Research Article
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Türkiye’de Seçim Bütünlüğü ve Seçim Gözlemi

Year 2018, Volume 6, Issue 1, 143 - 168, 04.04.2018
https://doi.org/10.14782/marusbd.412637

Abstract

Siyasi kutuplaşmalar, popülist söylemlerin yükselişi ve küresel ölçekte risk toplumunun gelişimi, seçim
bütünlüğü ve meşruiyetini olumsuz etkilemektedir. Bu bağlamda, yerel seçim gözlemi adil, güvenli ve
şeffaf seçim süreçlerinin sağlanabilmesi için bir zorunluluk olmaktadır. Türkiye’de seçimleri gözlemleyen
çeşitli sivil toplum örgütleri ve aktörleri olmakla birlikte, yerel seçim gözlem kuruluşu şekilde çalışan
bir sivil toplum kuruluşu, Oy ve Ötesi, bulunmaktadır. Türkiye’de seçim çalışmaları seçim bütünlüğü
kavramı üzerinde durmamakta ve vatandaşlar yerel seçim gözlemi konusunda bilgi sahibi değildirler.
Bu makalenin amacı öncelikle seçim bütünlüğü kavramını tanımlamak ve yerel seçim gözleminin,

özellikle de siyasi kutuplaşmanın görüldüğü toplumlarda, öneminin altını çizmektir. Bu bağlamda,
iki araştırma sorusu bu makalenin temelini oluşturmaktadır: yerel seçim gözlem grupları Türkiye’de
seçim bütünlüğü ve meşruiyetini nasıl sağlayabilir? Oy ve Ötesi gönüllülerinin Türkiye’deki seçim
bütünlüğü üzerine düşünceleri nelerdir? Bu sorular çerçevesinde, makalede, Türkiye’de seçimlere dair
bilginin gelişmesi ve seçim meşruiyetinin sağlanması için çalışan Oy ve Ötesi derneğinin çalışmaları
ve gönüllülerinin seçim bütünlüğünün gelişimine katkısı incelenecektir. Çalışmanın verileri Oy ve
Ötesi Derneği’nin iki yöneticisi ile gerçekleştirilmiş derinlemesine görüşmenin ve gönüllüler arasında
gerçekleştirilmiş pilot anket çalışmasının verilerine dayanmaktadır. Çalışmanın ilk argümanı şöyledir:
küresel ölçekte gözlemlenen toplumsal ve siyasi kutuplaşma, popülizm ve gerçek sonrası söylemlerle
gelişen risk toplumu, seçim bütünlüğünü olumsuz etkilemektedir. İkinci argüman ise, seçimlerdeki
yanlış uygulamalar, vatandaşları seçimlere ve secim gözlemine katılmaya teşvik etmektedir. Bu yaklaşım
çerçevesinde, makale, Türkiye’deki seçim çalışmalarına teorik ve ampirik çerçevede bir katkı sağlamayı
hedeflemektedir.

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Electoral Integrity and Election Monitoring in Turkey

Year 2018, Volume 6, Issue 1, 143 - 168, 04.04.2018
https://doi.org/10.14782/marusbd.412637

Abstract

The political polarization, populist discourses and development of risk society inside the global context
have been causing damages on electoral integrity and legitimacy. Domestic election monitoring is a
necessity in order to establish a fair, secure and transparent election process. In Turkey, there is one
domestic monitoring organization, Vote and Beyond and a few non-governmental organizations trying
to observe elections. Elections in Turkey have not been analyzed around the concept of electoral
integrity and citizens are not aware of domestic monitoring. The aim of this paper is to present the
concept of electoral integrity and underline the importance of domestic monitoring, especially in
politically divided societies. Our two key questions for this article are: “how can domestic monitoring
organizations help to establish electoral integrity and legitimacy in Turkey?”, “what are the ideas of
volunteers at Vote and Beyond on electoral integrity in Turkey?” According to these questions, this
article aims to analyze the activities of Vote and Beyond aiming to develop electoral knowledge of
Turkish people and legitimacy of the elections in Turkey and the impact of volunteers working within
this NGO. Our analysis will be based on in-depth interviews with the founders and a pilot study of a
survey realized with volunteers of Vote and Beyond. The first argument relies on the idea that social
and political polarization and the development of global risks by populist and post-truth politics
have negative impacts on electoral integrity. And the second argument is that election malpractices
encourage more and more citizens to participate in election observation in order to prevent fraud
and corruption during the elections. Within this approach, the article aims to make a theoretical and
empirical contribution to electoral studies in Turkey.

