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Tarihi Kaynaklar Işığında Doğu ve Batı Uygarlıklarını Birleştiren İpek Yolu’nun Oluşumu

Year 2023, Issue: 7, 59 - 83, 06.07.2023
https://doi.org/10.54577/lycus.1205386

Abstract

İmparator Wu (MÖ 141-87), siyasi sebeplerden dolayı Çin İmparatorluğu’nun batısındaki ülkelere ilk defa diplomatik ilişkiler için elçiler gönderdi. Sonrasında Çin ile batı ülkeleri birbirlerine elçiler göndererek karşılıklı hediyeler sunarak ilişkilerini kuvvetlendirdiler. Çin İmparatorluğunun gücünü ve zenginliğini temsil eden ipek, diplomatik ilişkilerde imparatorluğun geleneksel ve prestijli bir hediyesi idi. Batı uygarlıklarının Çin ipeği ile tanışmaları sonrası ipeğe son derece değer vermeleri Çin ile ticari ilişkilerin başlamasını sağladı. MÖ 1. yüzyılın sonundan itibaren başlayan Çin ile yapılan resmi ve gayri resmi düzenli ticari ilişkiler, İpek Yolu ağının doğuşunu ve gelişimini sağladı.

Çin ile ilk resmi (MÖ 25 civarı) ticari ilişkiyi kuran Kuzeybatı Hindistan’da bulunan limanlardan deniz yolu ile Akdeniz’deki Roma İmparatorluğuna Çin ipeği ihraç edilirdi. MÖ 1. yüzyıl sonundan itibaren Akdeniz’den Hindistan’ın kuzeyine uzanan ticari güzergâhı kontrol eden Part İmparatorluğu, MS 1.yüzyıl sonunda Çin ipeği ticaretini kontrol ediyordu ve Çin’den gelen ipeği Roma İmparatorluğuna satıyorlardı. Bu dönemde Partlar, Romalı elçileri Çin ile ticari diplomatik ilişki kurmamaları için kendi topraklarından geçmelerine izin vermezdi. Partlar ile Romalıların ilişkilerinin iyi olduğu Caesar Augustus devrinde (MÖ 27-MS 14), Romalı tüccarlar, Akdeniz’den Çin’e uzanan güzergâhı kullanarak ipek ticareti yapardı. Bu güzergâh sonrasında ana İpek Yolu’nu meydana getirdi. Roma ve Çin imparatorlukları ancak MS 166 yılında ticari amaçlı diplomatik ilişki kurabildiler.

Başarılı tüccar bir halk olan Orta Asyalı Sogdlular, MS 4. yüzyıldan sonra Orta Asya’dan Çin’in içlerine kadar uzanan İpek Yolu güzergâhında koloni yerleşimler kurdular ve İpek Yolu ticaretinde söz sahibi oldular. Doğuda İpek Yolu ticaretinde güçlenen Sogdlular, MS 6. yüzyılın ikinci yarısında Türklerin desteği ile batıda da uluslararası ipek ticareti yapmaya başladılar. Sasaniler ile ipek ticareti konusunda anlaşamayan Sogdlular ve Türkler, Roma İmparatorluğu gibi ipeğin çok talep gördüğü Bizans İmparatorluğu ile kurulan diplomatik ilişkiler neticesinde Bizans ile ipek ticareti konusunda anlaştı. Orta Asya’dan başlayarak Hazar Denizi kuzeyinden Karadeniz’e ve Bizans İmparatorluğu’na uzanan İpek Yolu ağının kuzey yolu oluştu.

Tarih boyunca doğu ve batı uygarlıklarını siyasi, ekonomik ve kültürel olarak birbirlerine yakınlaşmalarını ve etkileşim içinde olmalarını sağlayan İpek Yolu ağının temel güzergâhlarının MÖ 1. yüzyıl sonlarından başlayarak MS 6. yüzyılın sonlarına kadar oluştuğu ve geliştiği tarihi kaynaklar çerçevesinde anlaşılmaktadır.

