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KURDISH LANGUAGE, ITS FAMILY AND DIALECTS

Year 2020, Volume , Issue 2, 133 - 146, 29.04.2020

Abstract

Abstract Kurdish belongs to the Iranian language group within Indo-European language family. So, there are many similarities between Kurdish and other Iranian languages. such similarities among various languages lead to categorizing languages within some families. Kurdish is unstandardized language, and it has four main dialects. In this arena, there is a huge gap and it has had negative effects on Kurds in general. Kurdish language is very linked with Kurdish identity on the same time. So, the invaders of Kurdistan work hard to deform Kurdish, then destroy Kurdish identity. The assimilation process affected many areas of Kurdistan intensively, for example; the number of Kurdish speakers has decreased significantly in Northern Kurdistan, and Turkish language has taken its place. Thus, we as a linguist try to clarify the Kurdish language situation linguistically. In this study, we discuss Kurdish language family, Kurdish dialects, mutual understanding between Kurdish dialects, and analyzing the current situation. This would be done by reviewing various sources and publishing a questionnaire among students at Koya University. With support of the student responses, we have designed a model to illuminate mutual understanding between Kurdish dialects in Southern Kurdistan.

References

  • Anderson, B. (1999). Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. (R. edition, Ed.) London ; New York : Verso: British Library cataloguing in publication data . Aslan, S. (2009). Incoherent State: The Controversy over Kurdish Naming in Turkey. European Journal of Turkish Studies, 10, 1-20.
  • Baldi, P., & Cuzzolin, P. (2015). Indo-European Languages. International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, 820-827.
  • Jawari, F. (1998). Hawar Magazine, 1, 1-23 (1932-1933). Stockholm: Nûdem.
  • Chambers, J. K., & Trudgill, P. (2004). Dialectology. (2. Edition, Ed.) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Ethnologue. (2019, August 1). Ethnologue. Retrieved from https://www.ethnologue.com/
  • Google Map (2019). Google map. Retrieved from https://www.google.com/maps
  • Haig, G., & Öpengin, E. (2015). Gender in Kurdish Structural and socio-cultural dimensions. In M. Hellinger, & H. Motschenbacher, Gender Across Languages (pp. 247-276). John Benjamins.
  • Hama-Khurshid, F. (2008) Kurdish language and its dialects, a geographic analysis [Zmani Kurdi u diyalektakani, shikrdnawayaki jugrafyayi]. Slemani, Sardam publishing.
  • Hassanpour, A. (1993). Kurdish Studies: Orientalist, Positivist, and Critical Approaches: Review Essay Kurdish Ethnonationalism by Nader Entessar. The Middle east Journal, 47(1), 119-122.
  • Ismail, Z. B. (1977) Kurdish language history [tarikh al-alughat al-kurdiya]. Baghdad, al-Hawadth.
  • Khalid, H. S. (2013). The language and politics od Iraqi Kurdistan. Lambert academic Publishing. ISBN: 978-3659800405
  • Khalid, H. S. (2015). Kurdish dialect continuum, as a standardization solution. International Journal of Kurdish Studies, 1(1), 27-39.
  • Bedlîsî, Ş. (2014). Şerefname -Dîroka Kurdistanê [Sharafnama – Kurdistan History]. Translator: Ziya Avcı. Istanbul: Azad.
  • Öpengin, E. (2011). Rewşa Kurdî ya sosyolenguîstîk li Tirkiyeyê [Kurdish sociolinguistic situation in Turkey]. Istanbul: Avesta.
  • Saussure, F. d. (1998). Course in General Linguistics. (R. Harris, Trans.) Open Court.
  • Sheyholislami, J. (2015). Language varities of the Kurds. The Kurds: History–Religion–Language–Politics , 30-52.
  • Khani, A. (2017). Mem û Zîn. Edition: Şamîl Esgerov; Mehmet Kaplan; Huseyn Şemrexî. Istanbul: Nûbihar.

