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FİNANSAL SİSTEMİN MEKÂNSAL ÖRGÜTLENMESİ: 19. YÜZYILDA LONDRA’NIN FİNANS MERKEZİ OLMASI

Year 2021, Volume 13, Issue 25, 498 - 515, 31.07.2021
https://doi.org/10.14784/marufacd.976575

Abstract

Finansal gelişmişlik ve ekonomik büyüme arasında pozitif korelasyon olduğunu gösteren çok sayıda çalışma vardır. Finans merkezleri de daha büyük ölçekli işlem hacmiyle finansal işlemlerin ve kurumların kümelendiği işlem maliyetlerini azaltan bir mekânsal örgütlenme şeklinde ortaya çıkmıştır. Bu çerçevede Avrupa’nın Büyük Ayrışma sürecini yaşadığı 19. yüzyılda finans merkezlerinin ilk modern örneklerinden biri olan Londra örneğini açıklamak finansal sistemin mekânsal örgütlenmesini anlayabilmek açısından önem arz etmektedir. Bu bağlamda bu çalışmanın amacı; 19. yüzyılda Londra’nın finans merkezi olabilmesine imkân tanıyan faktörleri ve bu örgütlenmenin etkilerini inceleyebilmektir. Birincil ve ikincil önemdeki faktörlerin tümünün İngiltere’de gerçekleşmesi ve Londra’nın kurumsal ve ekonomik açıdan avantajlı pozisyonu sayesinde finans merkezi olduğu sonucuna ulaşılmıştır.