References

  • Aristotle Aristotle, Historia Animalium, Trans. D.A. Thompson, The Works of Aristotle, Vol. IV, Ed. J. A. Smith, W. D. Ross, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1910.
  • Baumer 2012 C. Baumer, The History of Central Asia: The Age of the Steppe Warriors,Vol. I, I. B. Tauris, London-New York, 2012.
  • Baumer 2014 C. Baumer, The History of Central Asia: The Age of the Silk Roads, Vol. II, I. B. Tauris, London-New York, 2014.
  • Benjamin 2018 C. Benjamin, Empires of Ancient Eurasia: The First Silk Roads Era, 100 BCE-250 CE, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2018.
  • Berggren - Jones 2000 J. L. Berggren - A. Jones, Ptolemy's Geography. An Annotated Translation of the Theoretical Chapters. Princeton University Press, Princeton-Oxford, 2000.
  • Blockley 2006 R. C. Blockley, The History of Menander the Guardsman, Francis Cairns, Cambridge, 2006.
  • Cary 1956 M.Cary, “Maës, Qui et Titianus”, The Classical Quarterly 6/3-4, 1956, 130-134.
  • Casson 1989 L. Casson, The Periplus Maris Erythraei, Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1989.
  • Chavannes 1903 E. Chavannes, Documents Sur Les Tou-kiue (Turcs) Occidentaux, Petersburg, 1903.
  • Herodotus Herodotus, The Persian Wars, Books 5-7, Trans. A. D. Godley, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1922.
  • Hill 2004 J. E. Hill, The Peoples of the West from the Weilue, English translation, published online, 2004, accessed 27.04.2022 at: https://depts.washington.edu/silkroad/texts/weilue/weilue.html
  • Hill 2011 J. E. Hill, A Translation of the Chronicle on the ‘Western Regions’ from the Hou Hanshu, published online, 2011, accessed 27.04.2022 at: https://depts.washington.edu/silkroad/texts/hhshu/houhanshutextonly.html
  • Hulsewe – Loewe 1979 A. F. P. Hulsewe – M. A. N. Loewe, China in Central Asia: The Early Stage, 125 B.C.-A.D. 23: An Annotated Translation of Chapters 61 and 96 of the History of the Former Han dynasty, E.J.Brill, Leiden, 1979. Institute of Archaeology of Shaanxi 2001a Institute of Archaeology of Shaanxi, “Xi’an faxian de Bei Zhou An Jia mu (Excavation of the An Jia’s Tomb of the Northen Zhou in Xi’an)”, Wenwu 1, 2001, 4-26. Institute of Archaeology of Shaanxi 2001b Institute of Archaeology of Shaanxi, “Taiyuan Suidai Yu Hong mu qingli jianbao (Excavation of Yu Hong of the Sui Dynasty Taiyuan)”, Wenwu, 1, 2001, 27-52.
  • Isidore of Charax Isidore of Charax, Parthian Stations, Trans. W.H.Schoff, The Commercial Museum, Philadelphia, 1914.
  • Kent 1950 R. G. Kent, Old Persian Grammar, Texts, Lexicon, American Oriental Society, New Heaven, 1950.
  • Livshits 2008 V. Livshits, “The Sogdian ‘Ancient Letters’ ( I, III)”, Iran and the Caucasus 12, 2008, 289-293.
  • Livšic 2009 V. A. Livšic, “Sogdian ‘Ancient Letters’ (II, IV, V)”, Scrinium 5, 2009, 344-352.
  • Mau-Tsai 1958 L. Mau-Tsai, Die Chinesischen Nachrichten zur Geschichte der Ost-Türken (T’u-küe), I .Buch, Otto Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden, 1958.
  • P’iankov 2015 I. V. P’iankov, “Maes Titianus, Ptolemy and the ‘Stone Tower’ on the Great Silk Road”, The Silk Road 13, 2015, 60-74.
  • Pliny Pliny, The Natural History, Vol. III, Trans. J. Bostock, H. T. Riley, Henry G. Bohen, London, 1855.
  • Richthofen 1877a F. V. Richthofen, “Uber die Zentralasiatischen Seidenstrassen bis zum 2. Jh. n. Chr”, Verhandlungen der Gesellschaft für Erdkunde zu Berlin, Band IV, 1877, 96–122.
  • Richthofen 1877b F. F. V Richthofen, China: Ergebnisse Eigener Reisen Und Darauf Gegründeter Studien, Band 1, Dietrich Reimer, Berlin.
  • Rudenko 1970 S. I. Rudenko, Frozen Tombs of Siberia: The Pazyryk Burials of Iron Age Horsemen, J. M. Dent & Sons Ltd, London, 1970.
  • Scott 2001 P. Scott, The Book of Silk, Thames & Hudson, London, 2001.
  • Seneca Seneca, On Benefits, Trans. M. Griffin, B. Inwood, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago-London, 2011.
  • Sima Qian 1993 Sima Qian, Records of the Grand Historian Han Dynasty, Vol. II. Trans. B. Watson, Columbia University Press, Hong Kong-New York, 1993.
  • Trever 1932 C. Trever, Excavations in Northern Mongolia (1924-1925), Leningrad, 1932.
  • Xianjiang 2004 R. Xianjiang, “Daily Life in Sogdians Colonies Along the Silk Road”, Miho Museum 4, 2004, 6-15.
  • Tacitus Tacitus, The Annals, Trans. J. C. Yardly, Oxford University Press, Oxford-New York, 2008.
  • Vainker 2004 S. Vainker, Chinese Silk: A Cultural History, Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, 2004, 59-76.
  • Vaissière 2005 É. de la Vaissière, Sogdian Traders, Trans. J. Ward, Brill, Leiden-Boston, 2005.
  • Waugh 2007 D. C. Waugh, “Richthofen’s ‘Silk Roads’: Toward the Archaeology of a Concept”, The Silk Road 5 (1), 2007, 1-10.
  • Whitfield 2016 S. Whitfield, “Dunhuang and Its Network of Patronage and Trade”, Cave Temples of Dunhuang: Buddhist Art on China’s Silk Road, Ed. N. Agnew, M. Reed, T. Ball, The Getty Conservation Institute, Los Angeles, 2016, 59-76.
Year 2023, Issue: 7, 59 - 83, 06.07.2023
https://doi.org/10.54577/lycus.1205386

