Research Article
PDF EndNote BibTex RIS Cite

Determination of Virulence Factors in Candida albicans isolated from Cattle with Mastitis

Year 2022, Volume 10, Issue 1, 91 - 99, 30.04.2022
https://doi.org/10.24998/maeusabed.1089779

Abstract

In recent years, the importance of yeast in the etiology of bovine mastitis is increasing. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Candida albicans in milk samples collected from cows with mastitis, to identify the phenotypic and genotypic methods and to determine the virulence factors. According to the results of the surveys, 686 milk samples were collected from 178 animals with mastitis problems from 20 dairy cattle farms. Forty nine yeast isolates were obtained from these samples. Five isolates were identified as C. albicans with phenotypic tests (germ tube test, chlamydospor formation, chromogenic medium and reproduction at 45°C). Five isolates that were found to be phenotypically C. albicans were confirmed by PCR using specific primers for the C. albicans CALB1 gene. It was determined that 2 (%40) of the C. albicans isolates had ALS1 and PLB1, 1 (%20) had ALS1 and 1 (%20) had PLB1 genes and no gene were not found in 1 (%20) isolate. When the biofilm formation properties of C. albicans isolates were examined by tube adherence method, it was determined that 3 (%60) isolates were strong, 1 (%20) isolate was weak positive and 1 (%20) isolate was negative. In conclusion, in the C. albicans isolates which were isolated from cows with mastitis had ALS1 and PLB1 genes and biofilm formation.

