Research Article
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Süt İneklerinde Görülen Subklinik ve Kinik Ketozisin Bazı Hematolojik Parametreler, Mastitis, Metritis İnsidensleri ile Sürü Dışı Kalma Oranına Etkileri

Year 2018, Volume 11, Issue 2, 186 - 193, 24.05.2018
https://doi.org/10.30607/kvj.419839

Abstract

Bu çalışma 950 adet süt sığırı  içerisinden rastgele seçilen 197 adet süt sığırı üzerinde yürütülmüştür. Hayvanlar doğum yaptıkları günden itibaren takibe alınmış olup ilk 8 hafta boyunca kan sayımı ve serum BHBA analizleri haftalık olarak yapılmıştır. Elde edilen BHBA sonuçlarına göre çalışmadaki tüm hayvanlar aşağıdaki şekilde üç gruba ayrılmıştır; a) Kontrol Grubu “K”; çalışma boyunca serum BHBA seviyesi 1.2 mmol/l’nin altında seyredenler b) Subklinik Ketozis Grubu “SK”; serum BHBA seviyesi 1.2 ile 2.9 mmol/l arasında seyredenler c) Klinik Ketozis Grubu “KK”; serum BHBA seviyesi 2.9 mmol/l’nin üzerinde seyredenler. Çalışmada kullanılan tüm parametreler sürü yönetim programından (Dairy Plan, Gea, Westfalia/Almanya) alınmıştır. Çalışmada kullanılan tüm hayvanlar aynı rasyonla beslenmiş olup hiçbir hayvana özel bir koşul uygulanmamıştır. Yapılan analizler sonrasında TLS, LS ve NS’nın en yüksek olduğu grup KK, en düşük olduğu grup K olarak tespit edilmiştir. Özellikle TLS ve BHBA seviyeleri arasında güçlü bir  ilişki tespit edilmiştir (p<0,000). Bununla birlikte hem mastitis hem metritis hem de bu iki enfeksiyonun birlikte seyretme insidensi subklinik ve klinik ketozis gruplarında kontrol grubuna göre çok yüksek bulunmuştur. Bununla birlikte subklinik ve klinik ketozis geçiren hayvanlarda sürü dışı bırakma oranı kontrol grubuna göre çok daha yüksek bulunmuş aynı zamanda ketozisin şiddetinin artması ile bu oranının da doğru orantılı bir şekilde yükseldiği görülmüştür. Bu bulgular göstermektedir ki gerek klinik gerekse subklinik ketozis geçiren hayvanlarda hematolojik parametreler ciddi oranda değişmekte, mastitis ve metritis gibi periparturient dönemin önemli enfeksiyöz hastalıklarına yatkınlık artmakta ve tüm bunların bir sonucu olarak sürü dışı kalma oranı yükselmektedir. 