References

  • ABU-BADER, S. ve ABU-QARN, A. S. (2008). Financial Development and Economic Growth: Empirical Evidence From Six MENA Countries, Review of Development Economics, vol.12, Issue 4, 803-817
  • ACEMOĞLU, D., LAIBSON, D. ve LIST, J. (2015), Macroeconomics, Pearson, UK.
  • ACEMOĞLU, D., JOHNSON, S. ve ROBINSON, J. (2005). The Rise of Europe: Atlantic Trade, Institutional Change and Economic Growth. American Economic Review, Vol: 95/3, 551-563
  • ALCHIAN, A. A., ve DEMSETZ, H. (1973). The Property Right Paradigm. The Journal of Economic History, 33(1), 16-27.
  • ARMOUR, J., ve LELE, P. (2009). Law, Finance, and Politics: The Case of India. Law & Society Review, 43(3), 491-526.
  • BANK FOR INTERNATİONAL SETTLEMENTS (BIS), (2019). Triennial Central Bank Survey: Foreign Exchance Turnover in April 2019, Monetary and Economic Department, Basel
  • BARNETT, H. (2013). Constitutional & Administrative Law, Tenth Edition, Routledge, USA.
  • BEREND, I. T. (2006). An Economic History of Twentieth Century Europe, Cambridge University Press, UK.
  • BHATTACHARYA, A. K. (2011). The Feasibility of Establishing an International Financial Center in Shanghai, Journal of Asia-Pasific Business, 12(2), 123-140
  • CAMERON, R. ve NEAL, L. (2003). A Concise Economic History of The World: From Paleolithic Times to The Present, Oxford University Press, Fourth Edition, USA
  • CAPORALE, G. M. ve RAULT, C., SOVA, A. D., SOVA, R. (2015). Financial Development and Economic Growth: Evidence From 10 New European Union Members. International Journal of Finance & Economics, 20(1), 48-60.
  • CARLOS, A.M. ve NEAL L. (2011). Amsterdam and London as Financial Centers in The Eighteenth Century, Financial History Review, 18 (1), 21-46
  • CASSIS, Y. (2006). Capitals of Capital: A History of International Financial Centres 1780-2005, Cambridge University Press, UK.
  • CLARK, G. (2007). A Farewell to Alms: A Brief Economic History of The World, Princeton University Press, USA
  • COASE, R. (1937). The Nature of Firm. Economica, vol.4, No:16, 1937, 386-405
  • COTTRELL, P. L. (1992). The Domestic Commercial Banks and The City of London, 1870–1939. In Finance and Financiers in European History 1880–1960, edited by Youssef Cassis. Cambridge Unıversity Press, UK, 39-62.
  • ÇETİN, T. (2012). Yeni Kurumsal İktisat. Sosyoloji Konferanslari, (45). 43-77
  • DEANE, P. (1979). The First Industrial Revolution, Cambridge University Press, U.K. Second Edition.
  • DENZEL, M. A., (2010). Handbook of World Exchange Rates 1590-1914, Routledge.UK.
  • DOERINGER, P. B. ve TERKLA D. G. (1996). Why Do Industries Cluster?, In Business Networks: Prospects for Regional Development, edited by U. H. Staber , N. V. Schaefer, and B. Sharma. Berlin: De Gruyter Studies in Organization, 175-189.
  • DUFEY, G. ve GIDDY, I. H. (1978). The International Money Market, Prentice-Hall, USA
  • FREEMAN, C. ve LOUÇÃ, F. (2001). As Time Goes By: From The Industrial Revolution to The Information Revolution, Oxford University Press, UK
  • FUKUYAMA, Francis. (1995). Trust: The Social Virtues and The Creation of Prosperity, The Free Press, New York.
  • GOROSTIAGA, X. (1984). Role of International Financial Centres in Underdeveloped Countries, Croom Helm.
  • GUELLEC, D., (2007). Historical Insights, The Economics of The European Patent System: IP Policy for Innovation and Competition, Ed: Dominique Guellec, Bruno van Pottelsberghe de la Potterie, Oxford University Press, UK, pp.20
  • GÜNDOĞDU, A., ve DİZMAN, A. S. (2013). İstanbul Finans Merkezi Projesinin Swot Analizi ile Değerlendirilmesi ve Dünya Finans Merkezleri ile Kıyaslanması. Ekonomi Bilimleri Dergisi, 5(1), 1-15.
  • GÜRAN, T. (2012). İktisat Tarihi, Der Yayınları, İstanbul.
  • HEENAN, D. A. (1977). Global Cities of Tomorrow, Harvard Business Review, 55, pp. 79–92
  • JACOBS, J. (1986). Cities and The Wealth of Nations: Principles of Economic Life. Vintage. Penguin Books, Harmondsworth, Middlesex, 257.
  • JAO, Y.C. (1997). Hong Kong as a Financial Centre of Greater China” Centre for Asian Pasific Studies Working Paper, No:53 (9/97)
  • JONES, G. (1992). International Financial Centres in Asia, The Middle East and Australia: a Historical Perspective, Finance and Financiers in European History 1880-1960, Ed: Youssef Cassis, Cambridge University Press, UK, 405-428
  • JOHNSON, H. G. (1976). Panama as a Regional Financial Center: A Preliminary Analysis of Development Contribution, Economic Development and Cultural Change, Vol. 24, No. 2, 261-286