References

  • Abts, K. & Rummens, S. (2007). Populism versus Democracy. Political Studies, 55, 405–424.
  • Alexander, J. (ed) (1998). Real Civil Societies. London: Sage.
  • Beck, U. (1992). Risk Society towards a new modernity. London: Sage.
  • Birch, S. (2008). Electoral institutions and popular confidence in electoral processes: A cross-national analysis. Electoral Studies, 27(2), 305-320.
  • Birch, S. (2010). Perceptions of Electoral Fairness and Voter Turnout. Comparative Political Studies, 43(12), 1601-1622.
  • Birch, S. (2012). Electoral Malpractice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Boily, F. (2005). Aux sources idéologiques du Front national : le mariage du traditionalisme et du populisme. Politique et Société, 24(1), 23-47.
  • Bowler, S., Brunell, T., Donovan, T., & Gronke, P. (2015). Election administration and perceptions of fair election. Electoral Studies, 38, 1-9.
  • Çakmaklı, D. (2015). Active citizenship in Turkey: learning citizenship in civil society organizations. Citizenship Studies, 19(3-4), 421-435.
  • Calhoun, C. (1993). Nationalism and civil society. International Sociology, 8(4), 387–412.
  • Calhoun, C. (1999). Habermas and the Public Sphere. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  • Canovan, M. (1999). Trust the People! Populism and the Two Faces of Democracy. Political Studies, 47, 2–16.
  • Canovan, M. (2002). Taking Politics to the People: Populism as the Ideology of Democracy. In Y. Mény & Y.
  • Surel (Eds.), Democracies and the Populist Challenge (pp. 25-44). New York: Palgrave.
  • Canovan, M. (2004). Populism for political theorists?. Journal of Political Ideologies, 9(3), 241-252.
  • Çarkoğlu A., Aytaç E. S., & Nisbet E. (2015). Haziran 2015 Seçimleri Türkiye Kamuoyu Dinamikleri Araştırması. Acik Bulten, 7(26), available at https://aciktoplumvakfi.org.tr/Dosyalar/ebulten/ ebulten_nisan_haziran_2015/ebulten_nisan_haziran_2015.html, last seen 25.07.2017.
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  • Çelebi, S. (2015). Civic Engagement In Turkey’s Democracy: The Case Of Oy ve Ötesi. Turkish Policy Quarterly, 13(4), 71-78.
  • Coffe H. (2017). Citizens’ media use and the accuracy of their perceptions of electoral integrity. International Political Science Review, 38(3), 281-297.
  • Cohen, J. (1999). American civil society talk. In R. Fullinwider (Ed.), Civil Society, Democracy and Civil Renewal (pp.31-54). Lanham/New York: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.
  • Cohen, J. & Arato, A. (1992). Civil Society and Political Theory. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
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  • El Baradei, L. (2012). The Role of Civil Society Organizations in Monitoring Elections: Lessons Learned for the New Egypt. International Journal of Public Administration, 35(9), 587-602.
  • Elklit, J. (2012). What kind of animal is electoral integrity. Pre-IPSA Workshop Challenges of Electoral Integrity. Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 7th July 2012.
  • Elklit, J. & Renolds, A. (2005). A framework for the systematic study of election quality. Democratization, 12(2), 147-162.
  • Fieschi, C., & Heywood, P. (2004). Trust, cynicism and populist anti‐politics. Journal of Political Ideologies, 9(3), 289-309.
  • Filc, D. (2011). Post-populism: explaining neo-liberal populism through the habitus. Journal of Political Ideologies, 16(02), 221-238.
  • Hyde, S. D. & Marinov, N. (2011). Codebook for National Elections across Democracy and Autocracy (NELDA).
  • Ichino, N.,& Matthias, S. (2012). Deterring or displacing electoral irregularities? Spillover effects of observers in a randomized field experiment in Ghana. Journal of Politics, 74(1): 292-307.
  • Igarashi, S. (2008). The dilemma of democratic consolidation in the Philippines: the contested role of civic organizations in electoral governance. Philippine Political Science Journal, 29(52), 79-116.
  • IPSOS (2017), Anayasa Degisikligi Referandumu Sandik Sonrasi Arastirmasi, available at https://www. ipsos.com/tr-tr/anayasa-degisikligi-referandumu-sandik-sonrasi-arastirmasi?language_content_ entity=tr-tr, last seen 31.07.2017.
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  • Kelley, J. (2008), Assessing the Complex Evolution Of Norms: The Rise of International Election Monitoring. International Organization, 62(2), 221-255.
  • Kelley, J. (2010). Quality of Elections Data Codebook. http://sites.duke.edu/kelley/data/. last seen at 25.07.2017.
