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Foodborne Helminths

Year 2016, Volume 9, Issue 2, 127 - 134, 01.06.2016

Abstract

Nutrition is the most fundamental need of all living things to maintain the vitality. For healthy life sufficient, balanced, quality and healthy nutrition is a crucially important entity. However food contamination by several agents i.e. parasitic, bacterial, viral and fungal is inevitable because sufficient attention is not given to food processing from production to consuption at every stages. This paper deals with helminth parasites that threatens public health and transmitted to human by food.

References

  • Akmirza A. Monogeneans of fish near Gökçeada, Turkey. Turk J Zool. 2013; 37:441-448.
  • Anderson RC. Nematod parasites of vertebrates. Their development and transmission. C.A.B. International, Wallinford Oxon, UK.1992.
  • Audicana MT, Ansotegui IJ, de Corres LF, Kennedy MW. Anisakis simplex: dangerous dead and alive? Trends Parasitol. 2002;18:20–25.
  • Ayaz E, Tınar R. Cestoda. In: Helmintoloji. Ed; Tınar R, Nobel Basımevi.2006.
  • Aydoğdu A, Emre Y, Emre N, Altunel FN. Th e occurrence of helminth parasites (Nemathelminthes) in some freshwater fish from streams discharging into Antalya Bay in Antalya, Turkey: two new host records from Antalya. Turk J Zool.2011; 35(6): 859-864.
  • Baquera-Heredia J, Cruz-Reyes A, Flores-Gaxiola A, Lopez-Pulido G, Diaz-Simental E, Valderrama-Valenzuela L. Case report: Ocular gnathostomiasis in northwestern Mexico. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2002;66:572–574.
  • Bhattacharjee HK, Yadav D, Bagga D. Fasciolopsiasis presenting as intestinal perforation: Acase report. Trop Gastroenterol. 2009;30:40-41
  • Brunetti E, Kern P, Vuitton DA, Writing Panel for the WHO-IWGE. Expert consensus for the diagnosis and treatment of cystic and alveolar echinococcosis in humans.Acta Trop.2010; 114 (1): 1-16.
  • Chan MS, Medley GF, Jamison D, Bundy DA. The evaluation of potential global morbidity attributable to intestinal nematode infections. Parasitology. 1994; 109: 373-387
  • Coral-Almeida M, Gabriël S, Abatih EN, Praet N, Benitez W, Dorny P. Taenia solium Human Cysticercosis: A Systematic Review of Sero-epidemiological Data from Endemic Zones around the World. PLOS Negl Trop Dis 9,2015; e0003919.
  • Crompton DW. How much human helminthiasis is there in the world? J Parasitol.1999; 85(3):397-403.
  • Daschner A, Cuellar C, Sanchez-Pastor S, Pascual CY, Martin-Esteban M. Gastro-allergic anisakiasis as a consequence of simultaneous primary and secondary immune response. Parasit Immunol. 2002;24:243–251.
  • Dick TA, Nelson PA, Choudhury A. Diphyllobothriasis: update on human cases, foci, patterns, and sources of human infections and future considerations. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Pub Health. 2001;32:59–76.
  • Doğanay A. Karadeniz’den avlanan mezgit balıklarında Hysterothlacium aduncum (Rudolphi, 1802) olgusu. Ankara Üniv. Vet. Fak. Derg. 1994; 41(2):208-217.
  • Doyle E. Foodborn Parasites. Food Research Institute, UW-Madison.2003;October, p:13.
  • el-Shabrawi M, el-Karaksy H, Okasha S, el-Hennawy A. Human fascioliasis: clinical features and diagnostic difficulties in Egyptian children. J Trop Pediatr. 1997; 43: 162-166.
  • Foti C, Nettis E, Cassano N, Di Mundo I, Vena GA. Acute allergic reactions to Anisakis simplex after ingestion of anchovies. Acta Dermato-Venereologica. 2002;82:121–123.
  • Garcia LS. Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, 4th ed. ASM Pres. 2001;p:1092