  • KAMA, O (2011). Yeni Kurumsal İktisat Okulunun Temelleri. Gazi Universitesi Iktisadi ve Idari Bilimler Fakultesi Dergisi, 13(2), 183-204.
  • KINDLEBERGER, C. P. (1974). The Formation of Financial Centers: A Study in Comparative Economic History. Princeton Studies in International Finance, No. 36.
  • KING, R. G., ve LEVINE, R. (1993). Finance and Growth: Schumpeter Might Be Right. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 108(3), 717-737.
  • KNOX, P. L. (1995). World Cities in a world system. In P. L. Knox & P. J. Taylor (Eds.), World Cities in a World-System, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 3–20.
  • LEVINE, R. ve DEMİRGÜÇ-KUNT, A., BECK, T. (2001). Law, Politics, and Finance. Policy Research Working Paper, The World Bank, No: 2585
  • MACHLUP, F. ve PENROSE, E. (1950). The Patent Controversy in The Nineteenth Century, The Journal of Economic History, Vol: 10, No:1, 3
  • MADDISON, A. (1995), Monitoring the World Economy 1820-1992, OECD Development Centre, Paris.
  • MILKES, E. R. (2006). Corn Laws, Repeal Of, Europe 1789 to 1914, Encyclopedia Of The Age Of Industry And Empire, Vol.2, Ed. John Merriman, Jay Winter, Thomson Gale, USA, 557-560
  • MISHKIN, F. S. (2019). The Economics of Money, Banking and Financial Markets, Pearson, UK, 12. Edition.
  • MITCHELL, B.R., (1998a). International Historical Statistics: Europe 1750-1993, Macmillan, UK, Fourth Edition.
  • MITCHELL, B.R., (1998b). International Historical Statistics: Africa, Asia & Oceania 1750-1993, Macmillan, UK, Third Edition.
  • MOLLAN, S., ve MICHIE, R. (2012). The City of London as an International Commercial and Financial Center Since 1900. Enterprise & Society, 13(3), 538-587.
  • NORTH, D. C. (1991). Institutions. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 5(1), 97-112.
  • NORTH, D. C. (1993). Institutions and Credible Commitment. Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics (JITE)/Zeitschrift für die gesamte Staatswissenschaft, 11-23.
  • NORTH, D. C., ve WEINGAST, B. R. (1989). Constitutions and Commitment: The Evolution of Institutions Governing Public Choice in Seventeenth-Century England. The Journal of Economic History, 49(4), 803-832.
  • ÖZKAN, İ. E. (2015). İstanbul Finans Merkezinin Uluslararası Bir Karşılaştırması. İstanbul Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, İstanbul Araştırmaları Anabilim Dalı, Yayımlanmamış Yüksek Lisans Tezi. İstanbul
  • PATTERSON, E. S. (1916). London and New York as Financial Centers. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 68(1), 264-277.
  • PARK, Y. S. (1989). Introduction to International Financial Centers: Their Origin and Recent Developments”, International Banking and Financial Centers, Ed: Yoon S. Park, Musa Essayyad, Kluwer Academic Pub., 3
  • PORTER, M. E. (1998). Clusters and The New Economics of Competition. Harvard Business Review, 76(6), 77-90
  • REED, H. C. (1981). The Preeminence of International Financial Centers, Praeger. USA
  • SHIN, K. H., ve TIMBERLAKE, M. (2000). World cities in Asia: Cliques, Centrality and Connectedness. Urban Studies, 37(12), 2257-2285.
  • SUSSMAN, N. ve YAFEH, Y. (2006). Institutional Reforms, Financial Development and Sovereign Debt: Britain 1690-1790. Journal of Economic History, 906-935.
  • TEKER, S., ve TEKER, D. (2011). Istanbul as an International Financial Center: Pros and Cons. Finans Politik & Ekonomik Yorumlar Dergisi, 48(561), 57-67.
  • TSPAKB. (2007). Global Finans Merkezleri ve İstanbul, Ed: İlkay Arıkan. İstanbul
  • WASSERMAN, M. J. (1963). International Finance, Heath. USA
  • WILLIAMSON, O. (1975). Markets and Hierarchies: Analysis and Antitrust Implications: A Study in the Economics of Internal Organization, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign's Academy for Entrepreneurial Leadership Historical Research Reference in Entrepreneurship, Free Press, New York.
  • WILSON, J. F. ve POPP, A. (2003). Districts, Networks and Clusters in England: An Introduction. In Industrial Clusters and Regional Business Networks in England, 1750 – 1970, Edited by J. F. Wilson and A. Popp. Aldershot, UK, Ashgate, 1-18.
  • WOLDE-RUFAEL, Y. (2009). Re-examining The Financial Development and Economic Growth Nexus in Kenya, Economic Modelling, Vol.26, Issue 6, 1140-1146
  • MADDISON PROJECT DATABASE (2018). https://www.rug.nl/ggdc/historicaldevelopment/maddison/releases/maddison-project-database-2018?lang=en (Erişim Tarihi: 23.07.2020)

