, 46-60.
  • Haque, T.H. & Haque, M.O. (2018). The swine flu and its impacts on tourism in Brunei, Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 36, 92-101.
  • Horng, Jeou-Shyan, Liu, Chih-Hsing, Chou, Hsin-Yu & Tsai, Chang-Yen (2012). Understanding the impact of culinary brand equity and destination familiarity on travel intentions. Tourism Management, 33(4), 815-824.
  • Hughes, C. (2014). Canceling safaris over misplaced Ebola fear hurts Africa and its wildlife. Retrieved from http://www.latimes.com/opinion/op-ed/laoe-hughes-ebola-africa-tourism-20141203-story.html.
  • Irwin, N. (2020). It’s the end of the world economy as we know it. Retrieved 30th of June 2020, from www.nytimes.com/2020/04/16/up shot/world- economy-restructuring-coronavirus.html.
  • Jonas, A., Mansfeld, Y., Paz, S. & Potasman, I. (2011). Determinants of Health Risk Perception Among Low-risk-taking Tourists Traveling to Developing Countries, Journal of Travel Research, 50(1), 87–99.
  • Karataş, Z. (2020). COVID-19 pandemisinin toplumsal etkileri, değişim ve güçlenme, Türkiye Sosyal Hizmet Araştırmaları Dergisi, 4(1), 1-17.
  • Kozak, M., Crotts, J.C., & Law, R. (2007). The impact of the perception of risk on international travellers, International Journal of Tourism Research, 9, 233-242.
  • Lam, T. & Hsu, C. (2006). Predicting behavioral intention of choosing a travel destination, Tourism Management, 27(2), 589-599.
  • Lee, S.A. (2020). Coronavirüs anxiety scale: A brief mental health screener for Covid-19 related anxiety. Death Studies, 44(7), 393-401.
  • Lee, C. C., & Chen, C. J. (2011). The reaction of elderly Asian tourists to avian influenza and SARS. Tourism Management, 32(6), 1421-1422.
  • Lepp, A. & Gibson, H. (2003). Tourist roles, perceived risk and international tourism, Annals of Tourism Research, 30(3), 606-624.
  • Lo, A.S., Cheung, C., & Law, R. (2011). Hong Kong residents’adoption of risk reduction strategies in leisure travel, Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 28:240-260.
  • Mazursky, D. (1989), Past experience and future Tourism decisions, Annals of Tourism Research, 16(3), 333-344.
  • Mizrachi, I., & Fuchs, G. (2016). Should we cancel? An examination of risk handling in travel social media before visiting ebola-free destinations. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 28, 59-65.
  • Nazneen, S., Hong, X., & Ud Din, N. (2020). COVID-19 crises and tourist travel risk perceptions. Available at SSRN 3592321.
  • Page, S., Song, H., & Wu, D. C. (2012). Assessing the impacts of the global economic crisis and swine flu on inbound Tourism demand in the United Kingdom, Journal of Travel Research, 51(2), 142-153.
  • Roehl, W., & D. Fesenmaier (1992). Risk perceptions and pleasure travel: An exploratory analysis. Journal of Travel Research, 2(4), 17–26.
  • Sönmez, S.F. (1998). Tourism, terrorism and political instability, Annals of Tourism Research, 25(2), 416-456.
  • Sönmez, S.F. & Graefe, A.R. (1998a). Determining future travel behavior from past travel experience and perceptions of risk and safety, Journal of Travel Research, 37, 171-177.
  • Sönmez, S.F. & Graefe, A.R. (1998b). Influence of terrorism risk on foreign tourism decisions. Annals of Tourism Research, 25(1), 112-144.
  • Sparks, B. & Pan, G.W. (2009). Chinese outbound tourists: Understanding their attitudes, constraints and use of information sources, Tourism Management, 30: 483-494. Şengel, Ü., Işkın, M., Genç, G., & Çevrimkaya, M. (2020). Covid-19 ile ilgili ölüm kaygısının seyahat davranışına etkisi, Gaziantep Üniversitesi Journal of Social Sciences, 105-121.
  • Wen, J., Kozak, M., Yang, S., & Liu, F. (2020). COVID-19: Potential effects on Chinese citizens’ lifestyle and travel. Tourism Review, 76(1),74-87.
  • World Health Organization (WHO). (2005). International travel and health. Geneva: WHO.
  • World Health Organization (WHO). (2020, March 11). WHO Director-General’s opening remarks at the media briefing on COVID-19. Retrieved March 11, 2020, from https://www.who.int/dg/speeches/detail/who-director-general-s-opening-remarks-at-themedia-briefing-on-covid-19.
  • Wu, P., Fang, Y., Guan, Z., Fan, B., Kong, J., Yao, Z., Liu, X., & Hoven, C. W. (2009). The psychological impact of the SARS epidemic on hospital employees in China: Exposure, risk perception, and altruistic acceptance of risk. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 54, 302–311.
  • Xiang, Y., Yang, Y., Li, W., Zhang, L., Zhang, Q., Cheung, T., & Ng, C. H. (2020). Timely mental health care for the 2019 novel coronavirus outbreak is urgently needed. Lancet, 7, 228–229. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2215-0366(20)30046-8.
  • Yang, C. L. & Nair, V. (2014). Risk perception study in tourism: Are we really measuring perceived risk?, Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 144, 322-327.
  • Yip, P. S. F., Cheung, Y. T., Chau, P. H., & Law, Y. W. (2010). The impact of epidemic outbreak: The case of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and suicide among older adults in Hong Kong. Crisis, 31(2), 86–92.
  • Yang, Y., Zhang, H., & Chen, X. (2020). Coronavirus pandemic and tourism: Dynamic stochastic general equilibrium modeling of infectious disease outbreak. Annals of Tourism Research.
  • Zenker, S., Braun, E., & Gyimothy, S. (2021). Too afraid to travel? Development of a pandemic (Covid-19) anxiety travel scale, Tourism Management, 84, 1-11.
  • Zenker, S. & Kock, F. (2020). The coronavirüs pandemic- a critical discussion of a tourism research agenda. Tourism Management, 81, 104164.
  • w.w.w. covid19.tubitak.gov.tr https://covid19.tubitak.gov.tr/dunyada-durum E.T: 09.11.2021.
  • w.w.w. covid19.saglik.gov.tr https://covid19.saglik.gov.tr/TR-66935/genel-koronavirus-tablosu.html E.T: 09.11.2021.