References

  • Arda, M., 2015. Temel Mikrobiyoloji, 5. baskı, Medisan Yayınevi, Ankara, s: 14-359.
  • Byadarahally-Raju, S., Rajapp,a S., 2011. Isolation and identification of Candida from the oral cavity. International Scholarly Research Network Dentistry (Doi:10.5402/2011/487921).
  • Christensen, G.D., Simpson, W.A., Younger, J.A., 1995. Adherence of coagulase negative Staphylococci to plastic tissue cultures: a quantitative model for the adherence of Staphylococci to medical devices. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 22, 996-1006.
  • Costa, E.O., Gandra, C.R., Pires, M.F., Coutinho, S.D., Castilho, W., Teixeira, C.M., 1993. Survey of bovine mycotic mastitis in dairy herds in the State of Silo Paulo, Brazil. Mycopathologia, 124, 13-17.
  • Costa, G.M., Pereira, U.P., Souza-Dias, M.A.G., Silva, N., 2012. Yeast mastitis outbreak in a Brazilian dairy herd. Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research Animal Science, 49, 239-243.
  • Dworecka-Kaszak, B., Krutkiewicz, A., Szopa, D., Kleczkowski, M., Biegańska, M., 2012. High prevalence of Candida yeast in milk samples from cows suffering from mastitis in Poland. The Scientific World Journal, (Doi:10.1100/2012/196347).
  • Eldesouky, I., Mohamed, N., Khalaf, D., Salama, A., Elsify, A., Ombarak, R., El-Ballal, S., Effat, M., Shabrawy, M.A.L., 2016. Candida mastitis in dairy cattle with molecular detection of Candida albicans. Kafkas Universitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi, 22, 461-464.
  • Erbaş, G., Parın, U., Kırkan, Ş., Savaşan, S., Özavcı, M.V., Yüksel, H.T., 2017. Identification of Candida strains with nested PCR in bovine mastitis and determination of antifungal susceptibilities. Turkish Journal of Veterinary Animal Science, 41, 757-763.
  • Green, C.B., Cheng, G., Chandra, J., Mukherjee, P., Ghannoum, M.A., Hoyer, L.L., 2004. RT-PCR detection of Candida albicans ALS gene expression in the reconstituted human epithelium (RHE) model of oral candidiasis and in model biofilms. Microbiology, 150, 267-275.
  • Hakim, A.S., Abuelnaga, S.M., Sayed, El Ahl M.H., 2013. Isolation, biochemical identification and molecular detection of yeasts from Kareish cheese. International Journal of Microbiology Research., 4, 95-100.
  • Hoyer, L.L., 2001. The ALS gene family of Candida albicans. Trends Microbiology, 9, 176-180.
  • İnci, M., Atalay, M.A., Özer, B., Evirgen, Ö., Duran, N., Köksaldı-Motor, V., Koç, A.N., Önlen, Y., Kılınç, Ç., Durmaz, S., 2013. Investigations of ALS1 and HWP1 genes in clinical isolates of Candida albicans. Turkish Journal of Medicine Science, 43, 125-130.
  • Kadry, A.A., El-Ganiny AM, El-Baz A.M., 2018. Relationship between Sap prevalence and biofilm formation among resistant clinical isolates of Candida albicans. African Health Science, 18, 1166-1174.
  • Kamai ,Y., Kubota, M., Kamai, Y., Hosokawa, T., Fukuoka, T., Filler, S.G., 2002. Contribution of Candida albicans ALS1 to the pathogenesis of experimental oropharyngeal candidiasis. Infection and Immunity, 70, 5256-5258.
  • Krukowski, H., Tietze, M., Majewski, T., Rózański, P., 2001. Survey of yeast mastitis in dairy herds of small-type farms in the Lublin region, Poland. Mycopathologia, 150, 5-7.
  • Lipperheide, V., Andraka, L., Pontón, J., Quindós, G., 1993. Evaluation of the albicans IDR plate method for the rapid identification of Candida albicans. Mycoses, 36, 417-420.
  • Mackenzie, D.W.R., 1962. Serum tube identification of Candida albicans. Journal of Clinical Pathology, 15, 563-565.
  • Madhavan, P., Jamal, F., Chong, P.P., 2011. Laboratory isolation and identification of Candida species. Journal of Applied Science, 11, 2870-2877.
  • Marinho, S.A,, Teixeira, A.B., Santos, O.S,, Cazanova, R.F,, Ferreira, C.A.S., Cherubini, K., Oliveira, S.D., 2010. Identification on Candida spp. by phenotypic tests and PCR. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology, 41, 286-294.
  • Mousa, W., Elmonir, W., Abdeen 2016. Molecular typing, virulence genes and potential public health implications of Candida albicans isolated from bovine milk. Japanese Journal of Veterinary Research, 64, 211-215.
  • Mukherjee, P.K., Seshan, K.R., Leidich, S.D., Chandra, J., Cole, G.T., Ghannoum, M.A., 2001. Reintroduction of the PLB1 gene into Candida albicans restores virulence in vivo. Microbiology, 147, 2585-2597.
  • Navarro-García, F., Sánchez, M., Nombela, C., Pla, J., 2001. Virulence genes in the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. FEMS Microbiology, 25, 245-268.
  • Pachauri, S., Varshney, P., Dash, S.K., Gupta, M.K. 2013. Involvement of fungal species in bovine mastitis in and around Mathura, India. Veterinary World, 6, 393-395.
  • Pincus, D.H., Orenga, S., Chatellier, S., 2007. Yeast identification - past, present, and future methods. Medical Mycology., 45, 97-121.
  • Quinn, P.J., Markey, B.K., Leonard, F.C., Hartigan, P., Fanning, S., Fitzpatrick, E.S. 2011. Veterinary Microbiology and Microbial Diseases, 2nd edt, John Wiley and Sons Ltd, United State, p: 413-483.
  • Santos, R.C., Marin, J.M., 2005. Isolation of Candida spp. from mastitic bovine milk in Brazil. Mycopathologia, 159, 251-253.
  • Sartori, L.C.A., Santos, R.C., Marin, J.M., 2014. Identification of Candida species isolated from cows suffering mastitis in four Brazilian states. Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, 66, 1615-1617.
  • Schmitt, J.A., 1971. Epidemiological investigations of oral Candida albicans. Mycopathologia et Mycologia Applicata, 43, 65-87.
  • Susever, S., Yeğenoğlu, Y., 2012. İmmün sistemi baskılı hastaların klinik örneklerinden soyutlanan Candida türlerinin PCR ile belirlenmesi ve antifungal direnç genlerinin RFLP ve sekans analizi ile saptanması. Dicle Tıp Dergisi, 39, 242-250.
  • Şeker, E., 2010. Identification of Candida species isolated from bovine mastitic milk and their in vitro hemolytic activity in Western Turkey. Mycopathologia., 169, 303-308.
  • Şeker, E., Özenç, E., 2011. In vitro biofilm activity of Candida species isolated from Anatolian buffaloes with mastitis in Western Turkey. Veterinarski Arhiv, 81, 723-730.
  • Tarfarosh, M.A., Purohit, S.K., 2008. Isolation of Candida spp. from mastitic cows and milkers. VetScan, 2, 14-15.
  • Tarini, N.M.A., Wahid, M.H., Ibrahim, F., Yasmon, A., Djauzi, S., 2010. Development of multiplex-PCR assay for rapid detection of Candida spp. Medical Journal of Indonesia, 19, 83-87.
  • Türkyılmaz, S., Kaynarca, S., 2010. The slime production by yeasts isolated from subclinical mastitic cows. Acta Veterinaria Brno, 79, 581-586.
  • Wawron, W., Bochniarz, M., Dąbrowski, R., 2010. Antifungal susceptibility of yeasts isolated from secretion of inflamed mammary glands in cows. Poland Journal of Veterinary Science, 13, 487-490.
  • Yücel, A., Kantarcıoğlu, S., 1999. Some important changes in taxonomy of Candida albicans. Cerrahpaşa Medical Journal, 30, 236-246.