Year 2021, Volume 13, Issue 25, 498 - 515, 31.07.2021
https://doi.org/10.14784/marufacd.976575

Abstract

References

  • ABU-BADER, S. ve ABU-QARN, A. S. (2008). Financial Development and Economic Growth: Empirical Evidence From Six MENA Countries, Review of Development Economics, vol.12, Issue 4, 803-817
  • ACEMOĞLU, D., LAIBSON, D. ve LIST, J. (2015), Macroeconomics, Pearson, UK.
  • ACEMOĞLU, D., JOHNSON, S. ve ROBINSON, J. (2005). The Rise of Europe: Atlantic Trade, Institutional Change and Economic Growth. American Economic Review, Vol: 95/3, 551-563
  • ALCHIAN, A. A., ve DEMSETZ, H. (1973). The Property Right Paradigm. The Journal of Economic History, 33(1), 16-27.
  • ARMOUR, J., ve LELE, P. (2009). Law, Finance, and Politics: The Case of India. Law & Society Review, 43(3), 491-526.
  • BANK FOR INTERNATİONAL SETTLEMENTS (BIS), (2019). Triennial Central Bank Survey: Foreign Exchance Turnover in April 2019, Monetary and Economic Department, Basel
  • BARNETT, H. (2013). Constitutional & Administrative Law, Tenth Edition, Routledge, USA.
  • BEREND, I. T. (2006). An Economic History of Twentieth Century Europe, Cambridge University Press, UK.
  • BHATTACHARYA, A. K. (2011). The Feasibility of Establishing an International Financial Center in Shanghai, Journal of Asia-Pasific Business, 12(2), 123-140
  • CAMERON, R. ve NEAL, L. (2003). A Concise Economic History of The World: From Paleolithic Times to The Present, Oxford University Press, Fourth Edition, USA
  • CAPORALE, G. M. ve RAULT, C., SOVA, A. D., SOVA, R. (2015). Financial Development and Economic Growth: Evidence From 10 New European Union Members. International Journal of Finance & Economics, 20(1), 48-60.
  • CARLOS, A.M. ve NEAL L. (2011). Amsterdam and London as Financial Centers in The Eighteenth Century, Financial History Review, 18 (1), 21-46
  • CASSIS, Y. (2006). Capitals of Capital: A History of International Financial Centres 1780-2005, Cambridge University Press, UK.
  • CLARK, G. (2007). A Farewell to Alms: A Brief Economic History of The World, Princeton University Press, USA
  • COASE, R. (1937). The Nature of Firm. Economica, vol.4, No:16, 1937, 386-405
  • COTTRELL, P. L. (1992). The Domestic Commercial Banks and The City of London, 1870–1939. In Finance and Financiers in European History 1880–1960, edited by Youssef Cassis. Cambridge Unıversity Press, UK, 39-62.
  • ÇETİN, T. (2012). Yeni Kurumsal İktisat. Sosyoloji Konferanslari, (45). 43-77
  • DEANE, P. (1979). The First Industrial Revolution, Cambridge University Press, U.K. Second Edition.
  • DENZEL, M. A., (2010). Handbook of World Exchange Rates 1590-1914, Routledge.UK.
  • DOERINGER, P. B. ve TERKLA D. G. (1996). Why Do Industries Cluster?, In Business Networks: Prospects for Regional Development, edited by U. H. Staber , N. V. Schaefer, and B. Sharma. Berlin: De Gruyter Studies in Organization, 175-189.
  • DUFEY, G. ve GIDDY, I. H. (1978). The International Money Market, Prentice-Hall, USA
