Research Article
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Code Mixing in Turkish–Bulgarian Bilingual individuals

Year 2023, Issue: 71, 33 - 43, 28.12.2023

Abstract

When communities speaking different languages or varieties interact, certain linguistic outcomes occur, and the term referring to these outcomes and the underlying processes is ”language contact.” There are various linguistic phenomena that arise in the contexts of bilingual interaction. Code changing is one of the linguistic phenomena that emerges in these contexts. There are two types of it, namely code switching and code mixing. Code mixing, which is the topic of our study, is the code changing that occurs within utterance or sentence boundaries (often within clauses and phrases) and is performed for specific communicative purposes. The aim of this study is to determine for which communicative functions, in other words, for what purpose and how frequently, the code-mixing cases that are observed in the everyday conversations of Northeastern Bulgarian Turks who are Turkish–Bulgarian bilinguals are done and, consequently, to identify the primary function for which this group resorts to code mixing. The database of the study consists of transcriptions compiled from nine daily conversation recordings with a total duration of 5 hours and 11 minutes. The findings obtained from the analysis of the database show that bilingual Northeastern Bulgarian Turks use code mixing for seven different communicative functions and that there are differences in the distribution of the functions of code mixing. it has been observed that "ease of expression in the other language" is by far the most frequently used function followed by the "emphasis/approval" function in the second place.

