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A Study on the Cultivated Mushroom Pleurotus sajor-caju (Fr.) Singer: Investigation of Its Taxonomical Status and the Correct Name

Year 2021, Volume 12, Issue 2, 87 - 93, 31.10.2021

Abstract

There are some problems with the taxonomy of some fungi belonging to the Pleurotus genus from past to present. The name Pleurotus sajor-caju (Fr.) Singer appears as the most widely used commercial cultivated mushroom isolate and is used as a synonym of both Pleurotus pulmonarius (Fr.) Quel. and Lentinus sajor-caju (Fr.) Fr. species. Today, the name P. sajor-caju has been updated in the Index Fungorum and MycoBank Database databases and is now used as L. sajor-caju. However, when the commercial specimen of P. sajor-caju is compared with the literature, it is thought that it differs morphologically and anatomically from L. sajor-caju (the presence of annulus in the stipe, the hyphae system is dimitic and the basidiospore 5.5-8×1.8-2.5 µm) and it would be wrong to use its name as L. sajor-caju. Which species the samples provided with the name P. sajor-caju actually belong to can be seen as a complex problem. With this study, it was confirmed that the species studied was actually P. pulmonarius (99%) in the micro-macroscopic properties (absence of annulus in the stipe, hyphal system monomitic, basidiospore 7.5-11×3-4.5 µm) and molecular analysis of the commercial cultivated mushroom sample obtained as P. sajor-caju.

