Research Article
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Investigation of bacterial pollution in Ceyhan River (Turkey) and the resistance levels of gram (+) and gram (-) bacteria to antibiotics

Year 2021, Volume 3, Issue 1, 7 - 14, 30.06.2021
https://doi.org/10.51756/marlife.913566

Abstract

In this study, bacteriological pollution of Ceyhan River flowing into Iskenderun Bay (Northeast Mediterranean) and antibiotic resistance of Gram (+) and Gram (-) bacteria were investigated. Water samples were collected from May 2014 to April 2015 in monthly periods and 222 Gram (-) and 74 Gram (+) bacteria were isolated from collected water samples. The isolates were contained 8 different species (Acinetobacter baumannii, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis) which have been identified with Vitek II automated culture system. Microorganism susceptibility tests were performed in accordance with CLSI (Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, 2015) criteria. Resistance of the isolates to 15 different antibiotics (Amikacin, Meropenem, Levofloxacin, Imipenem, Piperacillin, Gentamycin, Cefepime, Ceftazidime Penicillin, Oxacillin, Clindamycin, Erythromycin, Ciprofloxacin, Vancomycin, Rifampin) was investigated. The highest antibiotic resistance was found in E. faecalis with 37% against Penicillin antibiotics. No resistance to vancomycin antibiotics has been observed. It was concluded that the Ceyhan River was exposed to fecal bacterial contamination, and it was revealed that this situation would adversely affect both the ecosystem and human health. Measures to protect and improve the ecological and microbiological qualities of rivers and lakes are key to preserving the quality and quantity of water resources for the future.