Year 2022, Volume 8, Issue 1, 5 - 13, 31.01.2022
https://doi.org/10.24288/jttr.1021221

Abstract

References

  • Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50, 179-211.
  • Ajzen, I., & Fishbein, M. (1975). A bayesian analysis of attribution processes, Psychological bulletin, 82(2), 261.
  • Akgül, A. & Çevik, O. (2005). İstatistiksel Analiz Teknikleri SPPS’te İşletme Yönetimi Uygulamaları, Emek Ofset, Ankara.
  • Al-Tawfiq, J.A., Zumla, A., & Memish, Z.A. (2014). Travel implications of emerging coronaviruses: SARS and MERS-CoV, Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, 12(5), 422-428.
  • Altunışık, R., Çoşkun, R., Bayraktaroğlu, S., & Yıldırım, E. (2007). Sosyal Bilimlerde Araştırma Yöntemleri SPSS Uygulamalı, Sakarya: Sakarya Yayıncılık.
  • Asmundson, G. J. G., & Taylor, S. (2020). Coronaphobia: Fear and the 2019-nCov outbreak, Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 70: 102196.
  • Aydın, B. & Doğan, M. (2020). Yeni koronavirüs pandemisinin turistik tüketici davranışları ve Türkiye turizmi üzerindeki etkilerinin değerlendirilmesi, Pazarlama Teorisi ve Uygulamaları Dergisi, 6(1), 93-115.
  • Baxter, E., & Bowen, D. (2004). Anatomy of tourism crisis: Explaining the effects on tourism of the UK foot and mouth disease epidemics of 1967–68 and 2001 with special reference to media portrayal. International Journal of Tourism Research, 6(4), 263-273.
  • Boakye, K. A. (2012). Tourist’s views on safety and vulnerability: A study of some selected towns in Ghana. Tourism Management, 33, 327-333.
  • Chen, L., Evans, T., Anand, S., Boufford, J. I., Brown, H., Chowdhury, M., ... & Fee, E. (2004). Human resources for health: overcoming the crisis. The Lancet, 364(9449), 1984-1990.
  • Chua, BL., Al-Ansi, A., Lee, MJ., & Han, H. (2021) Tourists’ outbound travel behavior in the aftermath of the COVID-19: role of corporate social responsibility, response effort, and health prevention, Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 29(6), 879-906.
  • Cohen, E. (1986). Tourism and time. World Leisure and Recreation, 28 (5):13–16.
  • Cossens, J., & S. Gin, S. (1994). Tourism and AIDS: The Perceived Risk of HIV Infection and Destination Choice. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, 3(4):1–20.
  • Conchar, M.P., Zinkhan, G.M., Peters, C., & Olavarriete, S. (2004). An integrated framework for the conceptualization of consumers’perceived risk processing, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 32(4).
  • Çelik, H.E. & Yılmaz, V. (2016). Lisrel 9.1 ile yapısal eşitlik modellemesi, Ankara: Anı Yayıncılık.
  • Çetinkaya, Ö., Özer, Y., & Kandemir Altuner, G. (2020). Covid-19 sürecinde turistik seyahat risk algısı ve hijyen-güvenlik algısının değerlendirilmesi, Tourism and Recreation, 2(2), 78-83.
  • Çobaner, A. A. (2021). Covid-19 sürecinde değişen sağlık/risk algısı ve medya tüketim pratikleri, www.researchgate.net.
  • Demir, M., Demir, Ş.Ş., Dalgıç, A. & Ergen, F.D. (2021). Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on the tourism industry: An evaluation from the hotel managers' perspective. Journal of Tourism Theory and Research, 7(1), 44-57. https://doi.org/10.24288/jttr.857610.
  • Evren, C., Evren, B., Dalbudak, E., Topcu, M. & Kutlu, N. (2020). Measuring anxiety related to Covid-19: A Turkish validation study of the Coronavirus Anxiety Scale, Death Studies, DOI: 10.1080/07481187.2020.1774969.