References

  • Andersson L. Subclinical ketosis in dairy cows. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 1988; 4:233-248.
  • Andersson L, Emanuelson U: An epidemiological study of hyperketonaemia in Swedish dairy cows; Determinants and the relation to fertility. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 1985; 3:449-462.
  • Baird DG: Primary ketosis in the high-producing dairy cow: Clinical and subclinical disorders, treatment, prevention and outlook. J Dairy Sci 1982; 65:1-10.
  • Baird G. D., Hibbit K. G., Hunter G. D., ET AL. Biochemical aspects of bovine ketosis. 1968; Biochem. J. 107:683.
  • Başoğlu A., Sevinç M. . Evcil Hayvanlarda Metabolik ve Endokrin Hastalıklar. Pozitif Matbaacılık. 2004 ISBN : 975-6652-23-3
  • Butler WR, Smith RD: Interrelationships between energy balance and postpartum reproductive function in dairy cattle. 1989; J Dairy Sci 72:767-783.
  • Chapinal, N., M. Carson, T. F. Duffield, M. Capel, S. Godden, M. Overton, J. E. P. Santos, and S. J. LeBlanc. The association of serum metabolites with clinical disease during the transition period. 2011; J. Dairy Sci. 94:4897–4903.
  • Correa MT, Erb H, Scarlett J: Path analysis for seven postpartum disorders of Holstein cows. 1993; J Dairy Sci 76:1305-1312.
  • Dohoo IR, Martin SW: Subclinical ketosis: Prevalence and associations with production and disease. 1984a; Can J Comp Med 48:1-5.
  • Dohoo IR, Martin SW: Disease, production and culling in Holstein-Friesian cows III: Disease and production as determinants of disease. 1984b; Preventive Veterinary Medicine 2:671-690.
  • Drackley J. K. Biology of Dairy Cows During the Transition Period: the Final Frontier?. 1999 ; J. Dairy Sci 82:2259-2273.
  • Duffield TF, Kelton DF, Leslie KE, et al: Use of test day milk fat and milk protein to predict subclinical ketosis in 1997b; Ontario dairy cattle. Can Vet J 38:713-718.
  • Duffield TF, Sandals D, Leslie KE, et al: Efficacy of monensin for the prevention of subclinical ketosis in lactating dairy cows. 1998; J Dairy Sci 81:2866-2873.
  • Duffield TF, Leslie KE, Sandals D, et al: Effect of prepartum administration of a monensin controlled release capsule on cow health and reproductive performance. 1999; J Dairy Sci 82:2377-2384.
  • Duffield TF. Subclinical Ketosis in Lactating Dairy Cattle. 2000; Metabolic Disorders of Ruminants. 16,2: 231-253.
  • Duffield, T. F., K. D. Lissemore, B. W. McBride, and K. E. Leslie. Impact of hyperketonemia in early lactation dairy cows on health and production. 2009; J. Dairy Sci. 92:571–580.
  • Enjalbert F., Nicot M. C., Bayourthe C. Ketone Bodies in Milk and Blood of Dairy Cows: Relationship between Concentrations and Utilization for Detection of Subclinical Ketosis. 2001; J. Dairy Sci. 84:583–589.
  • Georing H.K. and Van Soest P.J.. Forage Fiber Analysis Agric. Handbook No: 379. (Agricultural Research Service) 1970; U.S.Dep. Agric. Washington, D.C.
  • Grohn YT, Erb HN, McCulloch CE, et al: Epidemiology of metabolic disorders in dairy cattle: Association among host characteristics, disease, and production. 1989 ; J Dairy Sci 72:1876-1885.
  • Grummer R. R., Ethiology of lipid-related metabolic disorders in periparturient dairy cows. 1993; J. Dairy Sci. 76:3882–3896.
  • Hammon, D. S., I. M. Evjen, T. R. Dhiman, J. P. Goff, and J. L. Walters.. Neutrophil function and energy status in Holstein cows with uterine health disorders. 2006; Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. 113:21–29.
  • Huzzey, J. M., D. M. Veira, D. M. Weary, and M. A. G. von Keyser- lingk.. Prepartum behavior and dry matter intake identify dairy cows at risk for metritis. 2007; J. Dairy Sci. 90:3220–3233.
  • Kahn, C. M., and S. Line.. The Merck Veterinary Manual. 10th ed. Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., a subsidiary of Merck & Co. Inc., 2010; Whitehouse Station, NJ.
  • Kauppinen K: Prevalence of bovine ketosis in relation to number and stage of lactation. 1983 ; Acta Vet Scand 24:349-361.
  • Kremer WDJ, Noordhuizen-Stassen EN, Grommers FJ, et al: Severity of experimental Escherichia coli mastitis in ketonemic and nonketonemic dairy cows. 1993; J Dairy Sci 76:3428- 3436.
  • LeBlanc, S. J., K. E. Leslie, and T. F. Duffield. Metabolic predictors of displaced abomasum in dairy cattle. 2005; J. Dairy Sci. 88:159–170.
  • LeBlanc, S. Monitoring metabolic health of dairy cattle in the transition period. 2010; J. Reprod. Dev. 56:S29–S35.
  • Miettinen PVA, Setala JJ: Relationships between subclinical ketosis, milk production and fertility in Finnish dairy cattle. 1993; Preventive Veterinary Medicine 17:1-8.
  • Nielen M, Aarts MGA, Jonkers GM, et al: Evaluation of two cowside tests for the detection of subclinical ketosis in dairy cows. 1994; Can Vet J 35:229-232.
  • Oetzel, G. R. Monitoring and testing dairy herds for metabolic disease. 2004; Veterinary Clinics: Food Animal Practice, 20(3), 651-674.
  • Ospina, P. A., D. V. Nydam, T. Stokol, and T. R. Overton. Evaluation of nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate in transition dairy cattle in the northeastern United States: Critical thresholds for prediction of clinical diseases. 2010; J. Dairy Sci. 93:546–554.
  • Overton, T. R., and M. R. Waldron. "Nutritional management of transition dairy cows: strategies to optimize metabolic health." 2004; Journal of dairy science 87: E105-E119.
  • Ruegg, P. L. Investigation of mastitis problems on farms. 2003; Vet. Clin. North Am. Food Anim. Pract. 19:47–73.
  • Sandra J. B., Grummer R. R., Valino C. C., ET AL. (1992). Effect of Prepartum Dry Matter Intake on Liver Triglyceride Concentration and Early Lactation. 1922; J.Dairy Sci. 75:1914.
  • Scalia, D., N. Lacetera, U. Bernabucci, K. Demeyere, L. Duchateau, and C. Burvenich. In vitro effects of nonesterified fatty acids on bovine neutrophils oxidative burst and viability. 2006; J. Dairy Sci. 89:147–154.
  • Simensen E, Halse K, Gillund P, et al: Ketosis treatment and milk yield in dairy cows related to milk acetoacetate levels. 1990; Acta Vet Scand 31:433-440.
  • Stevenson JS, Call EP: Influence of early estrus, ovulation, and insemination on fertility in postpartum Holstein cows. 1983; Theriogenology 19:367-375.
  • Suriyasathaporn W., C. Heuer, E. N. Noordhuizen-Stassen, and Y. H. Schukken. Hyperketonemia and the impairment of udder defense: A review. 2000; Vet. Res. 31:397–412.
  • Suthar VS, Canelas-Raposo J, Deniz A, Heuwieser W; prevalence of subclinical ketosis and relationships with postpartum diseases in European dairy cows. 2013; J. Dairy Sci. 96: 2925-2938.
  • Whitaker DA, Smith EJ, da Rosa GO, et al: Some effects of nutrition and management on the fertility of dairy cattle. 1993; Vet Rec 133:61-64.
  • White F, Rattray EAS: The in vitro effect of ketone bodies on the growth curves of mastitis organisms in milk. 1968; J Comp Pathol 78:179-188.
  • Whitmore HL, Tyler WJ, Casida LE: Effects of early postpartum breeding in dairy cattle. 1974; J Anim Sci 38:339-346,
  • Williams S. AOAC, 1984; Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemist. ISBN:0-935584-24-2.