References

  • Akçam, Z., Gönen, İ., Kaya, O. & Yaylı, G. (2004). The determination of susceptibility of beta-llactam antibiotics and extended spectrum beta-llactamase production in enterobactericeae which responsible from nosocomial infections. Süleyman Demirel Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Dergisi, 11(1): 6-9. (in Turkish)
  • Bircan Yıldırım, Y. & Vurmay, H. T. (2017). Antibiotic resistance profiles of the bacteria isolated from some finfish species in Iskenderun Bay (Northeastern Mediterranean Sea), Turkey. Pakistan Journal of Zoology, 49(4): 1353-1358.
  • Böger, B., Surek, M., Vilhena, R., Fachi, M., Junkert, A., Santos, J., Domingos, E., Cobre, A., Momade, D. & Pontarolo, R. (2021). Occurrence of antibiotics and antibiotic resistant bacteria in subtropical urban rivers in Brazil. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 402: 123448.
  • Can, B., Aydın, S., Öngen, B. & Gürler, N. (2005). Microorganisms isolated from catheter cultures and their resistance to antibiotics. Antibiyotik ve Kemoterapi Dergisi, 19(1): 22-24. (in Turkish)
  • Clark, R. B. (1989). Marine pollution, 2 nd ed., Clarendon Press, Oxford University Press, Inc., New York, 0198792921.
  • CLSI, (2015). Performance standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Twenty-fourth informational supplement. CLSI document M100-S24. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, Wayne, PA.
  • Çetinkaya, Z., Çiftçi, İ. H., Aktepe, O. C., Şafak, B. & Altındiş, M. (2005). Antibiotic susceptibility of Klebsiella strains isolated from clinical specimens. Antibiyotik ve Kemoterapi Dergisi, 19: 1-4. (in Turkish)
  • Çiçek, A., Kuzucu, Ç. & Durmaz, R. (2006). Bir yıl içerisinde kan kültürlerinden infeksiyon etkeni olarak izole edilen bakterilerin antibiyotik duyarlılıkları. Antibiyotik ve Kemoterapi Dergisi, 20(1); 13-17. (in Turkish)
  • Daughton, C. G. & Ternes, T. A. (1999). Pharmaceuticals and personal care products in the environment: agents of subtle change. Environmental Health Perspectives, 107: 907-938.
  • Gümüş, N. E., Karataş, M. & Akköz, C. (2013). Chemical and bacteriological properties of fresh water fountains of Karaman province. Journal of Applied Biological Sciences, 7(1): 61-65.
  • Gümüş, N. E., Aşıkkutlu, B., Keskinkaya, H. B. & Akköz, C. (2021). Comparison of heavy metal absorption of some algae isolated from Altınapa Dam Lake (Konya). Journal of Anatolian Environmental and Animal Sciences, 6(1): 50-56.
  • Günaydın, M., Esen, Ş., Saniç, A. & Leblebicioğlu, H. (2002). Sterilizasyon dezenfeksiyon ve hastane infeksiyonları. Simad Yayınları, Samsun, pp 283. (in Turkish)
  • Haznedaroglu, T. (2008). Metisilin dirençli S. aureus (MRSA) (korunma ve kontrol), Eğitim Kitapçığı, p. 1-9. (in Turkish)
  • Karayakar, F., Ay, Ö. & Cicik, B. (2004). The identification of plasmide dependent resistancy of Escherichia coli against some antibiotics isolated from stations on Mersin Shore line. Ekoloji Dergisi. 13(52): 28-32. (in Turkish)
  • Koneman, E. W., Allen, S. D., Janda, W. M., Schreckenberger, P. C. & Winn, C. W. (1992). The nonfermentative Gram-negative bacilli. Color Atlas and Textbook of Diagnostic Microbiology, p. 185-242.
  • Kurutaş Belge, E., Şahan, A. & Altun, T. (2009). Oxidative stres biomarkers in liver and gill tissues of spotted barb (Capoeta barroisi L, 1894) living in the River Ceyhan, Adana, Turkey. Turkish Journal Biolology, 33(4): 275-282.
  • Kümmerer, K. (2009). Antibiotics in the aquatic environment A Review Part I. Chemosphere, 75: 417-434.
  • Mena, K. D. & Gerba, C. P. (2009). Risk assessment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in water. Reviews of Environmental Contamination Toxicology. 201: 71-115.
  • Mirovic, V., Citic, J., Tomanovic, B. & Nonkovic, Z. (2000). Antimicrobial resistance of Enterococci from clinical specimens. Clinical Microbiology and Infection Journal, 6(suppl 1): 171.
  • Morinigo, M. A., Cornax, R., Romero, P. & Borrego, J. J. (1990). Survival of pathogenic microorganisms in sea water. Current Microbiology, 20, 293-298.
  • Nilsson, M., Frykberg, L., Flock, J. I., Pei, L., Lindberg, M. & Guss, B. (1998). A fibrinogen-binding protein of Staphylococcus epidermidis. Infection and Immunity, 66(6): 2666-2673.
  • Noori, R., Berndtsson, R., Hosseinzadeh, M., Adamowski, J. F. & Abyaneh, M. R. (2018). A critical review on the application of the national sanitation foundation water quality index. Environmental Pollution, 244: 575-587.
  • Sümer, Z., Bakıcı, Z., Türkay, C., Gökçe, G. & Gökgöz, Ş. (2001). The evaluation of mycroorganism isolated from urineand wound samples of hospitalized patients. Journal of Turkish Society of Microbiology; 31: 48-52. (in Turkish)

Year 2021, Volume 3, Issue 1, 7 - 14, 30.06.2021
https://doi.org/10.51756/marlife.913566