  • Fischhoff, B., De Bruin, W.B., Perrin, W., & Downs, J. (2004). Travel risks in a time of terror: Judgments and choices, Risk Analysis, 24(5),1301-1309.
  • Godovykh, M., Pizam, A., & Bahja, F. (2021). Antecedents and outcomes of health risk perceptions in tourism, following the COVID-19 pandemic. Tourism Review, 76(4), 737-748. https://doi.org/10.1108/TR-06-2020-0257.
  • Gümüş, A., & Hacıevliyagil, N. (2020). Covid-19 salgın hastalığının borsaya etkisi: Turizm ve ulaştırma endeksleri üzerine bir uygulama, Akademik Yaklaşımlar Dergisi, 11(1), 76-98.
  • Hajibaba, H., Gretzel, U., Leisch, F., & Dolcinar, S. (2015). Crisis-resistant tourists. Annals of Tourism Research, 53, 46-60.
  • Haque, T.H. & Haque, M.O. (2018). The swine flu and its impacts on tourism in Brunei, Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 36, 92-101.
  • Horng, Jeou-Shyan, Liu, Chih-Hsing, Chou, Hsin-Yu & Tsai, Chang-Yen (2012). Understanding the impact of culinary brand equity and destination familiarity on travel intentions. Tourism Management, 33(4), 815-824.
  • Hughes, C. (2014). Canceling safaris over misplaced Ebola fear hurts Africa and its wildlife. Retrieved from http://www.latimes.com/opinion/op-ed/laoe-hughes-ebola-africa-tourism-20141203-story.html.
  • Irwin, N. (2020). It’s the end of the world economy as we know it. Retrieved 30th of June 2020, from www.nytimes.com/2020/04/16/up shot/world- economy-restructuring-coronavirus.html.
  • Jonas, A., Mansfeld, Y., Paz, S. & Potasman, I. (2011). Determinants of Health Risk Perception Among Low-risk-taking Tourists Traveling to Developing Countries, Journal of Travel Research, 50(1), 87–99.
  • Karataş, Z. (2020). COVID-19 pandemisinin toplumsal etkileri, değişim ve güçlenme, Türkiye Sosyal Hizmet Araştırmaları Dergisi, 4(1), 1-17.
  • Kozak, M., Crotts, J.C., & Law, R. (2007). The impact of the perception of risk on international travellers, International Journal of Tourism Research, 9, 233-242.
  • Lam, T. & Hsu, C. (2006). Predicting behavioral intention of choosing a travel destination, Tourism Management, 27(2), 589-599.
  • Lee, S.A. (2020). Coronavirüs anxiety scale: A brief mental health screener for Covid-19 related anxiety. Death Studies, 44(7), 393-401.
  • Lee, C. C., & Chen, C. J. (2011). The reaction of elderly Asian tourists to avian influenza and SARS. Tourism Management, 32(6), 1421-1422.
  • Lepp, A. & Gibson, H. (2003). Tourist roles, perceived risk and international tourism, Annals of Tourism Research, 30(3), 606-624.
  • Lo, A.S., Cheung, C., & Law, R. (2011). Hong Kong residents’adoption of risk reduction strategies in leisure travel, Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 28:240-260.
  • Mazursky, D. (1989), Past experience and future Tourism decisions, Annals of Tourism Research, 16(3), 333-344.
  • Mizrachi, I., & Fuchs, G. (2016). Should we cancel? An examination of risk handling in travel social media before visiting ebola-free destinations. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 28, 59-65.
  • Nazneen, S., Hong, X., & Ud Din, N. (2020). COVID-19 crises and tourist travel risk perceptions. Available at SSRN 3592321.
  • Page, S., Song, H., & Wu, D. C. (2012). Assessing the impacts of the global economic crisis and swine flu on inbound Tourism demand in the United Kingdom, Journal of Travel Research, 51(2), 142-153.
  • Roehl, W., & D. Fesenmaier (1992). Risk perceptions and pleasure travel: An exploratory analysis. Journal of Travel Research, 2(4), 17–26.
  • Sönmez, S.F. (1998). Tourism, terrorism and political instability, Annals of Tourism Research, 25(2), 416-456.