Mastitisli İneklerden İzole Edilen Candida albicans İzolatlarında Virülens Faktörlerinin Belirlenmesi

Year 2022, Volume 10, Issue 1, 91 - 99, 30.04.2022
https://doi.org/10.24998/maeusabed.1089779

Abstract

Son yıllarda sığır mastitisinin etiyolojisinde mayaların önemi giderek artmaktadır. Bu çalışmada mastitisli ineklerden toplanan süt örneklerinde Candida albicans’ın neden olduğu mastitis prevalansının belirlenmesi, C. albicans’ın fenotipik ve genotipik yöntemlerle identifikasyonu ve virülens faktörlerinin saptanması amaçlandı. Bu amaçla anket sonuçlarına göre mastitis problemi bulunan 20 süt sığırı işletmesinden 178 hayvandan 686 süt örneği toplandı. Bu örneklerden 49 maya izolatı elde edildi. Fenotipik testlerle (germ tüp testi, klamidospor oluşumu, kromojenik besiyerinde ve 45°C’de üreme) 5 izolat Candida albicans olarak identifiye edildi. Fenotipik testlerle C. albicans olduğu saptanan 5 izolat, C. albicans CALB1 genine spesifik primerler kullanılarak yapılan PZR ile doğrulandı. C. albicans izolatlarında adhezyondan (ALS1) ve fosfalipaz (PLB1) üretiminden sorumlu virülens genleri araştırıldı. İzolatların 2 (%40)’sinde ALS1 ve PLB1, 1 (%20)’inde ALS1 ve 1 (%20)’inde PLB1 genleri saptanırken, 1(%20) izolatta her iki genin de bulunmadığı belirlendi. C. albicans izolatlarının tüp adherens yöntemiyle biyofilm oluşturma özellikleri incelendiğinde 3 (%60) izolatın güçlü pozitif, 1 (%20) izolatın zayıf pozitif ve 1 (%20) izolatın ise negatif olduğu belirlendi. Sonuç olarak, bu çalışma ile mastitisli ineklerden izole edilen C. albicans izolatlarında önemli virülens genleri olan ALS1 ve PLB1 genleri ve biyofilm oluşumu belirlendi.