  • Garcia HH, Evans CAW, Nash TE, Takayanagui OM, White AC, Botero D, Rajshekhar V, Tsang VCW, Schantz PM, Allan JC, Flisser A, Correa D, Sarti E, Friedland JS, Martinez SM, Gonzalez AE, Gilman RH, and Del Brutto OH. Current consensus guidelines for treatment of neurocysticercosis. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2002;15:747–756.
  • Graczyk TK, Gilman RH, Fried B. Fasciolopsiasis: is it a controllable food-borne disease?Parasitol Res.2001; 87(1):80-83.
  • Gottstein B, Reichen J. Hydatid lung disease (echinococcosis/hydatidosis). Clin Chest Med. 2002;23:397–408.
  • Gottstein B, Pozio E, Nöckler K. Epidemiology, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Control of Trichinellosis. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2009; 22(1): 127-145.
  • Hale DC, Blumberg L, Frean J. Case report: Gnathostomiases in two travelers to Zambia. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2003;68:707-709.
  • Haseeb AN, el-Shazly AM, Arafa MA, Morsy AT. A review on fascioliasis in Egypt. J Egypt Soc Parasitol. 2002;32:317–354.
  • Korkmaz M. Barsak Helmintleri. ANKEM Derg. 2006;20(Ek 2):170-176.
  • Kuş FS, Sevimli FK, Miman Ö.Türkiye’de Cysticercus bovis ve Halk Sağlığı Yönünden Önemi. Türkiye Parazitol Derg.2014;38(1):41-47.
  • Leventhal R, Cheadle RF. Medical Parasitology, A self-Instructional Text. 5th Ed. Philadelphia: Fa Davis Company. 2002; p:245.
  • Lo Re V, Gluckman SJ. Eosinophilic meningitis due to Gnathostoma spinigerum. J Infect. 2002;45:117–120.
  • Lymbery AJ, Cheah FY: Anisakid nematodes and anisakiasis. In:Murrell KD, Fried B (Eds): Food-Borne Parasitic Zoonoses, Fish and Plant Borne Parasites. 1st ed., pp. 185-209,
  • Springer Science Business Media, LLC, New York, USA, 2007.
  • Mas-Coma MS, Esteban JG, Bargues MD. Epidemiology of human fascioliasis: a review and proposed new classification. Bull World Health Organ. 1999;77: 340–346.
  • Mas-Coma S, Bargues MD, Valero MA. Fascioliasis and other plant-borne trematode zoonoses. Int. J. Parasitol. 2005;35: 1255–1278.
  • McClelland G. The trouble with sealworms (Pseudoterranova decipiens species complex, Nematoda): a review. Parasitology.2002;124: 183–203.
  • Mol S. Çiğ Balık (Sushi) ve Sağlığımız. Uludag Univ. J. Fac. Vet. Med. 2006;25 (1-2): 23-28.
  • Murrel KD. Epidemiology of Taeniosis and cysticercosis. In: WHO/FAO/OIE Guidelines for Surveilance, Prevention and Control of taeniosis/Cysticercosis. OIE, Paris. 2005;pp: 27-44.
  • Nakamura-Uchiyama F, Mukae H, Nawa Y. Paragonimiasis: a Japanese perspective. Clin Chest Med. 2002;23:409–420.
  • Nithiuthai S, Anantaphruti MT, Waikagul J, Gajadhar A. Waterborne zoonotic helminthiases. Vet Parasitol. 2004; 126: 167–193
  • Okutan O, Ugan H, Kartaloğlu Z, Kunter E, Sezer O.Ascaris lumbricoides’e Bağlı Basit Pulmoner Eozinofili (Loeffler’s sendromu) Olgu Sunumu. Fırat Tıp Derg. 2007. 12: 300-302.
  • Özcel MA. Ascariosis (Solucan Hastalığı). In: Özcel'in Tıbbi Parazit Hastalıkları. Ed; Özcel MA. , Meta Basım, İzmir. 2007; pp: 719-728.
  • Özkan Y, Aksakal E, Oğuz MC. İstavrit (Trachurus trachurus, L. 1758) Balığında Kaydedilen Nematod Larvalarının Balık Boy Gruplarına Göre Karşılaştırmalı Yaygınlık, Ortalama Yoğunluk ve Bolluk Parametrelerinin Belirlenmesi.BIBAD. 2010; 3 (1): 145-147.
  • Özkoç S, Bayram Delibaş S, Akısü Ç. Trichinellosis Tanısında Western Blot tekniğinin Uygulanması. Türkiye Parazitol Derg. 2005;29(1): 26-30.
  • Piarroux M, Piarroux R, Knapp J, Bardonnet K, Dumortier J, Watelet J, Gerard A, Beytout J, Abergel A, Bresson-Hadni S, Guart J, for the FrancEchino Surveillance Network. Populations at Risk for Alveolar Echinococcosis, France. Emerg Infect Dis.2013; 19(5): 721–728.
  • Pozio E, Murrell KD. Systematics and epidemiology of Trichinella. Adv Parasitol. 2006;63: 367–439.