References

  • Blackwell, M. (2011). The Fungi: 1, 2, 3 . . . 5.1 Million Species?. Am. J. Bot., 98, 426–438.
  • Bresinsky, A., Hilber, O. & Molitoris, H.P., (1976). The Genus Pleurotus as an Aid for Understanding the Concept of Species in Basidiomycetes. In: Clemencon, H. (ed), The Species Concept in Hymenomycetes. Cramer, Vaduz, pp. 229–258.
  • Buchanan, P.K. (1993). Identification, Names, and Nomenclature of Common Edible Mushrooms. In: Chang, S.T., Buswell, J.A., Chiu, S. (Eds.). Mushroom Biology and Mushroom Products. Chinese University Press, Hong Kong, pp. 21–32.
  • Bunyard, B.A., Chaichuchite, S., Nicholoson, M.S. & Royse, D.J. (1996). Ribosomal DNA Analysis for Resolution of Genotype Classes of Pleurotus. Mycol. Res., 100 143–150.
  • Chiu, S.W., Chan, Y.H., Law, S.C., Cheung, K.T. & Moore, D. (1998). Cadmium and manganese in contrast to calcium reduce yield and nutritional values of the edible mushroom Pleurotus pulmonarius. Mycol. Res., 102(4), 449-457.
  • Corner, E.J.H. (1981). The Agaric Genera Lentinus, Panus, and Pleurotus with Particular Reference to Malaysian Species. Nova Hedwigia., 69, 1–169.
  • GenBank(2020). https://blast.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Blast.cgi (Erişim tarihi 7.7.2020)
  • Gonzalez, P., & Labarere, J. (2000). Phylogenetic Relationships of Pleurotus Species According to the Sequence and Secondary Structure of the Mitochondrial Small-Subunit rRNA V4, V6 and V9 Domains. Microbiology, 146, 209–221.
  • Hawksworth, D.L. (1991). The Fungal Dimension of Biodiversity – Magnitude, Significance, and Conservation. Mycol. Res. 95, 641–655.
  • Hawksworth, D.L. (2001). The Magnitude of Fungal Diversity: The 1.5 Million Species Estimate Revisited. Mycol. Res., 105, 1422–1432.
  • Hawksworth, D.L. & Luecking, R. (2017). Fungal Diversity Revisited: 2.2 to 3.8 Million Species. Microbiol. Spectrum, 5, 1-17.
  • Hilber, O. (1989). Valid, Invalid and Confusing Taxa of the Genus Pleurotus. Mushroom Sci., 12, 241–248.
  • Idowu, O. (2003). Evaluation of Different Substrates and Combinations on the Growth of Pleurotus pulmonarius (Fries) Quelet (P. sajor-caju). Nigerian J. Hortic. Sci., 8, 112–221.
  • Index Fungorum (2020). http://www.indexfungorum.org (Erişim tarihi 7.7.2020)
  • Iracabal, B., Zervakis, G. & Labarere, J. (1995). Molecular Systematics of the Genus Pleurotus: Analysis of Restriction Length Polymorphisms in Ribosomal DNA. Microbiology, 141, 1479–1490.
  • Kashangura, C., Hallsworth, J. & Mswaka, A. (2006). Phenotypic Diversity amongst Strains of Pleurotus sajor-caju: Implications for Cultivation in Arid Environments. Mycol. Res., 110, 312–317.
  • Kurtzman, R.H. & Zadrazil, F. (1982). Physiological and Taxonomic Considerations for Cultivation of Pleurotus Mushrooms, Tropical Mushrooms: Biological Nature and Cultivation Methods (Chang, S.T., Quimio, T.H. (eds.)). Hong Kong: Chines University Press, pp. 299–348.
  • MycoBank Database, (2020). www.mycobank.org (Erişim tarihi 7.7.2020).
  • O‘Brien, H.E., Parrent, J.L., Jackson, J.A., Moncalvo, J.M. & Vilgalys, R. (2005). Fungal Community Analysis by Large-Scale Sequencing of Environmental Samples. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 71, 5544–5550.
  • Oruk, I. & Akyuz, M. (2020). Lignoselülozik Atıkların Lentinus sajor-caju (Fr.) Fr.’nin Kültüründe Değerlendirilmesi. Mantar Derg., 11 (1), 12-18.
  • Pegler, D.N. (1975). Classification of the Genus Lentinus Fr. (Basidiomycota). Kavaka, 3, 11–20.
  • Pegler, D.N. (1983). The Genus Lentinus. Kew. Bull. Additional. Series., 10, 1–281.
  • Petersen, R.H. & Hughes, K.W. (1993). Intercontinental Interbreeding Population of Pleurotus pulmonarious, with Notes on P. ostreatus and other Species. Sydowia, 45, 139–152.
  • Purvis, A. & Hector, A. (2000). Getting the Measure of Biodiversity. Nature, 405, 212–219.
  • Sharma, V.P., Kamal, S., Upadhyay, R.C., Kumar, S., Sanya,l S.K. & Singh, M. (2015). Taxonomy, Phylogeny, Cultivation and Biological Activities of a Lentinus Species from Andman & Nicobar Islands (India). Emirates J. Food Agric., 27(7), 570-576.
  • Shnyreva, A.A., Sivolapova, A.B. & Shnyreva, A.V. (2012). The Commercially Cultivated Edible Oyster Mushrooms Pleurotus sajor-caju and P. pulmonarius are Two Separate Species, Similar in Morphology but Reproductively Isolated. Russ. J. Genet., 48, 1080-1088.
  • Stamets, P. (2000). The Phoenix or Indian Oyster Mushroom Pleurotus pulmonarius (Fries) Quelet, ‘’P. sajor-caju’’. In: Growing Gourmet and Medicinal Mushrooms (third edition), Ten speed press, Chapter 21, Berkeley, California, USA: pp. 316-320, ISBN 978-1-58008-175-7.
  • Van, G.L. (1988). The Cultivation of Mushrooms: Mushroom Experimental Station. Mushroom Experimental Station, Horst, Netherlands.
  • Vilgalys, R., Smith, A., Sun, B.L. & Miller, O.K. (1993). Intersterility Groups in the Pleurotus ostreatus Complex from the Continental United States and Adjacent Canada. Can. J. Bot., 71, 113–128.
  • Vilgalys, R. & Sun, B.L. (1994). Ancient and Recent Patterns of Geographic Speciation in the Oyster Mushroom Pleurotus Revealed by Phylogenetics Analysis of Ribosomal DNA Sequences. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. Unit. States. Am., 91, 4599–4603.
  • Wu, B., Hussain, M., Zhang, W., Stadler, M., Liu, X. & Xiang, M. (2019). Current Insights into Fungal Species Diversity and Perspective on Naming the Environmental DNA Sequences of Fungi. Mycology, 10, 127–140.
  • Zadrazil. F. (1978). Cultivation of Pleurotus. In: The Biology and Cultivation of Edible Mushrooms (Eds: Chang, S.T., Hayes, W.A.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 521-557.
  • Zervakis, G. & Balis, C. (1996). A Pluralistic Approach in the Study of Pleurotus Species with Emphasis on Compatibility and Physiology of the European Morphotaxa. Mycol. Res., 100, 717–731.
  • Zervakis, G., Labarere, J. (1992). Taxonomic Relationships within the Fungal Genus Pleurotus as Determined by Isoeletric Analysis of Enzyme Patterns. The Journal of General Microbiology, 138: 635–645.
  • Zervakis, G., Sourdis, J. & Balis, C. (1994). Genetics Variability and Systematics of Eleven Pleurotus Species Based on Enzyme Analysis. Mycol. Res., 98, 329–341.

