Research Article
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The Prevent Duty Act Through a Teenage Girl in I Am Thunder

Year 2023, Issue: 71, 101 - 108, 28.12.2023

Abstract

On July 7 and 21, 2005, the London transport system was attacked by four bombers. The 7/7 attack was the largest terrorist attack in the United Kingdom, resulting in 775 casualties and 52 deaths (four bombers not included). The 7/7 London bombings altered the policy of the United Kingdom’s counterterrorism policies radically because it was realized that within the country, those bombers were raised and radicalized. With the implementation of the Prevent Duty Act in 2015, the formal institutions of the government in the United Kingdom particularly educational establishments were asked to get involved to defeat organized terrorist attacks and to prevent young people from being radicalized and brainwashed. it has been shown that the Prevent act has had adverse effects on Muslim students by creating a “new suspect community.” Muhammad Khan’s novel titled I Am Thunder deals with how young Muslim British students are affected by these new precautions. Muslim students are considered to be potential terrorists and ready to be radicalized. The protagonist of I Am Thunder is a 15-year-old high-school student who is creative and smart but is constantly oppressed by her parents. islamophobia is a recurring theme in the novel since Muzna’s peers constantly criticize and mock her due to her darker skin and religion. Particularly after various terrorist attacks, Muslims are targeted and blamed of taking part in attacks, even though they are not associated with those attacks. The author aims to show the hypocrisy of people who takes advantage of people’s religious beliefs. At the end of the novel, Muzna succeeds in stopping a terrorist attack aiming to kill innocent people. She, in the end, accepts her British identity and learns how to practice islam regardless of other people’s thoughts.