  • Pozio E. World distribution of Trichinella spp.infections in animals and humans. Vet. Parasitol. 2007; 149: 3–21.
  • Prociv P, Spratt DM, Carlisle MS. Neuroangiostrongyliasis: Unresolved issues. Int J Parasitol.2000; 30(12–13):1295–1303.
  • Roberts LS, Janovy J. Gerald D. Schmidt and Larry S.Roberts’ Foundations of Parasitology.5th ed. Wm. C. BrownPubl. 1996.
  • Robertson LJ, Gjerde B. Isolation and enumeration of Giardia cysts, Cryptosporidium oocysts, and Ascaris eggs from fruits and vegetables. J Food Prot. 2000;63:775–778.
  • Rojekittikhun W. On the biology of Gnathostoma spinigerum. J Trop Med Parasitol. 2002;25:91-98
  • Sakanari JA, McKerrow JH. Anisakiasis. Clin Microbiol Rev.1989;2:278–284.
  • Scholz T, Garcı´a HH, Kuchta R, Wicht B. Update on the human broad tapeworm (genus Diphyllobothrium), including clinical relevance. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2009. 22: 146–160.
  • Schuster R, Petrini JL, Choi R. Anisakiasis of the colon presenting as bowel obstruction. Am Surgeon.2003;69:350–352.
  • Selver M, Aydoğdu A. Kocadere deresi (Bursa)’ndeki Kızılkanat Balıkları (Scardinus erythrophthalmus L. 1758)’nda İlkbahar ve Sonbahar Aylarında Görülen Helmintler. Türkiye Parazitol Derg. 2010; 34: 118-121.
  • Simpson TW. More on Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection. New Engl J Med. 1995; 333:882.
  • Slom TJ, Cortese MM, Gerber SI, Jones RC, Holtz TH, Lopez AS, Zambrano CH, Sufit RL, Sakolvaree Y, Chaicumpa W, Herwaldt BL, Johnson S. An outbreak of eosinophilic meningitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis in travelers returning from theCaribbean. New Engl J Med. 2002;346:668–675.
  • Soulsby EJL. Helminths, Arthropods and Protoza of Domesticated Animals. 7th Ed., Bailliere Tindal, Philadelphia. 1982.
  • Sterling CR: Food-borne nematod infection. In: Food-borne Parasites. Ed; Ortega YR . 1st Ed., Springer Science Business Media, LLC, New York, USA, 2006; pp. 135-153.
  • Taylor MA, Coop RL, Wall RL. Veterinary Parasitology. 3th Ed., Blackwell Publishing UK. 2007.
  • Tiğin Y, Burgu A, Doğanay A, Öge H, Öge S. Balık parazitleri. Türkiye Parazitol Derg. 1992;1: 103-119.
  • Tınar R. Trematoda. In: Helmintoloji.Ed; Tınar R. Nobel Basımevi. 2006.
  • Torgerson PR, Budke CM. Echinococcosis an international public health challenge. Res Vet Sci. 2003;74:191–202.
  • Tsai TH, Liu YC, Wann SR, Lin WR, Lee SJ, Lin HH, Chen YS, Yen MY, Yen CM. An outbreak of meningitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis in Kaohsiung. J Microbiol Immunol Infect.2001; 34(1):50–56.
  • Turgay N, Yolasığmaz A. Taeniosis. In: Özcel'in Tıbbi Parazit Hastalıkları. Ed; Özcel MA, Meta Basım Matbaacılık Hizmetleri. 2007;pp: 691-701.
  • Umur Ş, Köroğlu E, Tınar R, Güçlü F.Nematoda. In: Helmintoloji.Ed;Tınar R. Nobel Basımevi. 2006.
  • Ütük AE. Clonorchiosis ve Opistorchiosis. In:Veteriner Hekimliğinde Parazit Hastalıkları. Ed; Özcel MA. Meta Basım, Bornova İzmir. 2013; p: 1145-1149.
  • Watanapa P, Watanapa WB. Liver flukeassociated cholangiocarcinoma. Brit J Surg. 2002; 89: 962–970.
  • Woolf A, Gren J, Levine JA. A clinical study of leotian refugees infected with Clonorchis sinensis or Opistorchis viverrini. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1984;33: 1279-1280.
  • Wu SS, French SW, Turner JA. Eosinophilic ileitis with perforation caused by Angiostrongylus (Parastrongylus) costaricensis. A case study and review. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 1997; 121:989–991.
  • Yılmaz H, Gödekmerdan A. Human fasciolosis in Van province, Turkey. Acta Tropica. 2004;9:2 161–162.