Abstract

Bu çalışmada İskenderun Körfezi (Kuzeydoğu Akdeniz)’ne dökülen Ceyhan Nehri’nin bakteriyolojik kirliliği ve bu bakterilerin antibiyotik dirençliliği incelenmiştir. Çalışma Mayıs 2014 - Nisan 2015 ayları arasında yapılmış olup, su örnekleri aylık peryotlar halinde alınmıştır. Alınan su örneklerinden 222 adet Gram (-) ve 74 adet Gram (+) bakteri izole edilmiş olup izolatlar Vitek II otomatize kültür sistemi yardımıyla 8 farklı tür olarak (Acinetobacter baumannii, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis) tanımlanmıştır. Mikroorganizma duyarlılık testleri CLSI (Clinical and Laboratory Standarts Institute,2015) kriterlerine uygun olarak gerçekleştirilmiştir. İzolatların yaygın kullanılan 15 farklı antibiyotiğe (Amikasin, Meropenem, Levofloxacin, İmipenem, Piperasilin, Gentamisin, Sefepim, Seftazidim Penicillin, Oksasilin, Klindamisin, Eritromisin, Siprofloxacin, Vancomycin, Rifampin) karşı dirençlilikleri araştırılmıştır. En yüksek antibiyotik direnci Penicillin antibiyotiğine karşı % 37 olarak E. faecalis türünde bulunmuştur. Vancomycin antibiyotiğine dirençlilik gözlenmemiştir. Sonuç olarak İskenderun Körfezi’ne dökülen Ceyhan Nehri’nin fekal bakteri kirliliğine maruz kaldığı sonucuna varılmış olup bu durumun hem ekosistem hem de insan sağlığını olumsuz yönde etkileyeceği kanısı ortaya konmuştur. Nehirlerin ve göllerin ekolojik ve mikrobiyolojik kalitelerinin korunması ve iyileştirilmesi konusundaki önlemler, gelecek için su kaynaklarının kalite ve kantitelerinin korunmasında kilit öneme sahiptir.