References

  • 7 July London bombings: What happened that day? (2015). BBC NEWS. https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-33253598
  • Abbas, M.-S. (2019). ‘i grew a beard and my dad flipped out!’ Co-option of British Muslim parents in countering ‘extremism’ within their families in Bradford and Leeds. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 45(9), 1458–1476. [CrossRef]
  • Abbas, T., Awan, i., & Marsden, J. (2021). Pushed to the edge: the consequences of the ‘Prevent Duty’ in de-radicalising pre-crime thought among British Muslim university students. Race, Ethnicity and Education, 26(6), 719–734. [CrossRef]
  • Alsultany, E. (2013). Arabs and Muslims in the media after 9/11: Representational strategies for a “postrace” era. in American Quarterly (Vol. 65, issue 1, pp. 161–169). Johns Hopkins University Press, 65(1), 161–169. [CrossRef]
  • Barrett, D. (2017). The UK’s anti-radicalisation Prevent dutycase notes and commentary. Nottingham Law Journal, 26, 110–114. https://heinonline.org/ HOL/P?h=hein.journals/notnghmlj26&i=116
  • Bates, C. (2011). The hidden story of partition and its legacies. BBC NEWS. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/modern/partition1947_01.shtml Brewin, C. R., Scragg, P., Robertson, M., Thompson, M., d’Ardenne, P., Ehlers, A., & Psychosocial Steering Group, London Bombings Trauma Response
  • Programme (2008). Promoting mental health following the London bombings: A screen and treat approach. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 21(1), 3–8. [CrossRef]
  • Cherney, A., & Murphy, K. (2016). Being a ‘suspect community’ in a post 9/11 world – The impact of the war on terror on Muslim communities in Australia. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology, 49(4), 480–496. [CrossRef]
  • Christmann, K. (2012). Preventing religious radicalisation and violent extremism: A systematic review of the research evidence. Youth Justice Board. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/15426432.2017.1311244?needAccess=true
  • Compton, D. M. (2021). Effects of perceived racism, cultural intelligence, and personality: Student characteristics and views at an Evangelical Christian university. Psychology, 12(10), 1642–1677. [CrossRef]
  • Department for Education (2015). The Prevent Duty: Departmental advice for schools and childcare providers. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/439598/prevent-duty-departmental-advice-v6.pdf
  • Hart, N. A. (2021). Reimagining Prevent Duty in schools: How teachers can support students in their liberation from racialised narratives of radicalisa- tion. Equality, Diversity and Inclusion. 40(2), 180–198. [CrossRef]
  • Heath-Kelly, C. (2013). Counter-terrorism and the counterfactual: Producing the ‘radicalisation’ discourse and the UK Prevent strategy. British Journal of Politics and International Relations, 15(3), 394–415. [CrossRef]
  • Hillyard, P. (1993). Suspect community: People’s experience of the prevention of terrorism acts in Britain. pluto Press. https://books.google.com.tr/bo oks?id=dtQSAQAAMAAJ
  • Home Office (2018). The United Kingdom’s strategy for countering terrorism, June 2018. Stationery Office. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/716907/140618_CCS207_CCS0218929798-1_CONTEST_3.0_WEB.pdf
  • Hosseini, S. A. H. (2013). “Political identity” of Muslim youth in Western diaspora: Towards an integrative research agenda. Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, 33(4), 464–476. [CrossRef]
  • Jerome, L., Elwick, A., & Kazim, R. (2019). The impact of the Prevent Duty on schools: A review of the evidence. in British Educational Research Journal (Vol. 45, issue 4, pp. 821–837). Wiley . [CrossRef]
  • Kaholokula, J. K., Antonio, M. C., ing, C. K. T., Hermosura, A., Hall, K. E., Knight, R., & Wills, T. A. (2017). The effects of perceived racism on psychological distress mediated by venting and disengagement coping in Native Hawaiians. BMC Psychology, 5(1), 2. [CrossRef]
  • Khan, M. (2018). I Am Thunder. Pan Macmillan.
  • Lundie, D. C. (2019). Building a terrorist house on sand: A critical incident analysis of interprofessionality and the Prevent Duty in schools in England. Journal of Beliefs and Values, 40(3), 321–337. [CrossRef]
  • Mcdonald, L. Z. (2011). Securing identities, resisting terror: Muslim youth work in the UK and its implications for security. Religion, State and Society, 39(2–3), 177–189. [CrossRef]
  • Menon, J. (2012). The performance of nationalism : India, Pakistan, and the memory of partition. Cambridge University Press.
  • Mollan, C. (2022). Partition: What my grandparents’ trauma taught me. BBC NEWS. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-india-62571883
  • Morey, P. (2018). Islamophobia and the novel. Columbia University Press. http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.7312/more17774
  • Morrison, J. (2017). Jihadi fiction: Radicalisation narratives in the contemporary novel. Textual Practice, 31(3), 567–584. [CrossRef]
  • Mpofu, J. J., Cooper, A. C., Ashley, C., Geda, S., Harding, R. L., Johns, M. M., Spinks-Franklin, A., Njai, R., Moyse, D., & Underwood, J. M. (2022). Perceived Racism and demographic, mental health, and behavioral characteristics among high school students during the COViD-19 pandemic—Adolescent behaviors and experiences survey, United States, January–June 2021. MMWR Supplements, 71(3), 22–27.[CrossRef]
  • Odabaşı, M. (2022). Muslims as the suspect community in Home Fire. in T. Baykara & E. Kaçmaz (Eds.), Bridging cultures: Representation of minorities in English and American literature (pp.123–148). Çizgi Yayınevi.
  • Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, & Cutts M. (2000). The state of the world’s refugees 2000: Fifty years of humanitarian action. United Nations High Commission for Refugees and Oxford University Press.
  • Muslim population in the UK (2018). Office for National Statistics. https://www.ons.gov.uk/aboutus/transparencyandgovernance/freedomofinformati onfoi/muslimpopulationintheuk/
  • Pantazis, C., & Pemberton, S. (2009). From the “old” to the “new” suspect communıty: Examining the ımpacts of recent UK counter-terrorist legislation. British Journal of Criminology, 49(5), 646–666. [CrossRef]
  • Petrikowski, N. P. (2022). Charlie Hebdo shooting. Encyclopedia britannica. https://www.britannica.com/event/Charlie-Hebdo-shooting
  • Priest, N., Perry, R., Ferdinand, A., Paradies, Y., & Kelaher, M. (2014). Experiences of racism, racial/ethnic attitudes, motivated fairness and mental health outcomes among primary and secondary school students. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 43(10), 1672–1687. [CrossRef]
  • Ray, M. (2022). London bombings of 2005. Encyclopedia Britannica. https://www.britannica.com/event/London-bombings-of-2005
  • Reuters (2008). Five years on, France to try suspects in Charlie Hebdo killings. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-france-charliehebdo-idUSKBN25O21W
  • Richards, A. (2018). Defining terrorism. in A. Silke (Ed.), Routledge handbook of terrorism and counterterrorism (pp. 13–21). Routledge. [CrossRef]
  • Robinson, L., Gardee, R., Chaudhry, F., & Collins, H. (2017). Muslim youth in Britain: Acculturation, radicalization, and implications for social work practice/training. Journal of Religion and Spirituality in Social Work: Social Thought, 36(1–2), 266–289. [CrossRef]
  • Roland, A. (2010). Trauma and dissociation. Contemporary Psychoanalysis, 46(3), 380–394. [CrossRef]
  • Silke, A. (2018). The study of Terrorism and counterterrorism. in A. Silke (Ed.), Routledge handbook of terrorism and counterterrorism (pp. 1–10). Routledge. [CrossRef]
  • Talbot, i. (2019). Legacies of the partition for india and Pakistan. Politeja, 16(59), 7–25. [CrossRef]
  • Walker, C. (2009). Neighbor terrorism and the all-risks policing of terrorism. SSRN Electronic Journal, 121–168. [CrossRef]
  • Walker, C. (2018). Anti-terrorism laws: The United Kingdom’s unfinished history. in A. Silke (Ed.), Routledge handbook of terrorism and counterterrorism (pp. 406–415). Routledge. [CrossRef]
  • Whiting, A., Campbell, B., Spiller, K., & Awan, i. (2021). The Prevent Duty in UK higher education: insights from freedom of information requests. in British Journal of Politics and International Relations (Vol. 23, issue 3, pp. 513–532). SAGE Publications. [CrossRef]
  • Zempi, i., & Tripli, A. (2023). Listening to Muslim students’ voices on the Prevent Duty in British universities: A qualitative Study. Education, Citizenship and Social Justice, 18(2), 230–245. [CrossRef]