Kültür Mantarı Pleurotus sajor-caju (Fr.) Singer Üzerine Bir Araştırma: Taksonomik Durumunun ve Doğru Adının Incelenmesi

Year 2021, Volume 12, Issue 2, 87 - 93, 31.10.2021

Abstract

Geçmişten günümüze Pleurotus cinsine ait bazı mantarların taksonomisi ile ilgili bazı sorunlar bulunmaktadır. Pleurotus sajor-caju (Fr.) Singer ismi en yaygın kullanılan ticari kültür mantarı izolatı olarak karşımıza çıkmaktadır ve Pleurotus pulmonarius (Fr.) Quel. ile Lentinus sajor-caju (Fr.) Fr. türlerinin sinonimi olarak kullanılmaktadır. Günümüzde Index Fungorum ve MycoBank Database veri tabanlarında P. sajor-caju ismi güncellenmiş olup artık L. sajor-caju olarak kullanılmaktadır. Fakat, elimizdeki P. sajor-caju ticari örneği literatür ile karşılaştırıldığında morfolojik ve anatomik bakımdan L. sajor-caju (sap kısmında annulus bulunması, hifsel sistem dimitik yapıda ve bazidiyospor 5.5-8×1.8-2.5 µm) türünden farklılık gösterdiği ve adının L. sajor-caju olarak kullanılmasının yanlış olacağı düşünülmüştür. P. sajor-caju ismi ile sağlanan örneklerin gerçekte hangi türe ait olduğu karmaşık bir problem olarak görülebilmektedir. Yapılan bu çalışma ile P. sajor-caju olarak elde edilen ticari kültür mantarı örneğinin, mikro-makroskobik özellikleri (sap kısmında annulus olmaması, hifsel sistem monomitik özellikte, bazidiyospor 7.5-11×3-4.5 µm) ile moleküler düzeyde yapılan analizlerinde çalışılan türün gerçekte P. pulmonarius olduğu (% 99) kesinleşmiştir.