Abstract

References

  • Aristotle Aristotle, Historia Animalium, Trans. D.A. Thompson, The Works of Aristotle, Vol. IV, Ed. J. A. Smith, W. D. Ross, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1910.
  • Baumer 2012 C. Baumer, The History of Central Asia: The Age of the Steppe Warriors,Vol. I, I. B. Tauris, London-New York, 2012.
  • Baumer 2014 C. Baumer, The History of Central Asia: The Age of the Silk Roads, Vol. II, I. B. Tauris, London-New York, 2014.
  • Benjamin 2018 C. Benjamin, Empires of Ancient Eurasia: The First Silk Roads Era, 100 BCE-250 CE, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2018.
  • Berggren - Jones 2000 J. L. Berggren - A. Jones, Ptolemy's Geography. An Annotated Translation of the Theoretical Chapters. Princeton University Press, Princeton-Oxford, 2000.
  • Blockley 2006 R. C. Blockley, The History of Menander the Guardsman, Francis Cairns, Cambridge, 2006.
  • Cary 1956 M.Cary, “Maës, Qui et Titianus”, The Classical Quarterly 6/3-4, 1956, 130-134.
  • Casson 1989 L. Casson, The Periplus Maris Erythraei, Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1989.
  • Chavannes 1903 E. Chavannes, Documents Sur Les Tou-kiue (Turcs) Occidentaux, Petersburg, 1903.
  • Herodotus Herodotus, The Persian Wars, Books 5-7, Trans. A. D. Godley, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1922.
  • Hill 2004 J. E. Hill, The Peoples of the West from the Weilue, English translation, published online, 2004, accessed 27.04.2022 at: https://depts.washington.edu/silkroad/texts/weilue/weilue.html
  • Hill 2011 J. E. Hill, A Translation of the Chronicle on the ‘Western Regions’ from the Hou Hanshu, published online, 2011, accessed 27.04.2022 at: https://depts.washington.edu/silkroad/texts/hhshu/houhanshutextonly.html
  • Hulsewe – Loewe 1979 A. F. P. Hulsewe – M. A. N. Loewe, China in Central Asia: The Early Stage, 125 B.C.-A.D. 23: An Annotated Translation of Chapters 61 and 96 of the History of the Former Han dynasty, E.J.Brill, Leiden, 1979. Institute of Archaeology of Shaanxi 2001a Institute of Archaeology of Shaanxi, “Xi’an faxian de Bei Zhou An Jia mu (Excavation of the An Jia’s Tomb of the Northen Zhou in Xi’an)”, Wenwu 1, 2001, 4-26. Institute of Archaeology of Shaanxi 2001b Institute of Archaeology of Shaanxi, “Taiyuan Suidai Yu Hong mu qingli jianbao (Excavation of Yu Hong of the Sui Dynasty Taiyuan)”, Wenwu, 1, 2001, 27-52.
  • Isidore of Charax Isidore of Charax, Parthian Stations, Trans. W.H.Schoff, The Commercial Museum, Philadelphia, 1914.