References

  • Abdeldjebar, B., & Smaine, K. (2021). Dialectal Arabic and English code-switching: The case of the Department of Foreign Languages at Tahri Mohamed University, Béchar. Dirassat Journal, 10(2), 319–333.
  • Abu-Melhim, A.R. (2012). The phenomenon of Arabic-English code-switching on television programs. European Journal of Social Sciences, 35(4), 452–457.
  • Al Heetia, N. H., & Al Abdely, A. A. (2016). Types and functions of code-switching in the English language used by iraqi doctors in formal setting. International Journal of Advanced Research and Review, 1(8), 10–18.
  • Alenezi, A. A. (2010). Students' languages attitude towards using code-switching as a medium of instruction in the college of health sciences: An exploratory study. Annual Review of Education, Communication and Language Sciences, 7, 1–22.
  • Azlan, N. M. N. i., & Narasuman, S. (2013). The role of code-switching as a communicative tool in an ESL teacher education classroom. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 90, 458–467. [CrossRef]
  • Babalola, E. T., & Taiwo, R. (2009). Code-switching in contemporary Nigerian hip-hop music. Itupale Online Journal of African Studies, 1, 1–26.
  • Brezjanovic-Shogren, J. (2011). Analysis of code-switching and code-mixing among bilingual children: Two case studies of Serbian-English language interaction [Doktora tezi, Wichita State University]. https://soar.wichita.edu/handle/10057/5051
  • Brice, A., & Anderson, R. (1999). Code mixing in a young bilingual child. Communication Disorders Quarterly, 21(1), 17–22. [CrossRef]
  • Çetinoğlu, Ö., & Çöltekin, Ç. (2016). Part of speech annotation of a Turkish-German code-switching corpus. in Proceedings of the LAW X – The 10th Linguistic Annotation Workshop (pp. 120–130). Almanya. [CrossRef]
  • Constantin, M. (2014). The ethno-cultural belongingness of Kalderash, Rudars, Tatars, and Turks in Romania and Bulgaria (1990–2012). Sociologie Românească, 12(4), 5–27.
  • Crystal, D. (1987). The encyclopedia of language. Cambridge University Press.
  • David, M. K. (2003). Role and functions of code-switching in Malaysian courtrooms. Multilingua – Journal of Cross-Cultural and Interlanguage Communication, 22(1), 5–20. [CrossRef]
  • Dey, A., & Fung, P. (2014). A Hindi-English code-switching corpus. in Proceedings of the ninth international conference on language resources and evaluation (LREC'14) (pp. 26–31). Mayıs, İzlanda.
  • Duran, L. (1994). Toward a better understanding of code switching and interlanguage in bilinguality: implications for bilingual instruction. Journal of Educational Issues of Language Minority Students, 14, 69–88.
  • Ekinci, M. U. (2018). Bulgaristan siyasetini anlama kılavuzu. Seta.
  • Eldin, A. A. T. S. (2014). Socio linguistic study of code switching of the Arabic language speakers on social networking. International Journal of English Linguistics, 4(6), 78–86. [CrossRef]
  • Escamilla, K. (2007). The role of code-switching in the written expression of early-elementary simultaneous bilinguals [Bildiri sunumu]. Amerika Eğitim Araştırmaları Birliği’nin Yıllık Konferansı, Şikago, ABD.
  • Gebhardt, J. (2011). Speech recognition on English-Mandarin code-switching data using factored language models [Yayımlanmamış yüksek lisans tezi]. Hong Kong Bilim ve Teknoloji Üniversitesi.
  • Grant, A. P. (2019). Contact-induced linguistic change: An introduction. in A. P. Grant (Ed.). The Oxford handbook of language contact (ss. 1–47). Oxford University Press.
  • Grosjean, F. (1982). Life with two languages: An introduction to bilingualism. Harvard University Press.
  • Gulzar, M. A. (2010). Code-switching: Awareness about its utility in bilingual classrooms. Bulletin of Education and Research, 32(2), 23–44.
  • Gumperz, J. J. (Ed.). (1982). Language and social identity. Cambridge University Press.
  • Hoffman, C. (1991). An introduction to bilingualism. Longman.
  • Holmes, J. (2008). An introduction to sociolinguistics (3. basım). Longman.
  • Holmes, J. (2013). An introduction to sociolinguistics (4. basım). Routledge.
  • Hughes, C. E., Shaunessy, E. S., Brice, A. R., Ratliff, M. A., & McHatton, P. A. (2006). Code switching among bilingual and limited English proficient students: Possible indicators of giftedness. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 30(1), 7–28. [CrossRef]
  • Kim, E. (2006). Reasons and motivations for code-mixing and code-switching. Issues in EFL, 4, 43–61.
  • Lazarova, A., & Rainov, V. (2011). On the minority languages in Bulgaria. in G. Stickel (Ed.), National, regional and minority languages in Europe (ss. 97–106). Contributions to the Annual Conference 2009 of EFNiL in Dublin.
  • Lin, A. M. Y. (1996). Bilingualism or linguistic segregation? Symbolic domination, resistance and code-switching in Honk Kong schools. Linguistics and Education, 8(1), 49–84. [CrossRef]
  • Meyerhoff, M. (2006). Introducing sociolinguistics. Routledge.
  • Mukti, T. W. P., & Muljani, R. (2016). Code switching in the instructions of English language education study program lecturers. LLT Journal: A Journal on Language and Language Teaching, 19(1), 46–60. [CrossRef]
  • Musk, N. (2010). Code-switching and code-mixing in Welsh bilinguals' talk: Confirming or refuting the maintenance of language boundaries? Language, Culture and Curriculum, 23(3), 179–197. [CrossRef]
  • Ningsih, E. P., Rufinus, A., & Bunau, E. (2019). Code switching and code mixing in English teaching-learning process. Equatorial Education and Learning Journal, 8(3), 1–10. [CrossRef]
  • Özlem, K. (2019). Türkiye-Bulgaristan ilişkileri ve Türk azınlık. Dora.
  • Paradis, J., Nicoladis, E., & Genesee, F. (2000). Early emergence of structural constraints on code-mixing: Evidence from French–English bilingual children. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 3(3), 245–261. [CrossRef]
  • Pfaff, C. W. (1979). Constraints on language mixing: intrasentential code-switching and borrowing in Spanish/English. Language, 55(2), 291–318. [CrossRef] Shin, S. Y. (2010). The functions of codeswitching in a Korean Sunday school. Heritage Language Journal, 7(1), 91–116. [CrossRef].
  • Speed, T. (2017). The Turkish language in Northeastern Bulgaria: An intersection of the cosmopolitan and the provincial. Любословие, 17, 100–117. Sridhar, S. N., & Sridhar, K. K. (1980). The syntax and psycholinguistics of bilingual code-mixing. Studies in the Linguistic Sciences, 10(1), 203–215.
  • Wardhaugh, R. (2006). An introduction to sociolinguistics (5. basım). Blackwell Publishing.
  • Yalımov, İ. (2015). Bulgaristan’da azınlık hak ve özgürlükleri sorunu. Müslümanlar Diyaneti Başmüftülüğü.
  • Yalımov, İ. (2016). Bulgaristan Türk topluluğunun etnokültürel ve dinsel kimliği. Müslümanlar Diyaneti Başmüftülüğü.
  • Yaman, İ., & Ekmekçi, E. (2018). İngiliz dili eğitimi alanında yaygın bir şekilde kullanılan bazı terimlerin Türkçe'ye aktarımı sorunu. Diyalektolog Sosyal Araştırmalar Hakemli Dergisi, 18, 143–167. [CrossRef]