Gıda Kaynaklı Helmintler

Year 2016, Volume 9, Issue 2, 127 - 134, 01.06.2016

Abstract

Beslenme tüm canlıların canlılığını devam ettirebilmesi için en temel ihtiyacıdır. Sağlıklı bir yaşam için yeterli, dengeli, kalitelive sağlıklı beslenme son derece önemlidir. Ancak gıdaların, üretiminden tüketimine kadar her aşamada sanitasyon ve hijyen kurallarına yeteri kadar önem verilmemesi durumunda paraziter, bakteriyel, viral ve fungal pek çok ajanla bulaşması kaçınılmaz olmaktadır.Bu makalede halk sağlığını tehdit eden ve gıdalarla insanlara bulaşması söz konusu olan helmint parazitler hakkında bilgi verilmiştir.

References

  • Akmirza A. Monogeneans of fish near Gökçeada, Turkey. Turk J Zool. 2013; 37:441-448.
  • Anderson RC. Nematod parasites of vertebrates. Their development and transmission. C.A.B. International, Wallinford Oxon, UK.1992.
  • Audicana MT, Ansotegui IJ, de Corres LF, Kennedy MW. Anisakis simplex: dangerous dead and alive? Trends Parasitol. 2002;18:20–25.
  • Ayaz E, Tınar R. Cestoda. In: Helmintoloji. Ed; Tınar R, Nobel Basımevi.2006.
  • Aydoğdu A, Emre Y, Emre N, Altunel FN. Th e occurrence of helminth parasites (Nemathelminthes) in some freshwater fish from streams discharging into Antalya Bay in Antalya, Turkey: two new host records from Antalya. Turk J Zool.2011; 35(6): 859-864.
  • Baquera-Heredia J, Cruz-Reyes A, Flores-Gaxiola A, Lopez-Pulido G, Diaz-Simental E, Valderrama-Valenzuela L. Case report: Ocular gnathostomiasis in northwestern Mexico. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2002;66:572–574.
  • Bhattacharjee HK, Yadav D, Bagga D. Fasciolopsiasis presenting as intestinal perforation: Acase report. Trop Gastroenterol. 2009;30:40-41
  • Brunetti E, Kern P, Vuitton DA, Writing Panel for the WHO-IWGE. Expert consensus for the diagnosis and treatment of cystic and alveolar echinococcosis in humans.Acta Trop.2010; 114 (1): 1-16.
  • Chan MS, Medley GF, Jamison D, Bundy DA. The evaluation of potential global morbidity attributable to intestinal nematode infections. Parasitology. 1994; 109: 373-387
  • Coral-Almeida M, Gabriël S, Abatih EN, Praet N, Benitez W, Dorny P. Taenia solium Human Cysticercosis: A Systematic Review of Sero-epidemiological Data from Endemic Zones around the World. PLOS Negl Trop Dis 9,2015; e0003919.
  • Crompton DW. How much human helminthiasis is there in the world? J Parasitol.1999; 85(3):397-403.
  • Daschner A, Cuellar C, Sanchez-Pastor S, Pascual CY, Martin-Esteban M. Gastro-allergic anisakiasis as a consequence of simultaneous primary and secondary immune response. Parasit Immunol. 2002;24:243–251.
  • Dick TA, Nelson PA, Choudhury A. Diphyllobothriasis: update on human cases, foci, patterns, and sources of human infections and future considerations. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Pub Health. 2001;32:59–76.
  • Doğanay A. Karadeniz’den avlanan mezgit balıklarında Hysterothlacium aduncum (Rudolphi, 1802) olgusu. Ankara Üniv. Vet. Fak. Derg. 1994; 41(2):208-217.
  • Doyle E. Foodborn Parasites. Food Research Institute, UW-Madison.2003;October, p:13.
  • el-Shabrawi M, el-Karaksy H, Okasha S, el-Hennawy A. Human fascioliasis: clinical features and diagnostic difficulties in Egyptian children. J Trop Pediatr. 1997; 43: 162-166.
  • Foti C, Nettis E, Cassano N, Di Mundo I, Vena GA. Acute allergic reactions to Anisakis simplex after ingestion of anchovies. Acta Dermato-Venereologica. 2002;82:121–123.
  • Garcia LS. Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, 4th ed. ASM Pres. 2001;p:1092