References

  • Arda, M., 2015. Temel Mikrobiyoloji, 5. baskı, Medisan Yayınevi, Ankara, s: 14-359.
  • Byadarahally-Raju, S., Rajapp,a S., 2011. Isolation and identification of Candida from the oral cavity. International Scholarly Research Network Dentistry (Doi:10.5402/2011/487921).
  • Christensen, G.D., Simpson, W.A., Younger, J.A., 1995. Adherence of coagulase negative Staphylococci to plastic tissue cultures: a quantitative model for the adherence of Staphylococci to medical devices. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 22, 996-1006.
  • Costa, E.O., Gandra, C.R., Pires, M.F., Coutinho, S.D., Castilho, W., Teixeira, C.M., 1993. Survey of bovine mycotic mastitis in dairy herds in the State of Silo Paulo, Brazil. Mycopathologia, 124, 13-17.
  • Costa, G.M., Pereira, U.P., Souza-Dias, M.A.G., Silva, N., 2012. Yeast mastitis outbreak in a Brazilian dairy herd. Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research Animal Science, 49, 239-243.
  • Dworecka-Kaszak, B., Krutkiewicz, A., Szopa, D., Kleczkowski, M., Biegańska, M., 2012. High prevalence of Candida yeast in milk samples from cows suffering from mastitis in Poland. The Scientific World Journal, (Doi:10.1100/2012/196347).
  • Eldesouky, I., Mohamed, N., Khalaf, D., Salama, A., Elsify, A., Ombarak, R., El-Ballal, S., Effat, M., Shabrawy, M.A.L., 2016. Candida mastitis in dairy cattle with molecular detection of Candida albicans. Kafkas Universitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi, 22, 461-464.
  • Erbaş, G., Parın, U., Kırkan, Ş., Savaşan, S., Özavcı, M.V., Yüksel, H.T., 2017. Identification of Candida strains with nested PCR in bovine mastitis and determination of antifungal susceptibilities. Turkish Journal of Veterinary Animal Science, 41, 757-763.
  • Green, C.B., Cheng, G., Chandra, J., Mukherjee, P., Ghannoum, M.A., Hoyer, L.L., 2004. RT-PCR detection of Candida albicans ALS gene expression in the reconstituted human epithelium (RHE) model of oral candidiasis and in model biofilms. Microbiology, 150, 267-275.
  • Hakim, A.S., Abuelnaga, S.M., Sayed, El Ahl M.H., 2013. Isolation, biochemical identification and molecular detection of yeasts from Kareish cheese. International Journal of Microbiology Research., 4, 95-100.
  • Hoyer, L.L., 2001. The ALS gene family of Candida albicans. Trends Microbiology, 9, 176-180.
  • İnci, M., Atalay, M.A., Özer, B., Evirgen, Ö., Duran, N., Köksaldı-Motor, V., Koç, A.N., Önlen, Y., Kılınç, Ç., Durmaz, S., 2013. Investigations of ALS1 and HWP1 genes in clinical isolates of Candida albicans. Turkish Journal of Medicine Science, 43, 125-130.
  • Kadry, A.A., El-Ganiny AM, El-Baz A.M., 2018. Relationship between Sap prevalence and biofilm formation among resistant clinical isolates of Candida albicans. African Health Science, 18, 1166-1174.
  • Kamai ,Y., Kubota, M., Kamai, Y., Hosokawa, T., Fukuoka, T., Filler, S.G., 2002. Contribution of Candida albicans ALS1 to the pathogenesis of experimental oropharyngeal candidiasis. Infection and Immunity, 70, 5256-5258.
  • Krukowski, H., Tietze, M., Majewski, T., Rózański, P., 2001. Survey of yeast mastitis in dairy herds of small-type farms in the Lublin region, Poland. Mycopathologia, 150, 5-7.
  • Lipperheide, V., Andraka, L., Pontón, J., Quindós, G., 1993. Evaluation of the albicans IDR plate method for the rapid identification of Candida albicans. Mycoses, 36, 417-420.
  • Mackenzie, D.W.R., 1962. Serum tube identification of Candida albicans. Journal of Clinical Pathology, 15, 563-565.