Türkçe-Bulgarca Bireylerin Düzenek Karıştırımı

Year 2023, Issue: 71, 33 - 43, 28.12.2023

Abstract

Farklı dilleri ya da değişkeleri konuşan topluluklar etkileşime geçtiğinde birtakım dilsel sonuçlar meydana gelmektedir ve bu sonuçlar ile onların altlarında yatan süreçlere gönderimde bulunan terim “dillerarası etkileşim”dir. İkidilli etkileşim bağlamlarında ortaya çıkan birçok dil olgusu bulunmaktadır. Düzenek değiştirimi söz konusu dil olgularından biridir. Düzenek kaydırımı ve düzenek karıştırımı olmak üzere iki türü bulunmaktadır. Çalışmamızın konusu olan düzenek karıştırımı sözce ya da tümce sınırları içinde (genellikle de tümcecik ve öbek kapsamında) meydana gelen bir düzenek değiştirimidir ve belli iletişim hedefleri doğrultusunda yapılmaktadır. Bu çalışmanın amacı, Türkçe-Bulgarca ikidilli Kuzeydoğu Bulgaristan Türklerinin gündelik konuşmalarında gözlenen düzenek karıştırımlarının hangi iletişimsel işlevler doğrultusunda, diğer bir ifadeyle ne amaçla, ve ne sıklıkta yapıldığının belirlenmesi ve böylelikle söz konusu grubun en çok hangi işlev doğrultusunda düzenek karıştırımı yoluna gittiğinin ortaya konmasıdır. Çalışmanın veri tabanı toplamda 5 saat 11 dakika uzunluğundaki dokuz adet günlük konuşma kaydından derlenen çevriyazılardan oluşmaktadır. Veri tabanının çözümlenmesi sonucunda elde edilen bulgular ikidilli Kuzeydoğu Bulgaristan Türklerinin yedi farklı iletişimsel işlev doğrultusunda düzenek karıştırımına başvurduklarını ve karıştırımların işlevlere göre dağılımları arasında farklılıklar olduğunu göster- mektedir. “Diğer dilde ifade etme kolaylığı” işlevinin diğer tüm işlevlere göre açık ara farkla en sık başvurulan işlev olduğu, ikinci sırada ise “vurgulama / onay” işlevinin yer aldığı gözlemlenmiştir.