  • Kent 1950 R. G. Kent, Old Persian Grammar, Texts, Lexicon, American Oriental Society, New Heaven, 1950.
  • Livshits 2008 V. Livshits, “The Sogdian ‘Ancient Letters’ ( I, III)”, Iran and the Caucasus 12, 2008, 289-293.
  • Livšic 2009 V. A. Livšic, “Sogdian ‘Ancient Letters’ (II, IV, V)”, Scrinium 5, 2009, 344-352.
  • Mau-Tsai 1958 L. Mau-Tsai, Die Chinesischen Nachrichten zur Geschichte der Ost-Türken (T’u-küe), I .Buch, Otto Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden, 1958.
  • P’iankov 2015 I. V. P’iankov, “Maes Titianus, Ptolemy and the ‘Stone Tower’ on the Great Silk Road”, The Silk Road 13, 2015, 60-74.
  • Pliny Pliny, The Natural History, Vol. III, Trans. J. Bostock, H. T. Riley, Henry G. Bohen, London, 1855.
  • Richthofen 1877a F. V. Richthofen, “Uber die Zentralasiatischen Seidenstrassen bis zum 2. Jh. n. Chr”, Verhandlungen der Gesellschaft für Erdkunde zu Berlin, Band IV, 1877, 96–122.
  • Richthofen 1877b F. F. V Richthofen, China: Ergebnisse Eigener Reisen Und Darauf Gegründeter Studien, Band 1, Dietrich Reimer, Berlin.
  • Rudenko 1970 S. I. Rudenko, Frozen Tombs of Siberia: The Pazyryk Burials of Iron Age Horsemen, J. M. Dent & Sons Ltd, London, 1970.
  • Scott 2001 P. Scott, The Book of Silk, Thames & Hudson, London, 2001.
  • Seneca Seneca, On Benefits, Trans. M. Griffin, B. Inwood, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago-London, 2011.
  • Sima Qian 1993 Sima Qian, Records of the Grand Historian Han Dynasty, Vol. II. Trans. B. Watson, Columbia University Press, Hong Kong-New York, 1993.
  • Trever 1932 C. Trever, Excavations in Northern Mongolia (1924-1925), Leningrad, 1932.
  • Xianjiang 2004 R. Xianjiang, “Daily Life in Sogdians Colonies Along the Silk Road”, Miho Museum 4, 2004, 6-15.
  • Tacitus Tacitus, The Annals, Trans. J. C. Yardly, Oxford University Press, Oxford-New York, 2008.
  • Vainker 2004 S. Vainker, Chinese Silk: A Cultural History, Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, 2004, 59-76.
  • Vaissière 2005 É. de la Vaissière, Sogdian Traders, Trans. J. Ward, Brill, Leiden-Boston, 2005.
  • Waugh 2007 D. C. Waugh, “Richthofen’s ‘Silk Roads’: Toward the Archaeology of a Concept”, The Silk Road 5 (1), 2007, 1-10.
  • Whitfield 2016 S. Whitfield, “Dunhuang and Its Network of Patronage and Trade”, Cave Temples of Dunhuang: Buddhist Art on China’s Silk Road, Ed. N. Agnew, M. Reed, T. Ball, The Getty Conservation Institute, Los Angeles, 2016, 59-76.
Year 2023, Issue: 7, 59 - 83, 06.07.2023
https://doi.org/10.54577/lycus.1205386