Genç bir Kız Aracılığıyla I Am Thunder Romanında Terörü Önleme Kanunu

Year 2023, Issue: 71, 101 - 108, 28.12.2023

Abstract

7 ve 21 Temmuz 2005’te Londra ulaşım sistemi dört bombacı saldırgan tarafından saldırıya uğradı. 7/7 saldırısı, Birleşik Krallık’taki en büyük terörist saldırıydı ve 775 yaralı ve 52 ölümle sonuçlandı (dört bombacı saldırgan dâhil değil). 7/7 Londra bombalamaları, Birleşik Krallık’ın terörle mücadele politikalarını kökten değiştirdi; çünkü bu saldırganların ülke içinde büyütüldüğü ve radikalleştirildiği anlaşıldı. 2015 yılında terörle mücadele yasasında yapılan değişiklikle Terörü Önleme Kanunu’nun yürürlüğe girmesiyle birlikte, Birleşik Krallık’taki hükümetin resmi kurumlarının, özellikle eğitim kurumlarının, organize terör saldırılarını durdurmak ve gençlerin radikalleşmesini ve beyinlerinin yıkanmasını önlemek için görev alması istendi. Terörü Önleme Kanunu’nun “yeni bir şüpheli topluluk” yaratarak Müslüman öğrenciler üzerinde olumsuz etkileri olduğu gösterildi. Muhammed Khan’ın I Am Thunder adlı romanı, genç Müslüman İngiliz öğrencilerin bu yeni önlemlerden nasıl etkilendiğini ele alır. Müslüman öğrenciler potansiyel terörist ve radikalleşmeye hazır bireyler olarak kabul edilir. I Am Thunder romanının başkahramanı, yaratıcı ve zeki ama sürekli olarak ailesi tarafından baskı gören 15 yaşında bir lise öğrencisidir. Muzna’nın yaşıtları koyu teni ve dini nedeniyle onu sürekli eleştirdikleri ve onunla alay ettikleri için İslamofobi romanda tekrar eden bir temadır. Özellikle çeşitli terör saldırılarından sonra Müslümanlar, bu saldırılarla ilgisi olmasa da saldırılara katılmakla suçlanmakta ve hedef gösterilmektedirler. Yazar, insanların dini inançlarından yararlanan insanların ikiyüzlülüğünü göstermeyi amaçlamaktadır. Romanın sonunda Muzna, masum insanları öldürmeyi amaçlayan bir terör saldırısını durdurmayı başarır. Sonunda İngiliz kimliğini kabul eder ve diğer insanların düşüncelerinden bağımsız olarak İslam’ı nasıl yaşayacağını öğrenir.