  • Madhavan, P., Jamal, F., Chong, P.P., 2011. Laboratory isolation and identification of Candida species. Journal of Applied Science, 11, 2870-2877.
  • Marinho, S.A,, Teixeira, A.B., Santos, O.S,, Cazanova, R.F,, Ferreira, C.A.S., Cherubini, K., Oliveira, S.D., 2010. Identification on Candida spp. by phenotypic tests and PCR. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology, 41, 286-294.
  • Mousa, W., Elmonir, W., Abdeen 2016. Molecular typing, virulence genes and potential public health implications of Candida albicans isolated from bovine milk. Japanese Journal of Veterinary Research, 64, 211-215.
  • Mukherjee, P.K., Seshan, K.R., Leidich, S.D., Chandra, J., Cole, G.T., Ghannoum, M.A., 2001. Reintroduction of the PLB1 gene into Candida albicans restores virulence in vivo. Microbiology, 147, 2585-2597.
  • Navarro-García, F., Sánchez, M., Nombela, C., Pla, J., 2001. Virulence genes in the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. FEMS Microbiology, 25, 245-268.
  • Pachauri, S., Varshney, P., Dash, S.K., Gupta, M.K. 2013. Involvement of fungal species in bovine mastitis in and around Mathura, India. Veterinary World, 6, 393-395.
  • Pincus, D.H., Orenga, S., Chatellier, S., 2007. Yeast identification - past, present, and future methods. Medical Mycology., 45, 97-121.
  • Quinn, P.J., Markey, B.K., Leonard, F.C., Hartigan, P., Fanning, S., Fitzpatrick, E.S. 2011. Veterinary Microbiology and Microbial Diseases, 2nd edt, John Wiley and Sons Ltd, United State, p: 413-483.
  • Santos, R.C., Marin, J.M., 2005. Isolation of Candida spp. from mastitic bovine milk in Brazil. Mycopathologia, 159, 251-253.
  • Sartori, L.C.A., Santos, R.C., Marin, J.M., 2014. Identification of Candida species isolated from cows suffering mastitis in four Brazilian states. Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, 66, 1615-1617.
  • Schmitt, J.A., 1971. Epidemiological investigations of oral Candida albicans. Mycopathologia et Mycologia Applicata, 43, 65-87.
  • Susever, S., Yeğenoğlu, Y., 2012. İmmün sistemi baskılı hastaların klinik örneklerinden soyutlanan Candida türlerinin PCR ile belirlenmesi ve antifungal direnç genlerinin RFLP ve sekans analizi ile saptanması. Dicle Tıp Dergisi, 39, 242-250.
  • Şeker, E., 2010. Identification of Candida species isolated from bovine mastitic milk and their in vitro hemolytic activity in Western Turkey. Mycopathologia., 169, 303-308.
  • Şeker, E., Özenç, E., 2011. In vitro biofilm activity of Candida species isolated from Anatolian buffaloes with mastitis in Western Turkey. Veterinarski Arhiv, 81, 723-730.
  • Tarfarosh, M.A., Purohit, S.K., 2008. Isolation of Candida spp. from mastitic cows and milkers. VetScan, 2, 14-15.
  • Tarini, N.M.A., Wahid, M.H., Ibrahim, F., Yasmon, A., Djauzi, S., 2010. Development of multiplex-PCR assay for rapid detection of Candida spp. Medical Journal of Indonesia, 19, 83-87.
  • Türkyılmaz, S., Kaynarca, S., 2010. The slime production by yeasts isolated from subclinical mastitic cows. Acta Veterinaria Brno, 79, 581-586.
  • Wawron, W., Bochniarz, M., Dąbrowski, R., 2010. Antifungal susceptibility of yeasts isolated from secretion of inflamed mammary glands in cows. Poland Journal of Veterinary Science, 13, 487-490.
  • Yücel, A., Kantarcıoğlu, S., 1999. Some important changes in taxonomy of Candida albicans. Cerrahpaşa Medical Journal, 30, 236-246.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Health Care Sciences and Services
Journal Section Research Article
Authors