  • Sönmez, S.F. & Graefe, A.R. (1998a). Determining future travel behavior from past travel experience and perceptions of risk and safety, Journal of Travel Research, 37, 171-177.
  • Sönmez, S.F. & Graefe, A.R. (1998b). Influence of terrorism risk on foreign tourism decisions. Annals of Tourism Research, 25(1), 112-144.
  • Sparks, B. & Pan, G.W. (2009). Chinese outbound tourists: Understanding their attitudes, constraints and use of information sources, Tourism Management, 30: 483-494. Şengel, Ü., Işkın, M., Genç, G., & Çevrimkaya, M. (2020). Covid-19 ile ilgili ölüm kaygısının seyahat davranışına etkisi, Gaziantep Üniversitesi Journal of Social Sciences, 105-121.
  • Wen, J., Kozak, M., Yang, S., & Liu, F. (2020). COVID-19: Potential effects on Chinese citizens’ lifestyle and travel. Tourism Review, 76(1),74-87.
  • World Health Organization (WHO). (2005). International travel and health. Geneva: WHO.
  • World Health Organization (WHO). (2020, March 11). WHO Director-General’s opening remarks at the media briefing on COVID-19. Retrieved March 11, 2020, from https://www.who.int/dg/speeches/detail/who-director-general-s-opening-remarks-at-themedia-briefing-on-covid-19.
  • Wu, P., Fang, Y., Guan, Z., Fan, B., Kong, J., Yao, Z., Liu, X., & Hoven, C. W. (2009). The psychological impact of the SARS epidemic on hospital employees in China: Exposure, risk perception, and altruistic acceptance of risk. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 54, 302–311.
  • Xiang, Y., Yang, Y., Li, W., Zhang, L., Zhang, Q., Cheung, T., & Ng, C. H. (2020). Timely mental health care for the 2019 novel coronavirus outbreak is urgently needed. Lancet, 7, 228–229. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2215-0366(20)30046-8.
  • Yang, C. L. & Nair, V. (2014). Risk perception study in tourism: Are we really measuring perceived risk?, Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 144, 322-327.
  • Yip, P. S. F., Cheung, Y. T., Chau, P. H., & Law, Y. W. (2010). The impact of epidemic outbreak: The case of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and suicide among older adults in Hong Kong. Crisis, 31(2), 86–92.
  • Yang, Y., Zhang, H., & Chen, X. (2020). Coronavirus pandemic and tourism: Dynamic stochastic general equilibrium modeling of infectious disease outbreak. Annals of Tourism Research.
  • Zenker, S., Braun, E., & Gyimothy, S. (2021). Too afraid to travel? Development of a pandemic (Covid-19) anxiety travel scale, Tourism Management, 84, 1-11.
  • Zenker, S. & Kock, F. (2020). The coronavirüs pandemic- a critical discussion of a tourism research agenda. Tourism Management, 81, 104164.
  • w.w.w. covid19.tubitak.gov.tr https://covid19.tubitak.gov.tr/dunyada-durum E.T: 09.11.2021.
  • w.w.w. covid19.saglik.gov.tr https://covid19.saglik.gov.tr/TR-66935/genel-koronavirus-tablosu.html E.T: 09.11.2021.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Hospitality Leisure Sport and Tourism
Journal Section Research Articles
Authors

Seher KONAK (Primary Author)
Eskişehir Osmangazi Üniversitesi
0000-0002-6847-9754
Türkiye

Early Pub Date December 5, 2021
Publication Date January 31, 2022
Published in Issue Year 2022, Volume 8, Issue 1

Cite

APA Konak, S. (2022). The impact of tourist’s hygiene-safety perception on their intention to travel during the Covid-19 pandemic in Turkey . Journal of Tourism Theory and Research , 8 (1) , 5-13 . DOI: 10.24288/jttr.1021221