  • FREEMAN, C. ve LOUÇÃ, F. (2001). As Time Goes By: From The Industrial Revolution to The Information Revolution, Oxford University Press, UK
  • FUKUYAMA, Francis. (1995). Trust: The Social Virtues and The Creation of Prosperity, The Free Press, New York.
  • GOROSTIAGA, X. (1984). Role of International Financial Centres in Underdeveloped Countries, Croom Helm.
  • GUELLEC, D., (2007). Historical Insights, The Economics of The European Patent System: IP Policy for Innovation and Competition, Ed: Dominique Guellec, Bruno van Pottelsberghe de la Potterie, Oxford University Press, UK, pp.20
  • GÜNDOĞDU, A., ve DİZMAN, A. S. (2013). İstanbul Finans Merkezi Projesinin Swot Analizi ile Değerlendirilmesi ve Dünya Finans Merkezleri ile Kıyaslanması. Ekonomi Bilimleri Dergisi, 5(1), 1-15.
  • GÜRAN, T. (2012). İktisat Tarihi, Der Yayınları, İstanbul.
  • HEENAN, D. A. (1977). Global Cities of Tomorrow, Harvard Business Review, 55, pp. 79–92
  • JACOBS, J. (1986). Cities and The Wealth of Nations: Principles of Economic Life. Vintage. Penguin Books, Harmondsworth, Middlesex, 257.
  • JAO, Y.C. (1997). Hong Kong as a Financial Centre of Greater China” Centre for Asian Pasific Studies Working Paper, No:53 (9/97)
  • JONES, G. (1992). International Financial Centres in Asia, The Middle East and Australia: a Historical Perspective, Finance and Financiers in European History 1880-1960, Ed: Youssef Cassis, Cambridge University Press, UK, 405-428
  • JOHNSON, H. G. (1976). Panama as a Regional Financial Center: A Preliminary Analysis of Development Contribution, Economic Development and Cultural Change, Vol. 24, No. 2, 261-286
  • KAMA, O (2011). Yeni Kurumsal İktisat Okulunun Temelleri. Gazi Universitesi Iktisadi ve Idari Bilimler Fakultesi Dergisi, 13(2), 183-204.
  • KINDLEBERGER, C. P. (1974). The Formation of Financial Centers: A Study in Comparative Economic History. Princeton Studies in International Finance, No. 36.
  • KING, R. G., ve LEVINE, R. (1993). Finance and Growth: Schumpeter Might Be Right. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 108(3), 717-737.
  • KNOX, P. L. (1995). World Cities in a world system. In P. L. Knox & P. J. Taylor (Eds.), World Cities in a World-System, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 3–20.
  • LEVINE, R. ve DEMİRGÜÇ-KUNT, A., BECK, T. (2001). Law, Politics, and Finance. Policy Research Working Paper, The World Bank, No: 2585
  • MACHLUP, F. ve PENROSE, E. (1950). The Patent Controversy in The Nineteenth Century, The Journal of Economic History, Vol: 10, No:1, 3
  • MADDISON, A. (1995), Monitoring the World Economy 1820-1992, OECD Development Centre, Paris.
  • MILKES, E. R. (2006). Corn Laws, Repeal Of, Europe 1789 to 1914, Encyclopedia Of The Age Of Industry And Empire, Vol.2, Ed. John Merriman, Jay Winter, Thomson Gale, USA, 557-560
  • MISHKIN, F. S. (2019). The Economics of Money, Banking and Financial Markets, Pearson, UK, 12. Edition.
  • MITCHELL, B.R., (1998a). International Historical Statistics: Europe 1750-1993, Macmillan, UK, Fourth Edition.