Effects of Subclinical and Clinical Ketosis on The Incidence of Mastitis, Metritis, Culling Rate and Some Hematological Parameters in Dairy Cows

Year 2018, Volume 11, Issue 2, 186 - 193, 24.05.2018
https://doi.org/10.30607/kvj.419839

Abstract

The study was conducted on 197 milk dairy cattle randomly selected from 950 breeding dairy cattle. These animals were monitored immediately after delivery and blood count and serum BHBA analyzes were performed weekly for the first 8 weeks. According to the results of the BHBA obtained, all animals in the study were divided into three groups as follows; a) Control Group “C”; serum BHBA levels below 1.2 mmol/l during the study b) Subclinical Ketosis Group “SK”; serum BHBA levels between 1.2 and 2.9 mmol/l c) Clinical Ketosis Group “CK”; serum BHBA levels were above 2.9 mmol/l. All performance parameters such as milk yield and reproductive efficacy obtained from the herd management program (Dairy Plan, Gea / Germany). TLS, LS, NS, MS levels were found to be higher in the SK and CK compared to the C. Especially, a strong positive interaction between TLS and blood BHBA level was determined (P <0,000). In addition, the incidence of mastitis, metritis and coexistence of these two infections was significantly higher in the SK and CK than in the C (p <0,013). Furthermore, the rate of culling was significantly higher in the SK and CK than C and it was also observed that this ratio increased in parallel with the severity of the ketosis (p <0.008). These findings show that hematologic parameters change significantly in animals that have undergone clinical or subclinical ketosis and that susceptibility to significant infectious diseases during the periparturient period such as mastitis and metritis increases and as a result, the rate of culling increases.