ZIMANÊ KURDÎ, MALBAT Û ZARÊN WÎ

Year 2020, Volume , Issue 2, 133 - 146, 29.04.2020

Abstract

Zimanê Kurdî yek ji zimanên Îranî ye, ku ser bi malbata Hînd û Ewropî ye. Lewma hevbeşiyên zehf di
navbera Kurdî û zimanên din ên Îranî de hene. Ev wekyekî û nêzîkiya navbera hinek zimanên dinê, bûye hokara
destnîşankirina malbatên zimanan. Lê belê, dema yek dibêje Kurdî, dîsa ne xuya ye, ku mebesta wê kîjan zarê
Kurdî ye. Çimkî zimanê Kurdî, zimanekî ne-sitandard bûye û ji çar şaxên sereke pêk tê. Ew şax jî bi zar tên
binavkirin. Ji vî aliyî valatiyeke mezin heye û bandora vê valatiyê jî li ser tevahiya Kurdan çêbûye. Zimanê Kurdî
girêdirayî nasnameya gelê Kurd e. Lewma neteweyên dagîrker û hukimdarên axa Kurdistanê, ji bo têkbirina Kurdî
hewl didin, heta bikaribin nasnameya Kurdan jî têk bibin. Ev pirosêsa esîmîlasiyonê, li gelek cihên Kurdistanê
bandoreke mezin çêkiriye. Minak, li bakurê Kurdistanê jimara Kurdî axêvan kêm bûye û zimanê Tirkî di gelek

warên cuda de cihê Kurdî girtiye. Ji ber vê yekê, em wek zimannasek Kurdî dimeyzînin û hewla ronîkirina rastiyên
zimanewanî didin. Di vê gotarê de, em behsa malbata zimanê Kurdî, zarên zimanê Kurdî û têgehiştina di navbera
van zaran de dikin û şiroveya rewşa heyî dikin. Ew jî bi palpiştiya çavkaniyên heyî û belavkirina formên rapirsî di
Zanîngeha Koya de. Li gorî bersivên xwendekaran ku temena wan di navbera 18-30 salî de ye, me li Başurê
Kurdistanê ji bo têgehiştina di navbera zarên Kurdî de modêlek ava kiriye.

References

  • Anderson, B. (1999). Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. (R. edition, Ed.) London ; New York : Verso: British Library cataloguing in publication data . Aslan, S. (2009). Incoherent State: The Controversy over Kurdish Naming in Turkey. European Journal of Turkish Studies, 10, 1-20.
  • Baldi, P., & Cuzzolin, P. (2015). Indo-European Languages. International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, 820-827.
  • Jawari, F. (1998). Hawar Magazine, 1, 1-23 (1932-1933). Stockholm: Nûdem.
  • Chambers, J. K., & Trudgill, P. (2004). Dialectology. (2. Edition, Ed.) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Ethnologue. (2019, August 1). Ethnologue. Retrieved from https://www.ethnologue.com/
  • Google Map (2019). Google map. Retrieved from https://www.google.com/maps
  • Haig, G., & Öpengin, E. (2015). Gender in Kurdish Structural and socio-cultural dimensions. In M. Hellinger, & H. Motschenbacher, Gender Across Languages (pp. 247-276). John Benjamins.
  • Hama-Khurshid, F. (2008) Kurdish language and its dialects, a geographic analysis [Zmani Kurdi u diyalektakani, shikrdnawayaki jugrafyayi]. Slemani, Sardam publishing.
  • Hassanpour, A. (1993). Kurdish Studies: Orientalist, Positivist, and Critical Approaches: Review Essay Kurdish Ethnonationalism by Nader Entessar. The Middle east Journal, 47(1), 119-122.
  • Ismail, Z. B. (1977) Kurdish language history [tarikh al-alughat al-kurdiya]. Baghdad, al-Hawadth.
  • Khalid, H. S. (2013). The language and politics od Iraqi Kurdistan. Lambert academic Publishing. ISBN: 978-3659800405
  • Khalid, H. S. (2015). Kurdish dialect continuum, as a standardization solution. International Journal of Kurdish Studies, 1(1), 27-39.
  • Bedlîsî, Ş. (2014). Şerefname -Dîroka Kurdistanê [Sharafnama – Kurdistan History]. Translator: Ziya Avcı. Istanbul: Azad.
  • Öpengin, E. (2011). Rewşa Kurdî ya sosyolenguîstîk li Tirkiyeyê [Kurdish sociolinguistic situation in Turkey]. Istanbul: Avesta.
  • Saussure, F. d. (1998). Course in General Linguistics. (R. Harris, Trans.) Open Court.
  • Sheyholislami, J. (2015). Language varities of the Kurds. The Kurds: History–Religion–Language–Politics , 30-52.
  • Khani, A. (2017). Mem û Zîn. Edition: Şamîl Esgerov; Mehmet Kaplan; Huseyn Şemrexî. Istanbul: Nûbihar.