  • MITCHELL, B.R., (1998b). International Historical Statistics: Africa, Asia & Oceania 1750-1993, Macmillan, UK, Third Edition.
  • MOLLAN, S., ve MICHIE, R. (2012). The City of London as an International Commercial and Financial Center Since 1900. Enterprise & Society, 13(3), 538-587.
  • NORTH, D. C. (1991). Institutions. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 5(1), 97-112.
  • NORTH, D. C. (1993). Institutions and Credible Commitment. Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics (JITE)/Zeitschrift für die gesamte Staatswissenschaft, 11-23.
  • NORTH, D. C., ve WEINGAST, B. R. (1989). Constitutions and Commitment: The Evolution of Institutions Governing Public Choice in Seventeenth-Century England. The Journal of Economic History, 49(4), 803-832.
  • ÖZKAN, İ. E. (2015). İstanbul Finans Merkezinin Uluslararası Bir Karşılaştırması. İstanbul Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, İstanbul Araştırmaları Anabilim Dalı, Yayımlanmamış Yüksek Lisans Tezi. İstanbul
  • PATTERSON, E. S. (1916). London and New York as Financial Centers. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 68(1), 264-277.
  • PARK, Y. S. (1989). Introduction to International Financial Centers: Their Origin and Recent Developments”, International Banking and Financial Centers, Ed: Yoon S. Park, Musa Essayyad, Kluwer Academic Pub., 3
  • PORTER, M. E. (1998). Clusters and The New Economics of Competition. Harvard Business Review, 76(6), 77-90
  • REED, H. C. (1981). The Preeminence of International Financial Centers, Praeger. USA
  • SHIN, K. H., ve TIMBERLAKE, M. (2000). World cities in Asia: Cliques, Centrality and Connectedness. Urban Studies, 37(12), 2257-2285.
  • SUSSMAN, N. ve YAFEH, Y. (2006). Institutional Reforms, Financial Development and Sovereign Debt: Britain 1690-1790. Journal of Economic History, 906-935.
  • TEKER, S., ve TEKER, D. (2011). Istanbul as an International Financial Center: Pros and Cons. Finans Politik & Ekonomik Yorumlar Dergisi, 48(561), 57-67.
  • TSPAKB. (2007). Global Finans Merkezleri ve İstanbul, Ed: İlkay Arıkan. İstanbul
  • WASSERMAN, M. J. (1963). International Finance, Heath. USA
  • WILLIAMSON, O. (1975). Markets and Hierarchies: Analysis and Antitrust Implications: A Study in the Economics of Internal Organization, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign's Academy for Entrepreneurial Leadership Historical Research Reference in Entrepreneurship, Free Press, New York.
  • WILSON, J. F. ve POPP, A. (2003). Districts, Networks and Clusters in England: An Introduction. In Industrial Clusters and Regional Business Networks in England, 1750 – 1970, Edited by J. F. Wilson and A. Popp. Aldershot, UK, Ashgate, 1-18.
  • WOLDE-RUFAEL, Y. (2009). Re-examining The Financial Development and Economic Growth Nexus in Kenya, Economic Modelling, Vol.26, Issue 6, 1140-1146
  • MADDISON PROJECT DATABASE (2018). https://www.rug.nl/ggdc/historicaldevelopment/maddison/releases/maddison-project-database-2018?lang=en (Erişim Tarihi: 23.07.2020)