References

  • Andersson L. Subclinical ketosis in dairy cows. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 1988; 4:233-248.
  • Andersson L, Emanuelson U: An epidemiological study of hyperketonaemia in Swedish dairy cows; Determinants and the relation to fertility. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 1985; 3:449-462.
  • Baird DG: Primary ketosis in the high-producing dairy cow: Clinical and subclinical disorders, treatment, prevention and outlook. J Dairy Sci 1982; 65:1-10.
  • Baird G. D., Hibbit K. G., Hunter G. D., ET AL. Biochemical aspects of bovine ketosis. 1968; Biochem. J. 107:683.
  • Başoğlu A., Sevinç M. . Evcil Hayvanlarda Metabolik ve Endokrin Hastalıklar. Pozitif Matbaacılık. 2004 ISBN : 975-6652-23-3
  • Butler WR, Smith RD: Interrelationships between energy balance and postpartum reproductive function in dairy cattle. 1989; J Dairy Sci 72:767-783.
  • Chapinal, N., M. Carson, T. F. Duffield, M. Capel, S. Godden, M. Overton, J. E. P. Santos, and S. J. LeBlanc. The association of serum metabolites with clinical disease during the transition period. 2011; J. Dairy Sci. 94:4897–4903.
  • Correa MT, Erb H, Scarlett J: Path analysis for seven postpartum disorders of Holstein cows. 1993; J Dairy Sci 76:1305-1312.
  • Dohoo IR, Martin SW: Subclinical ketosis: Prevalence and associations with production and disease. 1984a; Can J Comp Med 48:1-5.
  • Dohoo IR, Martin SW: Disease, production and culling in Holstein-Friesian cows III: Disease and production as determinants of disease. 1984b; Preventive Veterinary Medicine 2:671-690.
  • Drackley J. K. Biology of Dairy Cows During the Transition Period: the Final Frontier?. 1999 ; J. Dairy Sci 82:2259-2273.
  • Duffield TF, Kelton DF, Leslie KE, et al: Use of test day milk fat and milk protein to predict subclinical ketosis in 1997b; Ontario dairy cattle. Can Vet J 38:713-718.
  • Duffield TF, Sandals D, Leslie KE, et al: Efficacy of monensin for the prevention of subclinical ketosis in lactating dairy cows. 1998; J Dairy Sci 81:2866-2873.
  • Duffield TF, Leslie KE, Sandals D, et al: Effect of prepartum administration of a monensin controlled release capsule on cow health and reproductive performance. 1999; J Dairy Sci 82:2377-2384.
  • Duffield TF. Subclinical Ketosis in Lactating Dairy Cattle. 2000; Metabolic Disorders of Ruminants. 16,2: 231-253.
  • Duffield, T. F., K. D. Lissemore, B. W. McBride, and K. E. Leslie. Impact of hyperketonemia in early lactation dairy cows on health and production. 2009; J. Dairy Sci. 92:571–580.
  • Enjalbert F., Nicot M. C., Bayourthe C. Ketone Bodies in Milk and Blood of Dairy Cows: Relationship between Concentrations and Utilization for Detection of Subclinical Ketosis. 2001; J. Dairy Sci. 84:583–589.
  • Georing H.K. and Van Soest P.J.. Forage Fiber Analysis Agric. Handbook No: 379. (Agricultural Research Service) 1970; U.S.Dep. Agric. Washington, D.C.
  • Grohn YT, Erb HN, McCulloch CE, et al: Epidemiology of metabolic disorders in dairy cattle: Association among host characteristics, disease, and production. 1989 ; J Dairy Sci 72:1876-1885.
  • Grummer R. R., Ethiology of lipid-related metabolic disorders in periparturient dairy cows. 1993; J. Dairy Sci. 76:3882–3896.
  • Hammon, D. S., I. M. Evjen, T. R. Dhiman, J. P. Goff, and J. L. Walters.. Neutrophil function and energy status in Holstein cows with uterine health disorders. 2006; Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. 113:21–29.
  • Huzzey, J. M., D. M. Veira, D. M. Weary, and M. A. G. von Keyser- lingk.. Prepartum behavior and dry matter intake identify dairy cows at risk for metritis. 2007; J. Dairy Sci. 90:3220–3233.