Abstract

References

  • Aristotle Aristotle, Historia Animalium, Trans. D.A. Thompson, The Works of Aristotle, Vol. IV, Ed. J. A. Smith, W. D. Ross, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1910.
  • Baumer 2012 C. Baumer, The History of Central Asia: The Age of the Steppe Warriors,Vol. I, I. B. Tauris, London-New York, 2012.
  • Baumer 2014 C. Baumer, The History of Central Asia: The Age of the Silk Roads, Vol. II, I. B. Tauris, London-New York, 2014.
  • Benjamin 2018 C. Benjamin, Empires of Ancient Eurasia: The First Silk Roads Era, 100 BCE-250 CE, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2018.
  • Berggren - Jones 2000 J. L. Berggren - A. Jones, Ptolemy's Geography. An Annotated Translation of the Theoretical Chapters. Princeton University Press, Princeton-Oxford, 2000.
  • Blockley 2006 R. C. Blockley, The History of Menander the Guardsman, Francis Cairns, Cambridge, 2006.
  • Cary 1956 M.Cary, “Maës, Qui et Titianus”, The Classical Quarterly 6/3-4, 1956, 130-134.
  • Casson 1989 L. Casson, The Periplus Maris Erythraei, Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1989.
  • Chavannes 1903 E. Chavannes, Documents Sur Les Tou-kiue (Turcs) Occidentaux, Petersburg, 1903.
  • Herodotus Herodotus, The Persian Wars, Books 5-7, Trans. A. D. Godley, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1922.
  • Hill 2004 J. E. Hill, The Peoples of the West from the Weilue, English translation, published online, 2004, accessed 27.04.2022 at: https://depts.washington.edu/silkroad/texts/weilue/weilue.html
  • Hill 2011 J. E. Hill, A Translation of the Chronicle on the ‘Western Regions’ from the Hou Hanshu, published online, 2011, accessed 27.04.2022 at: https://depts.washington.edu/silkroad/texts/hhshu/houhanshutextonly.html
  • Hulsewe – Loewe 1979 A. F. P. Hulsewe – M. A. N. Loewe, China in Central Asia: The Early Stage, 125 B.C.-A.D. 23: An Annotated Translation of Chapters 61 and 96 of the History of the Former Han dynasty, E.J.Brill, Leiden, 1979. Institute of Archaeology of Shaanxi 2001a Institute of Archaeology of Shaanxi, “Xi’an faxian de Bei Zhou An Jia mu (Excavation of the An Jia’s Tomb of the Northen Zhou in Xi’an)”, Wenwu 1, 2001, 4-26. Institute of Archaeology of Shaanxi 2001b Institute of Archaeology of Shaanxi, “Taiyuan Suidai Yu Hong mu qingli jianbao (Excavation of Yu Hong of the Sui Dynasty Taiyuan)”, Wenwu, 1, 2001, 27-52.
  • Isidore of Charax Isidore of Charax, Parthian Stations, Trans. W.H.Schoff, The Commercial Museum, Philadelphia, 1914.
  • Kent 1950 R. G. Kent, Old Persian Grammar, Texts, Lexicon, American Oriental Society, New Heaven, 1950.
  • Livshits 2008 V. Livshits, “The Sogdian ‘Ancient Letters’ ( I, III)”, Iran and the Caucasus 12, 2008, 289-293.
  • Livšic 2009 V. A. Livšic, “Sogdian ‘Ancient Letters’ (II, IV, V)”, Scrinium 5, 2009, 344-352.
  • Mau-Tsai 1958 L. Mau-Tsai, Die Chinesischen Nachrichten zur Geschichte der Ost-Türken (T’u-küe), I .Buch, Otto Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden, 1958.
  • P’iankov 2015 I. V. P’iankov, “Maes Titianus, Ptolemy and the ‘Stone Tower’ on the Great Silk Road”, The Silk Road 13, 2015, 60-74.
  • Pliny Pliny, The Natural History, Vol. III, Trans. J. Bostock, H. T. Riley, Henry G. Bohen, London, 1855.
  • Richthofen 1877a F. V. Richthofen, “Uber die Zentralasiatischen Seidenstrassen bis zum 2. Jh. n. Chr”, Verhandlungen der Gesellschaft für Erdkunde zu Berlin, Band IV, 1877, 96–122.
  • Richthofen 1877b F. F. V Richthofen, China: Ergebnisse Eigener Reisen Und Darauf Gegründeter Studien, Band 1, Dietrich Reimer, Berlin.
  • Rudenko 1970 S. I. Rudenko, Frozen Tombs of Siberia: The Pazyryk Burials of Iron Age Horsemen, J. M. Dent & Sons Ltd, London, 1970.
  • Scott 2001 P. Scott, The Book of Silk, Thames & Hudson, London, 2001.
  • Seneca Seneca, On Benefits, Trans. M. Griffin, B. Inwood, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago-London, 2011.
  • Sima Qian 1993 Sima Qian, Records of the Grand Historian Han Dynasty, Vol. II. Trans. B. Watson, Columbia University Press, Hong Kong-New York, 1993.
  • Trever 1932 C. Trever, Excavations in Northern Mongolia (1924-1925), Leningrad, 1932.
  • Xianjiang 2004 R. Xianjiang, “Daily Life in Sogdians Colonies Along the Silk Road”, Miho Museum 4, 2004, 6-15.
  • Tacitus Tacitus, The Annals, Trans. J. C. Yardly, Oxford University Press, Oxford-New York, 2008.
  • Vainker 2004 S. Vainker, Chinese Silk: A Cultural History, Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, 2004, 59-76.
  • Vaissière 2005 É. de la Vaissière, Sogdian Traders, Trans. J. Ward, Brill, Leiden-Boston, 2005.
  • Waugh 2007 D. C. Waugh, “Richthofen’s ‘Silk Roads’: Toward the Archaeology of a Concept”, The Silk Road 5 (1), 2007, 1-10.
  • Whitfield 2016 S. Whitfield, “Dunhuang and Its Network of Patronage and Trade”, Cave Temples of Dunhuang: Buddhist Art on China’s Silk Road, Ed. N. Agnew, M. Reed, T. Ball, The Getty Conservation Institute, Los Angeles, 2016, 59-76.