Details

Primary Language Turkish
Subjects Social
Journal Section Makaleler
Authors

Cihan GÜNEŞ
ANKARA YILDIRIM BEYAZIT ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0001-5773-3721
Türkiye


Mert AKYÜZ
ANKARA YILDIRIM BEYAZIT ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-2322-3384
Türkiye

Publication Date July 31, 2021
Application Date September 21, 2020
Acceptance Date May 26, 2021
Published in Issue Year 2021, Volume 13, Issue 25

Cite

Bibtex @research article { marufacd976575, journal = {Finansal Araştırmalar ve Çalışmalar Dergisi}, issn = {1309-1123}, eissn = {2529-0029}, address = {}, publisher = {Marmara University}, year = {2021}, volume = {13}, number = {25}, pages = {498 - 515}, doi = {10.14784/marufacd.976575}, title = {FİNANSAL SİSTEMİN MEKÂNSAL ÖRGÜTLENMESİ: 19. YÜZYILDA LONDRA’NIN FİNANS MERKEZİ OLMASI}, key = {cite}, author = {Güneş, Cihan and Akyüz, Mert} }
APA Güneş, C. & Akyüz, M. (2021). FİNANSAL SİSTEMİN MEKÂNSAL ÖRGÜTLENMESİ: 19. YÜZYILDA LONDRA’NIN FİNANS MERKEZİ OLMASI . Finansal Araştırmalar ve Çalışmalar Dergisi , 13 (25) , 498-515 . DOI: 10.14784/marufacd.976575
MLA Güneş, C. , Akyüz, M. "FİNANSAL SİSTEMİN MEKÂNSAL ÖRGÜTLENMESİ: 19. YÜZYILDA LONDRA’NIN FİNANS MERKEZİ OLMASI" . Finansal Araştırmalar ve Çalışmalar Dergisi 13 (2021 ): 498-515 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/marufacd/issue/64293/976575>
Chicago Güneş, C. , Akyüz, M. "FİNANSAL SİSTEMİN MEKÂNSAL ÖRGÜTLENMESİ: 19. YÜZYILDA LONDRA’NIN FİNANS MERKEZİ OLMASI". Finansal Araştırmalar ve Çalışmalar Dergisi 13 (2021 ): 498-515
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - FİNANSAL SİSTEMİN MEKÂNSAL ÖRGÜTLENMESİ: 19. YÜZYILDA LONDRA’NIN FİNANS MERKEZİ OLMASI AU - Cihan Güneş , Mert Akyüz Y1 - 2021 PY - 2021 N1 - doi: 10.14784/marufacd.976575 DO - 10.14784/marufacd.976575 T2 - Finansal Araştırmalar ve Çalışmalar Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 498 EP - 515 VL - 13 IS - 25 SN - 1309-1123-2529-0029 M3 - doi: 10.14784/marufacd.976575 UR - https://doi.org/10.14784/marufacd.976575 Y2 - 2021 ER -
EndNote %0 The Journal of Financial Researches and Studies FİNANSAL SİSTEMİN MEKÂNSAL ÖRGÜTLENMESİ: 19. YÜZYILDA LONDRA’NIN FİNANS MERKEZİ OLMASI %A Cihan Güneş , Mert Akyüz %T FİNANSAL SİSTEMİN MEKÂNSAL ÖRGÜTLENMESİ: 19. YÜZYILDA LONDRA’NIN FİNANS MERKEZİ OLMASI %D 2021 %J Finansal Araştırmalar ve Çalışmalar Dergisi %P 1309-1123-2529-0029 %V 13 %N 25 %R doi: 10.14784/marufacd.976575 %U 10.14784/marufacd.976575
ISNAD Güneş, Cihan , Akyüz, Mert . "FİNANSAL SİSTEMİN MEKÂNSAL ÖRGÜTLENMESİ: 19. YÜZYILDA LONDRA’NIN FİNANS MERKEZİ OLMASI". Finansal Araştırmalar ve Çalışmalar Dergisi 13 / 25 (July 2021): 498-515 . https://doi.org/10.14784/marufacd.976575
AMA Güneş C. , Akyüz M. FİNANSAL SİSTEMİN MEKÂNSAL ÖRGÜTLENMESİ: 19. YÜZYILDA LONDRA’NIN FİNANS MERKEZİ OLMASI. JFRS. 2021; 13(25): 498-515.
Vancouver Güneş C. , Akyüz M. FİNANSAL SİSTEMİN MEKÂNSAL ÖRGÜTLENMESİ: 19. YÜZYILDA LONDRA’NIN FİNANS MERKEZİ OLMASI. Finansal Araştırmalar ve Çalışmalar Dergisi. 2021; 13(25): 498-515.
IEEE C. Güneş and M. Akyüz , "FİNANSAL SİSTEMİN MEKÂNSAL ÖRGÜTLENMESİ: 19. YÜZYILDA LONDRA’NIN FİNANS MERKEZİ OLMASI", Finansal Araştırmalar ve Çalışmalar Dergisi, vol. 13, no. 25, pp. 498-515, Jul. 2021, doi:10.14784/marufacd.976575