References

  • Blackwell, M. (2011). The Fungi: 1, 2, 3 . . . 5.1 Million Species?. Am. J. Bot., 98, 426–438.
  • Bresinsky, A., Hilber, O. & Molitoris, H.P., (1976). The Genus Pleurotus as an Aid for Understanding the Concept of Species in Basidiomycetes. In: Clemencon, H. (ed), The Species Concept in Hymenomycetes. Cramer, Vaduz, pp. 229–258.
  • Buchanan, P.K. (1993). Identification, Names, and Nomenclature of Common Edible Mushrooms. In: Chang, S.T., Buswell, J.A., Chiu, S. (Eds.). Mushroom Biology and Mushroom Products. Chinese University Press, Hong Kong, pp. 21–32.
  • Bunyard, B.A., Chaichuchite, S., Nicholoson, M.S. & Royse, D.J. (1996). Ribosomal DNA Analysis for Resolution of Genotype Classes of Pleurotus. Mycol. Res., 100 143–150.
  • Chiu, S.W., Chan, Y.H., Law, S.C., Cheung, K.T. & Moore, D. (1998). Cadmium and manganese in contrast to calcium reduce yield and nutritional values of the edible mushroom Pleurotus pulmonarius. Mycol. Res., 102(4), 449-457.
  • Corner, E.J.H. (1981). The Agaric Genera Lentinus, Panus, and Pleurotus with Particular Reference to Malaysian Species. Nova Hedwigia., 69, 1–169.
  • GenBank(2020). https://blast.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Blast.cgi (Erişim tarihi 7.7.2020)
  • Gonzalez, P., & Labarere, J. (2000). Phylogenetic Relationships of Pleurotus Species According to the Sequence and Secondary Structure of the Mitochondrial Small-Subunit rRNA V4, V6 and V9 Domains. Microbiology, 146, 209–221.
  • Hawksworth, D.L. (1991). The Fungal Dimension of Biodiversity – Magnitude, Significance, and Conservation. Mycol. Res. 95, 641–655.
  • Hawksworth, D.L. (2001). The Magnitude of Fungal Diversity: The 1.5 Million Species Estimate Revisited. Mycol. Res., 105, 1422–1432.
  • Hawksworth, D.L. & Luecking, R. (2017). Fungal Diversity Revisited: 2.2 to 3.8 Million Species. Microbiol. Spectrum, 5, 1-17.
  • Hilber, O. (1989). Valid, Invalid and Confusing Taxa of the Genus Pleurotus. Mushroom Sci., 12, 241–248.
  • Idowu, O. (2003). Evaluation of Different Substrates and Combinations on the Growth of Pleurotus pulmonarius (Fries) Quelet (P. sajor-caju). Nigerian J. Hortic. Sci., 8, 112–221.
  • Index Fungorum (2020). http://www.indexfungorum.org (Erişim tarihi 7.7.2020)
  • Iracabal, B., Zervakis, G. & Labarere, J. (1995). Molecular Systematics of the Genus Pleurotus: Analysis of Restriction Length Polymorphisms in Ribosomal DNA. Microbiology, 141, 1479–1490.
  • Kashangura, C., Hallsworth, J. & Mswaka, A. (2006). Phenotypic Diversity amongst Strains of Pleurotus sajor-caju: Implications for Cultivation in Arid Environments. Mycol. Res., 110, 312–317.
  • Kurtzman, R.H. & Zadrazil, F. (1982). Physiological and Taxonomic Considerations for Cultivation of Pleurotus Mushrooms, Tropical Mushrooms: Biological Nature and Cultivation Methods (Chang, S.T., Quimio, T.H. (eds.)). Hong Kong: Chines University Press, pp. 299–348.
  • MycoBank Database, (2020). www.mycobank.org (Erişim tarihi 7.7.2020).
  • O‘Brien, H.E., Parrent, J.L., Jackson, J.A., Moncalvo, J.M. & Vilgalys, R. (2005). Fungal Community Analysis by Large-Scale Sequencing of Environmental Samples. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 71, 5544–5550.
  • Oruk, I. & Akyuz, M. (2020). Lignoselülozik Atıkların Lentinus sajor-caju (Fr.) Fr.’nin Kültüründe Değerlendirilmesi. Mantar Derg., 11 (1), 12-18.
  • Pegler, D.N. (1975). Classification of the Genus Lentinus Fr. (Basidiomycota). Kavaka, 3, 11–20.
  • Pegler, D.N. (1983). The Genus Lentinus. Kew. Bull. Additional. Series., 10, 1–281.
  • Petersen, R.H. & Hughes, K.W. (1993). Intercontinental Interbreeding Population of Pleurotus pulmonarious, with Notes on P. ostreatus and other Species. Sydowia, 45, 139–152.
  • Purvis, A. & Hector, A. (2000). Getting the Measure of Biodiversity. Nature, 405, 212–219.
  • Sharma, V.P., Kamal, S., Upadhyay, R.C., Kumar, S., Sanya,l S.K. & Singh, M. (2015). Taxonomy, Phylogeny, Cultivation and Biological Activities of a Lentinus Species from Andman & Nicobar Islands (India). Emirates J. Food Agric., 27(7), 570-576.
  • Shnyreva, A.A., Sivolapova, A.B. & Shnyreva, A.V. (2012). The Commercially Cultivated Edible Oyster Mushrooms Pleurotus sajor-caju and P. pulmonarius are Two Separate Species, Similar in Morphology but Reproductively Isolated. Russ. J. Genet., 48, 1080-1088.
  • Stamets, P. (2000). The Phoenix or Indian Oyster Mushroom Pleurotus pulmonarius (Fries) Quelet, ‘’P. sajor-caju’’. In: Growing Gourmet and Medicinal Mushrooms (third edition), Ten speed press, Chapter 21, Berkeley, California, USA: pp. 316-320, ISBN 978-1-58008-175-7.
  • Van, G.L. (1988). The Cultivation of Mushrooms: Mushroom Experimental Station. Mushroom Experimental Station, Horst, Netherlands.
  • Vilgalys, R., Smith, A., Sun, B.L. & Miller, O.K. (1993). Intersterility Groups in the Pleurotus ostreatus Complex from the Continental United States and Adjacent Canada. Can. J. Bot., 71, 113–128.
  • Vilgalys, R. & Sun, B.L. (1994). Ancient and Recent Patterns of Geographic Speciation in the Oyster Mushroom Pleurotus Revealed by Phylogenetics Analysis of Ribosomal DNA Sequences. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. Unit. States. Am., 91, 4599–4603.
  • Wu, B., Hussain, M., Zhang, W., Stadler, M., Liu, X. & Xiang, M. (2019). Current Insights into Fungal Species Diversity and Perspective on Naming the Environmental DNA Sequences of Fungi. Mycology, 10, 127–140.
  • Zadrazil. F. (1978). Cultivation of Pleurotus. In: The Biology and Cultivation of Edible Mushrooms (Eds: Chang, S.T., Hayes, W.A.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 521-557.
  • Zervakis, G. & Balis, C. (1996). A Pluralistic Approach in the Study of Pleurotus Species with Emphasis on Compatibility and Physiology of the European Morphotaxa. Mycol. Res., 100, 717–731.
  • Zervakis, G., Labarere, J. (1992). Taxonomic Relationships within the Fungal Genus Pleurotus as Determined by Isoeletric Analysis of Enzyme Patterns. The Journal of General Microbiology, 138: 635–645.
  • Zervakis, G., Sourdis, J. & Balis, C. (1994). Genetics Variability and Systematics of Eleven Pleurotus Species Based on Enzyme Analysis. Mycol. Res., 98, 329–341.