References

  • Akçam, Z., Gönen, İ., Kaya, O. & Yaylı, G. (2004). The determination of susceptibility of beta-llactam antibiotics and extended spectrum beta-llactamase production in enterobactericeae which responsible from nosocomial infections. Süleyman Demirel Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Dergisi, 11(1): 6-9. (in Turkish)
  • Bircan Yıldırım, Y. & Vurmay, H. T. (2017). Antibiotic resistance profiles of the bacteria isolated from some finfish species in Iskenderun Bay (Northeastern Mediterranean Sea), Turkey. Pakistan Journal of Zoology, 49(4): 1353-1358.
  • Böger, B., Surek, M., Vilhena, R., Fachi, M., Junkert, A., Santos, J., Domingos, E., Cobre, A., Momade, D. & Pontarolo, R. (2021). Occurrence of antibiotics and antibiotic resistant bacteria in subtropical urban rivers in Brazil. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 402: 123448.
  • Can, B., Aydın, S., Öngen, B. & Gürler, N. (2005). Microorganisms isolated from catheter cultures and their resistance to antibiotics. Antibiyotik ve Kemoterapi Dergisi, 19(1): 22-24. (in Turkish)
  • Clark, R. B. (1989). Marine pollution, 2 nd ed., Clarendon Press, Oxford University Press, Inc., New York, 0198792921.
  • CLSI, (2015). Performance standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Twenty-fourth informational supplement. CLSI document M100-S24. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, Wayne, PA.
  • Çetinkaya, Z., Çiftçi, İ. H., Aktepe, O. C., Şafak, B. & Altındiş, M. (2005). Antibiotic susceptibility of Klebsiella strains isolated from clinical specimens. Antibiyotik ve Kemoterapi Dergisi, 19: 1-4. (in Turkish)
  • Çiçek, A., Kuzucu, Ç. & Durmaz, R. (2006). Bir yıl içerisinde kan kültürlerinden infeksiyon etkeni olarak izole edilen bakterilerin antibiyotik duyarlılıkları. Antibiyotik ve Kemoterapi Dergisi, 20(1); 13-17. (in Turkish)
  • Daughton, C. G. & Ternes, T. A. (1999). Pharmaceuticals and personal care products in the environment: agents of subtle change. Environmental Health Perspectives, 107: 907-938.
  • Gümüş, N. E., Karataş, M. & Akköz, C. (2013). Chemical and bacteriological properties of fresh water fountains of Karaman province. Journal of Applied Biological Sciences, 7(1): 61-65.
  • Gümüş, N. E., Aşıkkutlu, B., Keskinkaya, H. B. & Akköz, C. (2021). Comparison of heavy metal absorption of some algae isolated from Altınapa Dam Lake (Konya). Journal of Anatolian Environmental and Animal Sciences, 6(1): 50-56.
  • Günaydın, M., Esen, Ş., Saniç, A. & Leblebicioğlu, H. (2002). Sterilizasyon dezenfeksiyon ve hastane infeksiyonları. Simad Yayınları, Samsun, pp 283. (in Turkish)
  • Haznedaroglu, T. (2008). Metisilin dirençli S. aureus (MRSA) (korunma ve kontrol), Eğitim Kitapçığı, p. 1-9. (in Turkish)
  • Karayakar, F., Ay, Ö. & Cicik, B. (2004). The identification of plasmide dependent resistancy of Escherichia coli against some antibiotics isolated from stations on Mersin Shore line. Ekoloji Dergisi. 13(52): 28-32. (in Turkish)
  • Koneman, E. W., Allen, S. D., Janda, W. M., Schreckenberger, P. C. & Winn, C. W. (1992). The nonfermentative Gram-negative bacilli. Color Atlas and Textbook of Diagnostic Microbiology, p. 185-242.
  • Kurutaş Belge, E., Şahan, A. & Altun, T. (2009). Oxidative stres biomarkers in liver and gill tissues of spotted barb (Capoeta barroisi L, 1894) living in the River Ceyhan, Adana, Turkey. Turkish Journal Biolology, 33(4): 275-282.
  • Kümmerer, K. (2009). Antibiotics in the aquatic environment A Review Part I. Chemosphere, 75: 417-434.
  • Mena, K. D. & Gerba, C. P. (2009). Risk assessment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in water. Reviews of Environmental Contamination Toxicology. 201: 71-115.
  • Mirovic, V., Citic, J., Tomanovic, B. & Nonkovic, Z. (2000). Antimicrobial resistance of Enterococci from clinical specimens. Clinical Microbiology and Infection Journal, 6(suppl 1): 171.
  • Morinigo, M. A., Cornax, R., Romero, P. & Borrego, J. J. (1990). Survival of pathogenic microorganisms in sea water. Current Microbiology, 20, 293-298.
  • Nilsson, M., Frykberg, L., Flock, J. I., Pei, L., Lindberg, M. & Guss, B. (1998). A fibrinogen-binding protein of Staphylococcus epidermidis. Infection and Immunity, 66(6): 2666-2673.
  • Noori, R., Berndtsson, R., Hosseinzadeh, M., Adamowski, J. F. & Abyaneh, M. R. (2018). A critical review on the application of the national sanitation foundation water quality index. Environmental Pollution, 244: 575-587.
  • Sümer, Z., Bakıcı, Z., Türkay, C., Gökçe, G. & Gökgöz, Ş. (2001). The evaluation of mycroorganism isolated from urineand wound samples of hospitalized patients. Journal of Turkish Society of Microbiology; 31: 48-52. (in Turkish)

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Engineering, Marine, Environmental Engineering, Marine and Freshwater Biology
Published Date 2021
Journal Section Research Articles
Authors

Esra BIÇKICI
ISKENDERUN TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY, FACULTY OF MARINE SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF MARINE SCIENCES
0000-0001-7124-772X
Türkiye


Meltem EKEN (Primary Author)
ISKENDERUN TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY, FACULTY OF MARINE SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF MARINE SCIENCES
0000-0002-4831-2885
Türkiye

Supporting Institution Mustafa Kemal Universitesi Bilimsel Araştırmalar Koordinatörlüğü
Project Number BAP 2013/ 8981
Thanks Desteklerinden dolayı MKU-BAP birimine teşekkür ederiz.
Publication Date June 30, 2021
Application Date April 11, 2021
Acceptance Date May 22, 2021
Published in Issue Year 2021, Volume 3, Issue 1

Cite

APA Bıçkıcı, E. & Eken, M. (2021). Investigation of bacterial pollution in Ceyhan River (Turkey) and the resistance levels of gram (+) and gram (-) bacteria to antibiotics . Marine and Life Sciences , 3 (1) , 7-14 . DOI: 10.51756/marlife.913566

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