  • Garcia HH, Evans CAW, Nash TE, Takayanagui OM, White AC, Botero D, Rajshekhar V, Tsang VCW, Schantz PM, Allan JC, Flisser A, Correa D, Sarti E, Friedland JS, Martinez SM, Gonzalez AE, Gilman RH, and Del Brutto OH. Current consensus guidelines for treatment of neurocysticercosis. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2002;15:747–756.
  • Graczyk TK, Gilman RH, Fried B. Fasciolopsiasis: is it a controllable food-borne disease?Parasitol Res.2001; 87(1):80-83.
  • Gottstein B, Reichen J. Hydatid lung disease (echinococcosis/hydatidosis). Clin Chest Med. 2002;23:397–408.
  • Gottstein B, Pozio E, Nöckler K. Epidemiology, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Control of Trichinellosis. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2009; 22(1): 127-145.
  • Hale DC, Blumberg L, Frean J. Case report: Gnathostomiases in two travelers to Zambia. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2003;68:707-709.
  • Haseeb AN, el-Shazly AM, Arafa MA, Morsy AT. A review on fascioliasis in Egypt. J Egypt Soc Parasitol. 2002;32:317–354.
  • Korkmaz M. Barsak Helmintleri. ANKEM Derg. 2006;20(Ek 2):170-176.
  • Kuş FS, Sevimli FK, Miman Ö.Türkiye’de Cysticercus bovis ve Halk Sağlığı Yönünden Önemi. Türkiye Parazitol Derg.2014;38(1):41-47.
  • Leventhal R, Cheadle RF. Medical Parasitology, A self-Instructional Text. 5th Ed. Philadelphia: Fa Davis Company. 2002; p:245.
  • Lo Re V, Gluckman SJ. Eosinophilic meningitis due to Gnathostoma spinigerum. J Infect. 2002;45:117–120.
  • Lymbery AJ, Cheah FY: Anisakid nematodes and anisakiasis. In:Murrell KD, Fried B (Eds): Food-Borne Parasitic Zoonoses, Fish and Plant Borne Parasites. 1st ed., pp. 185-209,
  • Springer Science Business Media, LLC, New York, USA, 2007.
  • Mas-Coma MS, Esteban JG, Bargues MD. Epidemiology of human fascioliasis: a review and proposed new classification. Bull World Health Organ. 1999;77: 340–346.
  • Mas-Coma S, Bargues MD, Valero MA. Fascioliasis and other plant-borne trematode zoonoses. Int. J. Parasitol. 2005;35: 1255–1278.
  • McClelland G. The trouble with sealworms (Pseudoterranova decipiens species complex, Nematoda): a review. Parasitology.2002;124: 183–203.
  • Mol S. Çiğ Balık (Sushi) ve Sağlığımız. Uludag Univ. J. Fac. Vet. Med. 2006;25 (1-2): 23-28.
  • Murrel KD. Epidemiology of Taeniosis and cysticercosis. In: WHO/FAO/OIE Guidelines for Surveilance, Prevention and Control of taeniosis/Cysticercosis. OIE, Paris. 2005;pp: 27-44.
  • Nakamura-Uchiyama F, Mukae H, Nawa Y. Paragonimiasis: a Japanese perspective. Clin Chest Med. 2002;23:409–420.
  • Nithiuthai S, Anantaphruti MT, Waikagul J, Gajadhar A. Waterborne zoonotic helminthiases. Vet Parasitol. 2004; 126: 167–193
  • Okutan O, Ugan H, Kartaloğlu Z, Kunter E, Sezer O.Ascaris lumbricoides’e Bağlı Basit Pulmoner Eozinofili (Loeffler’s sendromu) Olgu Sunumu. Fırat Tıp Derg. 2007. 12: 300-302.
  • Özcel MA. Ascariosis (Solucan Hastalığı). In: Özcel'in Tıbbi Parazit Hastalıkları. Ed; Özcel MA. , Meta Basım, İzmir. 2007; pp: 719-728.
  • Özkan Y, Aksakal E, Oğuz MC. İstavrit (Trachurus trachurus, L. 1758) Balığında Kaydedilen Nematod Larvalarının Balık Boy Gruplarına Göre Karşılaştırmalı Yaygınlık, Ortalama Yoğunluk ve Bolluk Parametrelerinin Belirlenmesi.BIBAD. 2010; 3 (1): 145-147.
  • Özkoç S, Bayram Delibaş S, Akısü Ç. Trichinellosis Tanısında Western Blot tekniğinin Uygulanması. Türkiye Parazitol Derg. 2005;29(1): 26-30.
  • Piarroux M, Piarroux R, Knapp J, Bardonnet K, Dumortier J, Watelet J, Gerard A, Beytout J, Abergel A, Bresson-Hadni S, Guart J, for the FrancEchino Surveillance Network. Populations at Risk for Alveolar Echinococcosis, France. Emerg Infect Dis.2013; 19(5): 721–728.
  • Pozio E, Murrell KD. Systematics and epidemiology of Trichinella. Adv Parasitol. 2006;63: 367–439.