References

  • Abdeldjebar, B., & Smaine, K. (2021). Dialectal Arabic and English code-switching: The case of the Department of Foreign Languages at Tahri Mohamed University, Béchar. Dirassat Journal, 10(2), 319–333.
  • Abu-Melhim, A.R. (2012). The phenomenon of Arabic-English code-switching on television programs. European Journal of Social Sciences, 35(4), 452–457.
  • Al Heetia, N. H., & Al Abdely, A. A. (2016). Types and functions of code-switching in the English language used by iraqi doctors in formal setting. International Journal of Advanced Research and Review, 1(8), 10–18.
  • Alenezi, A. A. (2010). Students' languages attitude towards using code-switching as a medium of instruction in the college of health sciences: An exploratory study. Annual Review of Education, Communication and Language Sciences, 7, 1–22.
  • Azlan, N. M. N. i., & Narasuman, S. (2013). The role of code-switching as a communicative tool in an ESL teacher education classroom. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 90, 458–467. [CrossRef]
  • Babalola, E. T., & Taiwo, R. (2009). Code-switching in contemporary Nigerian hip-hop music. Itupale Online Journal of African Studies, 1, 1–26.
  • Brezjanovic-Shogren, J. (2011). Analysis of code-switching and code-mixing among bilingual children: Two case studies of Serbian-English language interaction [Doktora tezi, Wichita State University]. https://soar.wichita.edu/handle/10057/5051
  • Brice, A., & Anderson, R. (1999). Code mixing in a young bilingual child. Communication Disorders Quarterly, 21(1), 17–22. [CrossRef]
  • Çetinoğlu, Ö., & Çöltekin, Ç. (2016). Part of speech annotation of a Turkish-German code-switching corpus. in Proceedings of the LAW X – The 10th Linguistic Annotation Workshop (pp. 120–130). Almanya. [CrossRef]
  • Constantin, M. (2014). The ethno-cultural belongingness of Kalderash, Rudars, Tatars, and Turks in Romania and Bulgaria (1990–2012). Sociologie Românească, 12(4), 5–27.
  • Crystal, D. (1987). The encyclopedia of language. Cambridge University Press.
  • David, M. K. (2003). Role and functions of code-switching in Malaysian courtrooms. Multilingua – Journal of Cross-Cultural and Interlanguage Communication, 22(1), 5–20. [CrossRef]
  • Dey, A., & Fung, P. (2014). A Hindi-English code-switching corpus. in Proceedings of the ninth international conference on language resources and evaluation (LREC'14) (pp. 26–31). Mayıs, İzlanda.
  • Duran, L. (1994). Toward a better understanding of code switching and interlanguage in bilinguality: implications for bilingual instruction. Journal of Educational Issues of Language Minority Students, 14, 69–88.
  • Ekinci, M. U. (2018). Bulgaristan siyasetini anlama kılavuzu. Seta.
  • Eldin, A. A. T. S. (2014). Socio linguistic study of code switching of the Arabic language speakers on social networking. International Journal of English Linguistics, 4(6), 78–86. [CrossRef]
  • Escamilla, K. (2007). The role of code-switching in the written expression of early-elementary simultaneous bilinguals [Bildiri sunumu]. Amerika Eğitim Araştırmaları Birliği’nin Yıllık Konferansı, Şikago, ABD.
  • Gebhardt, J. (2011). Speech recognition on English-Mandarin code-switching data using factored language models [Yayımlanmamış yüksek lisans tezi]. Hong Kong Bilim ve Teknoloji Üniversitesi.
  • Grant, A. P. (2019). Contact-induced linguistic change: An introduction. in A. P. Grant (Ed.). The Oxford handbook of language contact (ss. 1–47). Oxford University Press.
  • Grosjean, F. (1982). Life with two languages: An introduction to bilingualism. Harvard University Press.
  • Gulzar, M. A. (2010). Code-switching: Awareness about its utility in bilingual classrooms. Bulletin of Education and Research, 32(2), 23–44.