References

  • 7 July London bombings: What happened that day? (2015). BBC NEWS. https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-33253598
  • Abbas, M.-S. (2019). ‘i grew a beard and my dad flipped out!’ Co-option of British Muslim parents in countering ‘extremism’ within their families in Bradford and Leeds. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 45(9), 1458–1476. [CrossRef]
  • Abbas, T., Awan, i., & Marsden, J. (2021). Pushed to the edge: the consequences of the ‘Prevent Duty’ in de-radicalising pre-crime thought among British Muslim university students. Race, Ethnicity and Education, 26(6), 719–734. [CrossRef]
  • Alsultany, E. (2013). Arabs and Muslims in the media after 9/11: Representational strategies for a “postrace” era. in American Quarterly (Vol. 65, issue 1, pp. 161–169). Johns Hopkins University Press, 65(1), 161–169. [CrossRef]
  • Barrett, D. (2017). The UK’s anti-radicalisation Prevent dutycase notes and commentary. Nottingham Law Journal, 26, 110–114. https://heinonline.org/ HOL/P?h=hein.journals/notnghmlj26&i=116
  • Bates, C. (2011). The hidden story of partition and its legacies. BBC NEWS. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/modern/partition1947_01.shtml Brewin, C. R., Scragg, P., Robertson, M., Thompson, M., d’Ardenne, P., Ehlers, A., & Psychosocial Steering Group, London Bombings Trauma Response
  • Programme (2008). Promoting mental health following the London bombings: A screen and treat approach. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 21(1), 3–8. [CrossRef]
  • Cherney, A., & Murphy, K. (2016). Being a ‘suspect community’ in a post 9/11 world – The impact of the war on terror on Muslim communities in Australia. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology, 49(4), 480–496. [CrossRef]
  • Christmann, K. (2012). Preventing religious radicalisation and violent extremism: A systematic review of the research evidence. Youth Justice Board. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/15426432.2017.1311244?needAccess=true
  • Compton, D. M. (2021). Effects of perceived racism, cultural intelligence, and personality: Student characteristics and views at an Evangelical Christian university. Psychology, 12(10), 1642–1677. [CrossRef]
  • Department for Education (2015). The Prevent Duty: Departmental advice for schools and childcare providers. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/439598/prevent-duty-departmental-advice-v6.pdf
  • Hart, N. A. (2021). Reimagining Prevent Duty in schools: How teachers can support students in their liberation from racialised narratives of radicalisa- tion. Equality, Diversity and Inclusion. 40(2), 180–198. [CrossRef]
  • Heath-Kelly, C. (2013). Counter-terrorism and the counterfactual: Producing the ‘radicalisation’ discourse and the UK Prevent strategy. British Journal of Politics and International Relations, 15(3), 394–415. [CrossRef]
  • Hillyard, P. (1993). Suspect community: People’s experience of the prevention of terrorism acts in Britain. pluto Press. https://books.google.com.tr/bo oks?id=dtQSAQAAMAAJ
  • Home Office (2018). The United Kingdom’s strategy for countering terrorism, June 2018. Stationery Office. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/716907/140618_CCS207_CCS0218929798-1_CONTEST_3.0_WEB.pdf
  • Hosseini, S. A. H. (2013). “Political identity” of Muslim youth in Western diaspora: Towards an integrative research agenda. Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, 33(4), 464–476. [CrossRef]
  • Jerome, L., Elwick, A., & Kazim, R. (2019). The impact of the Prevent Duty on schools: A review of the evidence. in British Educational Research Journal (Vol. 45, issue 4, pp. 821–837). Wiley . [CrossRef]
  • Kaholokula, J. K., Antonio, M. C., ing, C. K. T., Hermosura, A., Hall, K. E., Knight, R., & Wills, T. A. (2017). The effects of perceived racism on psychological distress mediated by venting and disengagement coping in Native Hawaiians. BMC Psychology, 5(1), 2. [CrossRef]
  • Khan, M. (2018). I Am Thunder. Pan Macmillan.
  • Lundie, D. C. (2019). Building a terrorist house on sand: A critical incident analysis of interprofessionality and the Prevent Duty in schools in England. Journal of Beliefs and Values, 40(3), 321–337. [CrossRef]
  • Mcdonald, L. Z. (2011). Securing identities, resisting terror: Muslim youth work in the UK and its implications for security. Religion, State and Society, 39(2–3), 177–189. [CrossRef]
  • Menon, J. (2012). The performance of nationalism : India, Pakistan, and the memory of partition. Cambridge University Press.