The Formation of Silk Road Combining Eastern and Western Civilizations in the Light of Historical Sources

Year 2023, Issue: 7, 59 - 83, 06.07.2023
https://doi.org/10.54577/lycus.1205386

Abstract

Emperor Wu (141-87 BC) sent envoys for diplomatic relations for the first time to countries in the western of the Chinese Empire for political reasons. Afterwards, China and western countries strengthened their relations by sending envoys to each other and offering mutual gifts. Silk, representing the power and wealth of the Chinese Empire, was a traditional and prestigious gift of the empire in diplomatic relations. After Western civilizations met with Chinese silk, they gave great value to silk, which led to the start of trade relations with China. Formal and informal regular trade relations with China, which started from the end of the 1st century BC, provided the birth and development of the Silk Road network.

Chinese silk was exported to the Roman Empire in the Mediterranean by sea from the ports in Northwest India, which established the first official (around 25 BC) commercial relationship with China. The Parthian Empire, which controlled the commercial route from the Mediterranean to the north of India from the end of the 1st century BC, controlled the Chinese silk trade at the end of the 1st century AD and sold the silk from China to the Roman Empire. During this period, the Parthians would not allow the Roman envoys to pass through their own territory so that they could not establish commercial diplomatic relations with China. During the reign of Caesar Augustus (27 BC - 14 AD), when the Parthians and Romans had good relations, Roman merchants traded silk using the route from the Mediterranean to China. This route later formed the main Silk Road. The Roman and Chinese empires were able to establish diplomatic relations for commercial purposes only in AD 166.

Central Asian Sogdians, a successful merchant people, established colonial settlements on the Silk Road route from Central Asia to the interior of China after the 4th century AD and had a say in Silk Road trade. The Sogdians, who became stronger in the Silk Road trade in the east, started to do international silk trade in the west with the support of the Turks in the second half of the 6th century AD. The Sogdians and Turks, who could not agree on the silk trade with the Sassanids, agreed on the silk trade with Byzantium as a result of diplomatic relations with the Byzantine Empire, where silk was in high demand, like the Roman Empire. Thus, the northern route of the Silk Road network, starting from Central Asia, stretching from the north of the Caspian Sea to the Black Sea and the Byzantine Empire was formed.

It is understood within the framework of historical sources that the basic routes of the Silk Road network, which enabled eastern and western civilizations to get closer and interact with each other politically, economically and culturally throughout history, were formed and developed from the end of the 1st century BC to the end of the 6th century AD.