  • Pozio E. World distribution of Trichinella spp.infections in animals and humans. Vet. Parasitol. 2007; 149: 3–21.
  • Prociv P, Spratt DM, Carlisle MS. Neuroangiostrongyliasis: Unresolved issues. Int J Parasitol.2000; 30(12–13):1295–1303.
  • Roberts LS, Janovy J. Gerald D. Schmidt and Larry S.Roberts’ Foundations of Parasitology.5th ed. Wm. C. BrownPubl. 1996.
  • Robertson LJ, Gjerde B. Isolation and enumeration of Giardia cysts, Cryptosporidium oocysts, and Ascaris eggs from fruits and vegetables. J Food Prot. 2000;63:775–778.
  • Rojekittikhun W. On the biology of Gnathostoma spinigerum. J Trop Med Parasitol. 2002;25:91-98
  • Sakanari JA, McKerrow JH. Anisakiasis. Clin Microbiol Rev.1989;2:278–284.
  • Scholz T, Garcı´a HH, Kuchta R, Wicht B. Update on the human broad tapeworm (genus Diphyllobothrium), including clinical relevance. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2009. 22: 146–160.
  • Schuster R, Petrini JL, Choi R. Anisakiasis of the colon presenting as bowel obstruction. Am Surgeon.2003;69:350–352.
  • Selver M, Aydoğdu A. Kocadere deresi (Bursa)’ndeki Kızılkanat Balıkları (Scardinus erythrophthalmus L. 1758)’nda İlkbahar ve Sonbahar Aylarında Görülen Helmintler. Türkiye Parazitol Derg. 2010; 34: 118-121.
  • Simpson TW. More on Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection. New Engl J Med. 1995; 333:882.
  • Slom TJ, Cortese MM, Gerber SI, Jones RC, Holtz TH, Lopez AS, Zambrano CH, Sufit RL, Sakolvaree Y, Chaicumpa W, Herwaldt BL, Johnson S. An outbreak of eosinophilic meningitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis in travelers returning from theCaribbean. New Engl J Med. 2002;346:668–675.
  • Soulsby EJL. Helminths, Arthropods and Protoza of Domesticated Animals. 7th Ed., Bailliere Tindal, Philadelphia. 1982.
  • Sterling CR: Food-borne nematod infection. In: Food-borne Parasites. Ed; Ortega YR . 1st Ed., Springer Science Business Media, LLC, New York, USA, 2006; pp. 135-153.
  • Taylor MA, Coop RL, Wall RL. Veterinary Parasitology. 3th Ed., Blackwell Publishing UK. 2007.
  • Tiğin Y, Burgu A, Doğanay A, Öge H, Öge S. Balık parazitleri. Türkiye Parazitol Derg. 1992;1: 103-119.
  • Tınar R. Trematoda. In: Helmintoloji.Ed; Tınar R. Nobel Basımevi. 2006.
  • Torgerson PR, Budke CM. Echinococcosis an international public health challenge. Res Vet Sci. 2003;74:191–202.
  • Tsai TH, Liu YC, Wann SR, Lin WR, Lee SJ, Lin HH, Chen YS, Yen MY, Yen CM. An outbreak of meningitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis in Kaohsiung. J Microbiol Immunol Infect.2001; 34(1):50–56.
  • Turgay N, Yolasığmaz A. Taeniosis. In: Özcel'in Tıbbi Parazit Hastalıkları. Ed; Özcel MA, Meta Basım Matbaacılık Hizmetleri. 2007;pp: 691-701.
  • Umur Ş, Köroğlu E, Tınar R, Güçlü F.Nematoda. In: Helmintoloji.Ed;Tınar R. Nobel Basımevi. 2006.
  • Ütük AE. Clonorchiosis ve Opistorchiosis. In:Veteriner Hekimliğinde Parazit Hastalıkları. Ed; Özcel MA. Meta Basım, Bornova İzmir. 2013; p: 1145-1149.
  • Watanapa P, Watanapa WB. Liver flukeassociated cholangiocarcinoma. Brit J Surg. 2002; 89: 962–970.
  • Woolf A, Gren J, Levine JA. A clinical study of leotian refugees infected with Clonorchis sinensis or Opistorchis viverrini. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1984;33: 1279-1280.
  • Wu SS, French SW, Turner JA. Eosinophilic ileitis with perforation caused by Angiostrongylus (Parastrongylus) costaricensis. A case study and review. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 1997; 121:989–991.
  • Yılmaz H, Gödekmerdan A. Human fasciolosis in Van province, Turkey. Acta Tropica. 2004;9:2 161–162.