  • Gumperz, J. J. (Ed.). (1982). Language and social identity. Cambridge University Press.
  • Hoffman, C. (1991). An introduction to bilingualism. Longman.
  • Holmes, J. (2008). An introduction to sociolinguistics (3. basım). Longman.
  • Holmes, J. (2013). An introduction to sociolinguistics (4. basım). Routledge.
  • Hughes, C. E., Shaunessy, E. S., Brice, A. R., Ratliff, M. A., & McHatton, P. A. (2006). Code switching among bilingual and limited English proficient students: Possible indicators of giftedness. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 30(1), 7–28. [CrossRef]
  • Kim, E. (2006). Reasons and motivations for code-mixing and code-switching. Issues in EFL, 4, 43–61.
  • Lazarova, A., & Rainov, V. (2011). On the minority languages in Bulgaria. in G. Stickel (Ed.), National, regional and minority languages in Europe (ss. 97–106). Contributions to the Annual Conference 2009 of EFNiL in Dublin.
  • Lin, A. M. Y. (1996). Bilingualism or linguistic segregation? Symbolic domination, resistance and code-switching in Honk Kong schools. Linguistics and Education, 8(1), 49–84. [CrossRef]
  • Meyerhoff, M. (2006). Introducing sociolinguistics. Routledge.
  • Mukti, T. W. P., & Muljani, R. (2016). Code switching in the instructions of English language education study program lecturers. LLT Journal: A Journal on Language and Language Teaching, 19(1), 46–60. [CrossRef]
  • Musk, N. (2010). Code-switching and code-mixing in Welsh bilinguals' talk: Confirming or refuting the maintenance of language boundaries? Language, Culture and Curriculum, 23(3), 179–197. [CrossRef]
  • Ningsih, E. P., Rufinus, A., & Bunau, E. (2019). Code switching and code mixing in English teaching-learning process. Equatorial Education and Learning Journal, 8(3), 1–10. [CrossRef]
  • Özlem, K. (2019). Türkiye-Bulgaristan ilişkileri ve Türk azınlık. Dora.
  • Paradis, J., Nicoladis, E., & Genesee, F. (2000). Early emergence of structural constraints on code-mixing: Evidence from French–English bilingual children. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 3(3), 245–261. [CrossRef]
  • Pfaff, C. W. (1979). Constraints on language mixing: intrasentential code-switching and borrowing in Spanish/English. Language, 55(2), 291–318. [CrossRef] Shin, S. Y. (2010). The functions of codeswitching in a Korean Sunday school. Heritage Language Journal, 7(1), 91–116. [CrossRef].
  • Speed, T. (2017). The Turkish language in Northeastern Bulgaria: An intersection of the cosmopolitan and the provincial. Любословие, 17, 100–117. Sridhar, S. N., & Sridhar, K. K. (1980). The syntax and psycholinguistics of bilingual code-mixing. Studies in the Linguistic Sciences, 10(1), 203–215.
  • Wardhaugh, R. (2006). An introduction to sociolinguistics (5. basım). Blackwell Publishing.
  • Yalımov, İ. (2015). Bulgaristan’da azınlık hak ve özgürlükleri sorunu. Müslümanlar Diyaneti Başmüftülüğü.
  • Yalımov, İ. (2016). Bulgaristan Türk topluluğunun etnokültürel ve dinsel kimliği. Müslümanlar Diyaneti Başmüftülüğü.
  • Yaman, İ., & Ekmekçi, E. (2018). İngiliz dili eğitimi alanında yaygın bir şekilde kullanılan bazı terimlerin Türkçe'ye aktarımı sorunu. Diyalektolog Sosyal Araştırmalar Hakemli Dergisi, 18, 143–167. [CrossRef]

Details

Primary Language Turkish
Subjects Linguistics (Other)
Journal Section Research Articles
Authors

İsmail Orkun ATASOY 0000-0003-1263-2681

Gülsüm Songül ERCAN 0000-0002-5392-7008

Publication Date December 28, 2023
Published in Issue Year 2023 Issue: 71

Cite

APA ATASOY, İ. O., & ERCAN, G. S. (2023). Türkçe-Bulgarca Bireylerin Düzenek Karıştırımı. Edebiyat Ve Beşeri Bilimler Dergisi(71), 33-43.

Content of this journal is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial 4.0 International License

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