Details

Primary Language Turkish
Subjects Science
Journal Section RESEARCH ARTICLE
Authors

İsmail ORUK This is me
Bitlis Eren Üniversitesi
0000-0001-6552-3556
Türkiye


Mehmet AKYÜZ (Primary Author)
BİTLİS EREN ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0003-3986-3498
Türkiye

Publication Date October 31, 2021
Published in Issue Year 2021, Volume 12, Issue 2

Cite

Bibtex @research article { mantar839829, journal = {Mantar Dergisi}, issn = {}, eissn = {2147-6845}, address = {}, publisher = {Selcuk University}, year = {2021}, volume = {12}, pages = {87 - 93}, doi = {10.30708/mantar.839829}, title = {Kültür Mantarı Pleurotus sajor-caju (Fr.) Singer Üzerine Bir Araştırma: Taksonomik Durumunun ve Doğru Adının Incelenmesi}, key = {cite}, author = {Oruk, İsmail and Akyüz, Mehmet} }
APA Oruk, İ. & Akyüz, M. (2021). Kültür Mantarı Pleurotus sajor-caju (Fr.) Singer Üzerine Bir Araştırma: Taksonomik Durumunun ve Doğru Adının Incelenmesi . Mantar Dergisi , 12 (2) , 87-93 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/mantar/issue/65573/839829
MLA Oruk, İ. , Akyüz, M. "Kültür Mantarı Pleurotus sajor-caju (Fr.) Singer Üzerine Bir Araştırma: Taksonomik Durumunun ve Doğru Adının Incelenmesi" . Mantar Dergisi 12 (2021 ): 87-93 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/mantar/issue/65573/839829>
Chicago Oruk, İ. , Akyüz, M. "Kültür Mantarı Pleurotus sajor-caju (Fr.) Singer Üzerine Bir Araştırma: Taksonomik Durumunun ve Doğru Adının Incelenmesi". Mantar Dergisi 12 (2021 ): 87-93
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Kültür Mantarı Pleurotus sajor-caju (Fr.) Singer Üzerine Bir Araştırma: Taksonomik Durumunun ve Doğru Adının Incelenmesi AU - İsmail Oruk , Mehmet Akyüz Y1 - 2021 PY - 2021 N1 - DO - T2 - Mantar Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 87 EP - 93 VL - 12 IS - 2 SN - -2147-6845 M3 - UR - Y2 - 2021 ER -
EndNote %0 The Journal of Fungus Kültür Mantarı Pleurotus sajor-caju (Fr.) Singer Üzerine Bir Araştırma: Taksonomik Durumunun ve Doğru Adının Incelenmesi %A İsmail Oruk , Mehmet Akyüz %T Kültür Mantarı Pleurotus sajor-caju (Fr.) Singer Üzerine Bir Araştırma: Taksonomik Durumunun ve Doğru Adının Incelenmesi %D 2021 %J Mantar Dergisi %P -2147-6845 %V 12 %N 2 %R %U
ISNAD Oruk, İsmail , Akyüz, Mehmet . "Kültür Mantarı Pleurotus sajor-caju (Fr.) Singer Üzerine Bir Araştırma: Taksonomik Durumunun ve Doğru Adının Incelenmesi". Mantar Dergisi 12 / 2 (October 2021): 87-93 .
AMA Oruk İ. , Akyüz M. Kültür Mantarı Pleurotus sajor-caju (Fr.) Singer Üzerine Bir Araştırma: Taksonomik Durumunun ve Doğru Adının Incelenmesi. Değerlendirme süreci. 2021; 12(2): 87-93.
Vancouver Oruk İ. , Akyüz M. Kültür Mantarı Pleurotus sajor-caju (Fr.) Singer Üzerine Bir Araştırma: Taksonomik Durumunun ve Doğru Adının Incelenmesi. Mantar Dergisi. 2021; 12(2): 87-93.
IEEE İ. Oruk and M. Akyüz , "Kültür Mantarı Pleurotus sajor-caju (Fr.) Singer Üzerine Bir Araştırma: Taksonomik Durumunun ve Doğru Adının Incelenmesi", Mantar Dergisi, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 87-93, Oct. 2021, doi:10.30708/mantar.839829

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