Orçun SAV This is me
It is not affiliated with an institution
0000-0002-1958-1103
Türkiye


Dilek ÖZTÜRK> (Primary Author)
MEHMET AKİF ERSOY ÜNİVERSİTESİ, VETERİNER FAKÜLTESİ
0000-0002-9643-8570
Türkiye

Supporting Institution This research was supported by Burdur Mehmet Akif Ersoy University Scientific Research Projects Coordination Unit with 0465-YL-17 project number.
Project Number 0465-YL-17
Early Pub Date April 30, 2022
Publication Date April 30, 2022
Published in Issue Year 2022, Volume 10, Issue 1

Cite

Bibtex @research article { maeusabed1089779, journal = {Mehmet Akif Ersoy Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi}, issn = {2148-2837}, address = {}, publisher = {Burdur Mehmet Akif Ersoy University}, year = {2022}, volume = {10}, number = {1}, pages = {91 - 99}, doi = {10.24998/maeusabed.1089779}, title = {Determination of Virulence Factors in Candida albicans isolated from Cattle with Mastitis}, key = {cite}, author = {Öztürk, Dilek} }
APA Sav, O. & Öztürk, D. (2022). Determination of Virulence Factors in Candida albicans isolated from Cattle with Mastitis . Mehmet Akif Ersoy Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi , 10 (1) , 91-99 . DOI: 10.24998/maeusabed.1089779
MLA Sav, O. , Öztürk, D. "Determination of Virulence Factors in Candida albicans isolated from Cattle with Mastitis" . Mehmet Akif Ersoy Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi 10 (2022 ): 91-99 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/maeusabed/issue/69739/1089779>
Chicago Sav, O. , Öztürk, D. "Determination of Virulence Factors in Candida albicans isolated from Cattle with Mastitis". Mehmet Akif Ersoy Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi 10 (2022 ): 91-99
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Determination of Virulence Factors in Candida albicans isolated from Cattle with Mastitis AU - OrçunSav, DilekÖztürk Y1 - 2022 PY - 2022 N1 - doi: 10.24998/maeusabed.1089779 DO - 10.24998/maeusabed.1089779 T2 - Mehmet Akif Ersoy Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 91 EP - 99 VL - 10 IS - 1 SN - 2148-2837- M3 - doi: 10.24998/maeusabed.1089779 UR - https://doi.org/10.24998/maeusabed.1089779 Y2 - 2022 ER -
EndNote %0 Mehmet Akif Ersoy University Journal of Health Sciences Institute Determination of Virulence Factors in Candida albicans isolated from Cattle with Mastitis %A Orçun Sav , Dilek Öztürk %T Determination of Virulence Factors in Candida albicans isolated from Cattle with Mastitis %D 2022 %J Mehmet Akif Ersoy Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi %P 2148-2837- %V 10 %N 1 %R doi: 10.24998/maeusabed.1089779 %U 10.24998/maeusabed.1089779
ISNAD Sav, Orçun , Öztürk, Dilek . "Determination of Virulence Factors in Candida albicans isolated from Cattle with Mastitis". Mehmet Akif Ersoy Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi 10 / 1 (April 2022): 91-99 . https://doi.org/10.24998/maeusabed.1089779
AMA Sav O. , Öztürk D. Determination of Virulence Factors in Candida albicans isolated from Cattle with Mastitis. Mehmet Akif Ersoy Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi. 2022; 10(1): 91-99.
Vancouver Sav O. , Öztürk D. Determination of Virulence Factors in Candida albicans isolated from Cattle with Mastitis. Mehmet Akif Ersoy Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi. 2022; 10(1): 91-99.
IEEE O. Sav and D. Öztürk , "Determination of Virulence Factors in Candida albicans isolated from Cattle with Mastitis", Mehmet Akif Ersoy Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 91-99, Apr. 2022, doi:10.24998/maeusabed.1089779