Details

Journal Section REVIEW
Authors

Esma KOZAN> (Primary Author)

Publication Date June 1, 2016
Published in Issue Year 2016, Volume 9, Issue 2

Cite

Bibtex @review { kvj369999, journal = {Kocatepe Veterinary Journal}, issn = {1308-1594}, eissn = {2147-6853}, address = {}, publisher = {Afyon Kocatepe University}, year = {2016}, volume = {9}, number = {2}, pages = {127 - 134}, title = {Foodborne Helminths}, key = {cite}, author = {Kozan, Esma} }
APA Kozan, E. (2016). Foodborne Helminths . Kocatepe Veterinary Journal , 9 (2) , 127-134 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/kvj/issue/32993/369999
MLA Kozan, E. "Foodborne Helminths" . Kocatepe Veterinary Journal 9 (2016 ): 127-134 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/kvj/issue/32993/369999>
Chicago Kozan, E. "Foodborne Helminths". Kocatepe Veterinary Journal 9 (2016 ): 127-134
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Foodborne Helminths AU - EsmaKozan Y1 - 2016 PY - 2016 N1 - DO - T2 - Kocatepe Veterinary Journal JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 127 EP - 134 VL - 9 IS - 2 SN - 1308-1594-2147-6853 M3 - UR - Y2 - 2016 ER -
EndNote %0 Kocatepe Veterinary Journal Foodborne Helminths %A Esma Kozan %T Foodborne Helminths %D 2016 %J Kocatepe Veterinary Journal %P 1308-1594-2147-6853 %V 9 %N 2 %R %U
ISNAD Kozan, Esma . "Foodborne Helminths". Kocatepe Veterinary Journal 9 / 2 (June 2016): 127-134 .
AMA Kozan E. Foodborne Helminths. Kocatepe Veterinary Journal. 2016; 9(2): 127-134.
Vancouver Kozan E. Foodborne Helminths. Kocatepe Veterinary Journal. 2016; 9(2): 127-134.
IEEE E. Kozan , "Foodborne Helminths", Kocatepe Veterinary Journal, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 127-134, Jun. 2016

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