KURDISH LANGUAGE, ITS FAMILY AND DIALECTS

Year 2020, Volume , Issue 2, 133 - 146, 29.04.2020

Abstract

Abstract Kurdish belongs to the Iranian language group within Indo-European language family. So, there are many similarities between Kurdish and other Iranian languages. such similarities among various languages lead to categorizing languages within some families. Kurdish is unstandardized language, and it has four main dialects. In this arena, there is a huge gap and it has had negative effects on Kurds in general. Kurdish language is very linked with Kurdish identity on the same time. So, the invaders of Kurdistan work hard to deform Kurdish, then destroy Kurdish identity. The assimilation process affected many areas of Kurdistan intensively, for example; the number of Kurdish speakers has decreased significantly in Northern Kurdistan, and Turkish language has taken its place. Thus, we as a linguist try to clarify the Kurdish language situation linguistically. In this study, we discuss Kurdish language family, Kurdish dialects, mutual understanding between Kurdish dialects, and analyzing the current situation. This would be done by reviewing various sources and publishing a questionnaire among students at Koya University. With support of the student responses, we have designed a model to illuminate mutual understanding between Kurdish dialects in Southern Kurdistan.

References

  • Anderson, B. (1999). Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. (R. edition, Ed.) London ; New York : Verso: British Library cataloguing in publication data . Aslan, S. (2009). Incoherent State: The Controversy over Kurdish Naming in Turkey. European Journal of Turkish Studies, 10, 1-20.
  • Baldi, P., & Cuzzolin, P. (2015). Indo-European Languages. International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, 820-827.
  • Jawari, F. (1998). Hawar Magazine, 1, 1-23 (1932-1933). Stockholm: Nûdem.
  • Chambers, J. K., & Trudgill, P. (2004). Dialectology. (2. Edition, Ed.) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Ethnologue. (2019, August 1). Ethnologue. Retrieved from https://www.ethnologue.com/
  • Google Map (2019). Google map. Retrieved from https://www.google.com/maps
  • Haig, G., & Öpengin, E. (2015). Gender in Kurdish Structural and socio-cultural dimensions. In M. Hellinger, & H. Motschenbacher, Gender Across Languages (pp. 247-276). John Benjamins.
  • Hama-Khurshid, F. (2008) Kurdish language and its dialects, a geographic analysis [Zmani Kurdi u diyalektakani, shikrdnawayaki jugrafyayi]. Slemani, Sardam publishing.
  • Hassanpour, A. (1993). Kurdish Studies: Orientalist, Positivist, and Critical Approaches: Review Essay Kurdish Ethnonationalism by Nader Entessar. The Middle east Journal, 47(1), 119-122.
  • Ismail, Z. B. (1977) Kurdish language history [tarikh al-alughat al-kurdiya]. Baghdad, al-Hawadth.
  • Khalid, H. S. (2013). The language and politics od Iraqi Kurdistan. Lambert academic Publishing. ISBN: 978-3659800405
  • Khalid, H. S. (2015). Kurdish dialect continuum, as a standardization solution. International Journal of Kurdish Studies, 1(1), 27-39.
  • Bedlîsî, Ş. (2014). Şerefname -Dîroka Kurdistanê [Sharafnama – Kurdistan History]. Translator: Ziya Avcı. Istanbul: Azad.
  • Öpengin, E. (2011). Rewşa Kurdî ya sosyolenguîstîk li Tirkiyeyê [Kurdish sociolinguistic situation in Turkey]. Istanbul: Avesta.
  • Saussure, F. d. (1998). Course in General Linguistics. (R. Harris, Trans.) Open Court.
  • Sheyholislami, J. (2015). Language varities of the Kurds. The Kurds: History–Religion–Language–Politics , 30-52.
  • Khani, A. (2017). Mem û Zîn. Edition: Şamîl Esgerov; Mehmet Kaplan; Huseyn Şemrexî. Istanbul: Nûbihar.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Linguistics
Journal Section Research Articles
Authors

Hewa S. KHALİD>
DİCLE ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0003-4513-6596
Türkiye

Translators

Hewa S. KHALİD

Publication Date April 29, 2020
Application Date March 20, 2020
Acceptance Date March 20, 2020
Published in Issue Year 2020, Volume , Issue 2

Cite

APA Khalid, H. S. (2020). KURDISH LANGUAGE, ITS FAMILY AND DIALECTS (H. Khalid, Trans.) . Kurdiname , (2) , 133-146 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/kurdiname/issue/54064/706692

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