  • Kahn, C. M., and S. Line.. The Merck Veterinary Manual. 10th ed. Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., a subsidiary of Merck & Co. Inc., 2010; Whitehouse Station, NJ.
  • Kauppinen K: Prevalence of bovine ketosis in relation to number and stage of lactation. 1983 ; Acta Vet Scand 24:349-361.
  • Kremer WDJ, Noordhuizen-Stassen EN, Grommers FJ, et al: Severity of experimental Escherichia coli mastitis in ketonemic and nonketonemic dairy cows. 1993; J Dairy Sci 76:3428- 3436.
  • LeBlanc, S. J., K. E. Leslie, and T. F. Duffield. Metabolic predictors of displaced abomasum in dairy cattle. 2005; J. Dairy Sci. 88:159–170.
  • LeBlanc, S. Monitoring metabolic health of dairy cattle in the transition period. 2010; J. Reprod. Dev. 56:S29–S35.
  • Miettinen PVA, Setala JJ: Relationships between subclinical ketosis, milk production and fertility in Finnish dairy cattle. 1993; Preventive Veterinary Medicine 17:1-8.
  • Nielen M, Aarts MGA, Jonkers GM, et al: Evaluation of two cowside tests for the detection of subclinical ketosis in dairy cows. 1994; Can Vet J 35:229-232.
  • Oetzel, G. R. Monitoring and testing dairy herds for metabolic disease. 2004; Veterinary Clinics: Food Animal Practice, 20(3), 651-674.
  • Ospina, P. A., D. V. Nydam, T. Stokol, and T. R. Overton. Evaluation of nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate in transition dairy cattle in the northeastern United States: Critical thresholds for prediction of clinical diseases. 2010; J. Dairy Sci. 93:546–554.
  • Overton, T. R., and M. R. Waldron. "Nutritional management of transition dairy cows: strategies to optimize metabolic health." 2004; Journal of dairy science 87: E105-E119.
  • Ruegg, P. L. Investigation of mastitis problems on farms. 2003; Vet. Clin. North Am. Food Anim. Pract. 19:47–73.
  • Sandra J. B., Grummer R. R., Valino C. C., ET AL. (1992). Effect of Prepartum Dry Matter Intake on Liver Triglyceride Concentration and Early Lactation. 1922; J.Dairy Sci. 75:1914.
  • Scalia, D., N. Lacetera, U. Bernabucci, K. Demeyere, L. Duchateau, and C. Burvenich. In vitro effects of nonesterified fatty acids on bovine neutrophils oxidative burst and viability. 2006; J. Dairy Sci. 89:147–154.
  • Simensen E, Halse K, Gillund P, et al: Ketosis treatment and milk yield in dairy cows related to milk acetoacetate levels. 1990; Acta Vet Scand 31:433-440.
  • Stevenson JS, Call EP: Influence of early estrus, ovulation, and insemination on fertility in postpartum Holstein cows. 1983; Theriogenology 19:367-375.
  • Suriyasathaporn W., C. Heuer, E. N. Noordhuizen-Stassen, and Y. H. Schukken. Hyperketonemia and the impairment of udder defense: A review. 2000; Vet. Res. 31:397–412.
  • Suthar VS, Canelas-Raposo J, Deniz A, Heuwieser W; prevalence of subclinical ketosis and relationships with postpartum diseases in European dairy cows. 2013; J. Dairy Sci. 96: 2925-2938.
  • Whitaker DA, Smith EJ, da Rosa GO, et al: Some effects of nutrition and management on the fertility of dairy cattle. 1993; Vet Rec 133:61-64.
  • White F, Rattray EAS: The in vitro effect of ketone bodies on the growth curves of mastitis organisms in milk. 1968; J Comp Pathol 78:179-188.
  • Whitmore HL, Tyler WJ, Casida LE: Effects of early postpartum breeding in dairy cattle. 1974; J Anim Sci 38:339-346,
  • Williams S. AOAC, 1984; Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemist. ISBN:0-935584-24-2.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Veterinary
Journal Section RESEARCH ARTICLE
Authors