  • Mollan, C. (2022). Partition: What my grandparents’ trauma taught me. BBC NEWS. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-india-62571883
  • Morey, P. (2018). Islamophobia and the novel. Columbia University Press. http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.7312/more17774
  • Morrison, J. (2017). Jihadi fiction: Radicalisation narratives in the contemporary novel. Textual Practice, 31(3), 567–584. [CrossRef]
  • Mpofu, J. J., Cooper, A. C., Ashley, C., Geda, S., Harding, R. L., Johns, M. M., Spinks-Franklin, A., Njai, R., Moyse, D., & Underwood, J. M. (2022). Perceived Racism and demographic, mental health, and behavioral characteristics among high school students during the COViD-19 pandemic—Adolescent behaviors and experiences survey, United States, January–June 2021. MMWR Supplements, 71(3), 22–27.[CrossRef]
  • Odabaşı, M. (2022). Muslims as the suspect community in Home Fire. in T. Baykara & E. Kaçmaz (Eds.), Bridging cultures: Representation of minorities in English and American literature (pp.123–148). Çizgi Yayınevi.
  • Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, & Cutts M. (2000). The state of the world’s refugees 2000: Fifty years of humanitarian action. United Nations High Commission for Refugees and Oxford University Press.
  • Muslim population in the UK (2018). Office for National Statistics. https://www.ons.gov.uk/aboutus/transparencyandgovernance/freedomofinformati onfoi/muslimpopulationintheuk/
  • Pantazis, C., & Pemberton, S. (2009). From the “old” to the “new” suspect communıty: Examining the ımpacts of recent UK counter-terrorist legislation. British Journal of Criminology, 49(5), 646–666. [CrossRef]
  • Petrikowski, N. P. (2022). Charlie Hebdo shooting. Encyclopedia britannica. https://www.britannica.com/event/Charlie-Hebdo-shooting
  • Priest, N., Perry, R., Ferdinand, A., Paradies, Y., & Kelaher, M. (2014). Experiences of racism, racial/ethnic attitudes, motivated fairness and mental health outcomes among primary and secondary school students. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 43(10), 1672–1687. [CrossRef]
  • Ray, M. (2022). London bombings of 2005. Encyclopedia Britannica. https://www.britannica.com/event/London-bombings-of-2005
  • Reuters (2008). Five years on, France to try suspects in Charlie Hebdo killings. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-france-charliehebdo-idUSKBN25O21W
  • Richards, A. (2018). Defining terrorism. in A. Silke (Ed.), Routledge handbook of terrorism and counterterrorism (pp. 13–21). Routledge. [CrossRef]
  • Robinson, L., Gardee, R., Chaudhry, F., & Collins, H. (2017). Muslim youth in Britain: Acculturation, radicalization, and implications for social work practice/training. Journal of Religion and Spirituality in Social Work: Social Thought, 36(1–2), 266–289. [CrossRef]
  • Roland, A. (2010). Trauma and dissociation. Contemporary Psychoanalysis, 46(3), 380–394. [CrossRef]
  • Silke, A. (2018). The study of Terrorism and counterterrorism. in A. Silke (Ed.), Routledge handbook of terrorism and counterterrorism (pp. 1–10). Routledge. [CrossRef]
  • Talbot, i. (2019). Legacies of the partition for india and Pakistan. Politeja, 16(59), 7–25. [CrossRef]
  • Walker, C. (2009). Neighbor terrorism and the all-risks policing of terrorism. SSRN Electronic Journal, 121–168. [CrossRef]
  • Walker, C. (2018). Anti-terrorism laws: The United Kingdom’s unfinished history. in A. Silke (Ed.), Routledge handbook of terrorism and counterterrorism (pp. 406–415). Routledge. [CrossRef]
  • Whiting, A., Campbell, B., Spiller, K., & Awan, i. (2021). The Prevent Duty in UK higher education: insights from freedom of information requests. in British Journal of Politics and International Relations (Vol. 23, issue 3, pp. 513–532). SAGE Publications. [CrossRef]
  • Zempi, i., & Tripli, A. (2023). Listening to Muslim students’ voices on the Prevent Duty in British universities: A qualitative Study. Education, Citizenship and Social Justice, 18(2), 230–245. [CrossRef]

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects British and Irish Language, Literature and Culture
Journal Section Research Articles
Authors

Alper TULGAR 0000-0002-8784-0795

Publication Date December 28, 2023
Published in Issue Year 2023 Issue: 71

Cite

APA TULGAR, A. (2023). The Prevent Duty Act Through a Teenage Girl in I Am Thunder. Edebiyat Ve Beşeri Bilimler Dergisi(71), 101-108.

Content of this journal is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial 4.0 International License

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