References

  • Aristotle Aristotle, Historia Animalium, Trans. D.A. Thompson, The Works of Aristotle, Vol. IV, Ed. J. A. Smith, W. D. Ross, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1910.
  • Baumer 2012 C. Baumer, The History of Central Asia: The Age of the Steppe Warriors,Vol. I, I. B. Tauris, London-New York, 2012.
  • Baumer 2014 C. Baumer, The History of Central Asia: The Age of the Silk Roads, Vol. II, I. B. Tauris, London-New York, 2014.
  • Benjamin 2018 C. Benjamin, Empires of Ancient Eurasia: The First Silk Roads Era, 100 BCE-250 CE, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2018.
  • Berggren - Jones 2000 J. L. Berggren - A. Jones, Ptolemy's Geography. An Annotated Translation of the Theoretical Chapters. Princeton University Press, Princeton-Oxford, 2000.
  • Blockley 2006 R. C. Blockley, The History of Menander the Guardsman, Francis Cairns, Cambridge, 2006.
  • Cary 1956 M.Cary, “Maës, Qui et Titianus”, The Classical Quarterly 6/3-4, 1956, 130-134.
  • Casson 1989 L. Casson, The Periplus Maris Erythraei, Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1989.
  • Chavannes 1903 E. Chavannes, Documents Sur Les Tou-kiue (Turcs) Occidentaux, Petersburg, 1903.
  • Herodotus Herodotus, The Persian Wars, Books 5-7, Trans. A. D. Godley, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1922.
  • Hill 2004 J. E. Hill, The Peoples of the West from the Weilue, English translation, published online, 2004, accessed 27.04.2022 at: https://depts.washington.edu/silkroad/texts/weilue/weilue.html
  • Hill 2011 J. E. Hill, A Translation of the Chronicle on the ‘Western Regions’ from the Hou Hanshu, published online, 2011, accessed 27.04.2022 at: https://depts.washington.edu/silkroad/texts/hhshu/houhanshutextonly.html
  • Hulsewe – Loewe 1979 A. F. P. Hulsewe – M. A. N. Loewe, China in Central Asia: The Early Stage, 125 B.C.-A.D. 23: An Annotated Translation of Chapters 61 and 96 of the History of the Former Han dynasty, E.J.Brill, Leiden, 1979. Institute of Archaeology of Shaanxi 2001a Institute of Archaeology of Shaanxi, “Xi’an faxian de Bei Zhou An Jia mu (Excavation of the An Jia’s Tomb of the Northen Zhou in Xi’an)”, Wenwu 1, 2001, 4-26. Institute of Archaeology of Shaanxi 2001b Institute of Archaeology of Shaanxi, “Taiyuan Suidai Yu Hong mu qingli jianbao (Excavation of Yu Hong of the Sui Dynasty Taiyuan)”, Wenwu, 1, 2001, 27-52.
  • Isidore of Charax Isidore of Charax, Parthian Stations, Trans. W.H.Schoff, The Commercial Museum, Philadelphia, 1914.
  • Kent 1950 R. G. Kent, Old Persian Grammar, Texts, Lexicon, American Oriental Society, New Heaven, 1950.
  • Livshits 2008 V. Livshits, “The Sogdian ‘Ancient Letters’ ( I, III)”, Iran and the Caucasus 12, 2008, 289-293.
  • Livšic 2009 V. A. Livšic, “Sogdian ‘Ancient Letters’ (II, IV, V)”, Scrinium 5, 2009, 344-352.
  • Mau-Tsai 1958 L. Mau-Tsai, Die Chinesischen Nachrichten zur Geschichte der Ost-Türken (T’u-küe), I .Buch, Otto Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden, 1958.
  • P’iankov 2015 I. V. P’iankov, “Maes Titianus, Ptolemy and the ‘Stone Tower’ on the Great Silk Road”, The Silk Road 13, 2015, 60-74.
  • Pliny Pliny, The Natural History, Vol. III, Trans. J. Bostock, H. T. Riley, Henry G. Bohen, London, 1855.
  • Richthofen 1877a F. V. Richthofen, “Uber die Zentralasiatischen Seidenstrassen bis zum 2. Jh. n. Chr”, Verhandlungen der Gesellschaft für Erdkunde zu Berlin, Band IV, 1877, 96–122.
  • Richthofen 1877b F. F. V Richthofen, China: Ergebnisse Eigener Reisen Und Darauf Gegründeter Studien, Band 1, Dietrich Reimer, Berlin.
  • Rudenko 1970 S. I. Rudenko, Frozen Tombs of Siberia: The Pazyryk Burials of Iron Age Horsemen, J. M. Dent & Sons Ltd, London, 1970.
  • Scott 2001 P. Scott, The Book of Silk, Thames & Hudson, London, 2001.
  • Seneca Seneca, On Benefits, Trans. M. Griffin, B. Inwood, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago-London, 2011.
  • Sima Qian 1993 Sima Qian, Records of the Grand Historian Han Dynasty, Vol. II. Trans. B. Watson, Columbia University Press, Hong Kong-New York, 1993.
  • Trever 1932 C. Trever, Excavations in Northern Mongolia (1924-1925), Leningrad, 1932.
  • Xianjiang 2004 R. Xianjiang, “Daily Life in Sogdians Colonies Along the Silk Road”, Miho Museum 4, 2004, 6-15.
  • Tacitus Tacitus, The Annals, Trans. J. C. Yardly, Oxford University Press, Oxford-New York, 2008.
  • Vainker 2004 S. Vainker, Chinese Silk: A Cultural History, Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, 2004, 59-76.
  • Vaissière 2005 É. de la Vaissière, Sogdian Traders, Trans. J. Ward, Brill, Leiden-Boston, 2005.
  • Waugh 2007 D. C. Waugh, “Richthofen’s ‘Silk Roads’: Toward the Archaeology of a Concept”, The Silk Road 5 (1), 2007, 1-10.
  • Whitfield 2016 S. Whitfield, “Dunhuang and Its Network of Patronage and Trade”, Cave Temples of Dunhuang: Buddhist Art on China’s Silk Road, Ed. N. Agnew, M. Reed, T. Ball, The Getty Conservation Institute, Los Angeles, 2016, 59-76.
Year 2023, Issue: 7, 59 - 83, 06.07.2023
https://doi.org/10.54577/lycus.1205386