Cangir UYARLAR> (Primary Author)
AFYON KOCATEPE ÜNİVERSİTESİ
Türkiye


Sadi ÇETİNGÜL>

0000-0002-7608-6176


Eyüp Eren GÜLTEPE>

0000-0002-2404-1232


Abdur Rahman SİAL>

0000-0002-3440-8106


İsmail BAYRAM This is me

Publication Date May 24, 2018
Published in Issue Year 2018, Volume 11, Issue 2

Cite

Bibtex @research article { kvj419839, journal = {Kocatepe Veterinary Journal}, issn = {1308-1594}, eissn = {2147-6853}, address = {}, publisher = {Afyon Kocatepe University}, year = {2018}, volume = {11}, number = {2}, pages = {186 - 193}, doi = {10.30607/kvj.419839}, title = {Effects of Subclinical and Clinical Ketosis on The Incidence of Mastitis, Metritis, Culling Rate and Some Hematological Parameters in Dairy Cows}, key = {cite}, author = {Uyarlar, Cangir and Çetingül, Sadi and Gültepe, Eyüp Eren and Sial, Abdur Rahman and Bayram, İsmail} }
APA Uyarlar, C. , Çetingül, S. , Gültepe, E. E. , Sial, A. R. & Bayram, İ. (2018). Effects of Subclinical and Clinical Ketosis on The Incidence of Mastitis, Metritis, Culling Rate and Some Hematological Parameters in Dairy Cows . Kocatepe Veterinary Journal , 11 (2) , 186-193 . DOI: 10.30607/kvj.419839
MLA Uyarlar, C. , Çetingül, S. , Gültepe, E. E. , Sial, A. R. , Bayram, İ. "Effects of Subclinical and Clinical Ketosis on The Incidence of Mastitis, Metritis, Culling Rate and Some Hematological Parameters in Dairy Cows" . Kocatepe Veterinary Journal 11 (2018 ): 186-193 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/kvj/issue/35377/419839>
Chicago Uyarlar, C. , Çetingül, S. , Gültepe, E. E. , Sial, A. R. , Bayram, İ. "Effects of Subclinical and Clinical Ketosis on The Incidence of Mastitis, Metritis, Culling Rate and Some Hematological Parameters in Dairy Cows". Kocatepe Veterinary Journal 11 (2018 ): 186-193
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Effects of Subclinical and Clinical Ketosis on The Incidence of Mastitis, Metritis, Culling Rate and Some Hematological Parameters in Dairy Cows AU - CangirUyarlar, SadiÇetingül, Eyüp ErenGültepe, Abdur RahmanSial, İsmailBayram Y1 - 2018 PY - 2018 N1 - doi: 10.30607/kvj.419839 DO - 10.30607/kvj.419839 T2 - Kocatepe Veterinary Journal JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 186 EP - 193 VL - 11 IS - 2 SN - 1308-1594-2147-6853 M3 - doi: 10.30607/kvj.419839 UR - https://doi.org/10.30607/kvj.419839 Y2 - 2018 ER -
EndNote %0 Kocatepe Veterinary Journal Effects of Subclinical and Clinical Ketosis on The Incidence of Mastitis, Metritis, Culling Rate and Some Hematological Parameters in Dairy Cows %A Cangir Uyarlar , Sadi Çetingül , Eyüp Eren Gültepe , Abdur Rahman Sial , İsmail Bayram %T Effects of Subclinical and Clinical Ketosis on The Incidence of Mastitis, Metritis, Culling Rate and Some Hematological Parameters in Dairy Cows %D 2018 %J Kocatepe Veterinary Journal %P 1308-1594-2147-6853 %V 11 %N 2 %R doi: 10.30607/kvj.419839 %U 10.30607/kvj.419839
ISNAD Uyarlar, Cangir , Çetingül, Sadi , Gültepe, Eyüp Eren , Sial, Abdur Rahman , Bayram, İsmail . "Effects of Subclinical and Clinical Ketosis on The Incidence of Mastitis, Metritis, Culling Rate and Some Hematological Parameters in Dairy Cows". Kocatepe Veterinary Journal 11 / 2 (May 2018): 186-193 . https://doi.org/10.30607/kvj.419839
AMA Uyarlar C. , Çetingül S. , Gültepe E. E. , Sial A. R. , Bayram İ. Effects of Subclinical and Clinical Ketosis on The Incidence of Mastitis, Metritis, Culling Rate and Some Hematological Parameters in Dairy Cows. Kocatepe Veterinary Journal. 2018; 11(2): 186-193.
Vancouver Uyarlar C. , Çetingül S. , Gültepe E. E. , Sial A. R. , Bayram İ. Effects of Subclinical and Clinical Ketosis on The Incidence of Mastitis, Metritis, Culling Rate and Some Hematological Parameters in Dairy Cows. Kocatepe Veterinary Journal. 2018; 11(2): 186-193.
IEEE C. Uyarlar , S. Çetingül , E. E. Gültepe , A. R. Sial and İ. Bayram , "Effects of Subclinical and Clinical Ketosis on The Incidence of Mastitis, Metritis, Culling Rate and Some Hematological Parameters in Dairy Cows", Kocatepe Veterinary Journal, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 186-193, May. 2018, doi:10.30607/kvj.419839

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