Abstract

References

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  • Richthofen 1877b F. F. V Richthofen, China: Ergebnisse Eigener Reisen Und Darauf Gegründeter Studien, Band 1, Dietrich Reimer, Berlin.
  • Rudenko 1970 S. I. Rudenko, Frozen Tombs of Siberia: The Pazyryk Burials of Iron Age Horsemen, J. M. Dent & Sons Ltd, London, 1970.
  • Scott 2001 P. Scott, The Book of Silk, Thames & Hudson, London, 2001.
  • Seneca Seneca, On Benefits, Trans. M. Griffin, B. Inwood, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago-London, 2011.
  • Sima Qian 1993 Sima Qian, Records of the Grand Historian Han Dynasty, Vol. II. Trans. B. Watson, Columbia University Press, Hong Kong-New York, 1993.
  • Trever 1932 C. Trever, Excavations in Northern Mongolia (1924-1925), Leningrad, 1932.
  • Xianjiang 2004 R. Xianjiang, “Daily Life in Sogdians Colonies Along the Silk Road”, Miho Museum 4, 2004, 6-15.
  • Tacitus Tacitus, The Annals, Trans. J. C. Yardly, Oxford University Press, Oxford-New York, 2008.
  • Vainker 2004 S. Vainker, Chinese Silk: A Cultural History, Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, 2004, 59-76.
  • Vaissière 2005 É. de la Vaissière, Sogdian Traders, Trans. J. Ward, Brill, Leiden-Boston, 2005.
  • Waugh 2007 D. C. Waugh, “Richthofen’s ‘Silk Roads’: Toward the Archaeology of a Concept”, The Silk Road 5 (1), 2007, 1-10.
  • Whitfield 2016 S. Whitfield, “Dunhuang and Its Network of Patronage and Trade”, Cave Temples of Dunhuang: Buddhist Art on China’s Silk Road, Ed. N. Agnew, M. Reed, T. Ball, The Getty Conservation Institute, Los Angeles, 2016, 59-76.

Details

Primary Language Turkish
Subjects Archaeology
Journal Section Research Articles
Authors

İbrahim ÇEŞMELİ 0000-0003-4718-8277

Publication Date July 6, 2023
Acceptance Date April 7, 2023
Published in Issue Year 2023 Issue: 7

Cite

Chicago ÇEŞMELİ, İbrahim. “Tarihi Kaynaklar Işığında Doğu Ve Batı Uygarlıklarını Birleştiren İpek Yolu’nun Oluşumu”. Lycus Dergisi, no. 7 (July 2023): 59-83. https://doi.org/10.54577/lycus.1205386.

Lycus Dergisi, Anadolu Arkeolojisi, Tarihi Coğrafyası olmak üzere Prehistorik Dönem’den başlayarak, günümüze kadar olan kültür mirası, buluntular, arkeolojik kazı ve yüzey araştırmalarının sonuçları, restorasyon, konservasyon, müzecilik, antropoloji, epigrafi, etno-arkeoloji gibi bilimsel çalışmaları kapsar. Bunların dışında ilk defa yapılan tespitler, uygulamalar ve analiz çalışmalarının yer aldığı yazıları içerir.