  • Kenny, M. (2017). Back to the populist future?: understanding nostalgia in contemporary ideological discourse. Journal of Political Ideologies, DOI: 10.1080/13569317.2017.1346773.
  • Klassen, J. A. (2015). Popular Perceptions of Electoral Integrity: A Systematic Review and Global Meta- Analysis, DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.1.4751.4321.
  • Küçük, B.,& Özselçuk, C. (2015). Mesafeli’ Devletten ‘Hizmetkâr’ Devlete: AKP’nin Kısmi Tanıma Siyaseti. Toplum ve Bilim, 132, 162-190.
  • Laclau, E. (1977). Towards a theory of populism. In Ernest Laclau (Ed.). Politics and Ideology in Marxist Theory. London: New Left Books.
  • Lean, F. S. (2007). Democracy assistance to domestic election monitoring organizations: Conditions for success. Democratization, 14(2), 289-312.
  • Levitsky, S. & Way, L.A. (2010). Competitive Authoritarianism: Hybrid Regimes after the Cold War. New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • Levitt, J. (2014). Electoral integrity: the confidence game. New York University Law Review Online, 89(70), 70-86.
  • Makulilo, B. A. (2011). Watching the watcher: an evaluation of local election observers in Tanzania. The Journal of Modern African Studies, 49(2), 241262.
  • Maley, W. & Maley, M. (2016). Appraising electoral fraud: tensions and complexities. Conflict, Security&Development, 16(6), 653-671.
  • Martinez I Coma, F. & Trinh M. (2016). How electoral integrity affects voter turnout in democracies. Australian Journal of Political Science, DOI: 10.1080/10361146.2016.1238869.
  • McAllister, I. (2008). Public support for democracy: Results from the Comparative Study of Electoral Systems project. Electoral Studies, 27(1), 1-4.
  • McAllister, I. & Stephen, W. (2011). Public perceptions of electoral fairness in Russia. Europe-Asia Studies, 63(4): 663–683.
  • McAllister, I. & White, S. (2014). Electoral Integrity and Support for Democracy in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. Journal of Elections, Public Opinion and Parties, 25(1), 78-96.
  • McCann, J.A. & Domínguez, J.I. (1998). Mexicans react to political fraud and corruption: An assessment of public opinion and voting behavior. Electoral Studies, 17, 483–503.
  • Mudde, C. (2004). The Populist Zeitgeist. Government and Opposition, DOI: 10.1111/j.1477- 7053.2004.00135.x , 541-563.
  • Mudde, C. (2009). Populist Radical Right Parties in Europe Redux. Political Studies Review, 7(3), 330-337. Müller, K. B. (2006). The Civil Society–State Relationship in Contemporary Discourse: A Complementary Account from Giddens’ Perspective. BJPIR, 8, 311–330 .
  • Nevitte, N., A. & Canton, S. (1997). The role of domestic observers. Journal of Democracy, 8(3), 47-61.
  • Norris, P. (2004). Electoral engineering: voting rules and political behavior. New York: Cambridge University press.
  • Norris, P. (2012a). Are There Global Norms and Universal Standards of Electoral Integrity and Malpractice?
  • Comparing Public and Expert Perceptions. HKS Working Paper No. RWP12-010.
  • Norris, P. (2012b). Why Electoral Malpractices Heighten Risks of Electoral Violence. APSA 2012 Annual Meeting Paper. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2104551, last seen at 25.07.2017.
  • Norris, P. (2013(a)). The new research agenda studying electoral integrity. Electoral Studies, 32(4), 563-575.
  • Norris, P. (2013(b)). Does the world agree about standards of electoral integrity? Evidence for the diffusion of global norms. Electoral Studies, 32(4), 576-588.
  • Norris, P. (2014a). Why Electoral Integrity Matters. New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • Norris, P., & Grömping, M. (2017). Populist Threats to Electoral Integrity: The Year in Elections, 2016-2017. Sydney: University of Sydney.
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Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Political Science
Journal Section Makaleler
Authors

İşıl Zeynep TÜRKAN İPEK>

Publication Date April 4, 2018
Published in Issue Year 2018, Volume 6, Issue 1

Cite

Bibtex @research article { marusbd412637, journal = {Marmara Üniversitesi Siyasal Bilimler Dergisi}, issn = {2147-6934}, address = {}, publisher = {Marmara University}, year = {2018}, volume = {6}, number = {1}, pages = {143 - 168}, doi = {10.14782/marusbd.412637}, title = {Electoral Integrity and Election Monitoring in Turkey}, key = {cite}, author = {Türkan İpek, İşıl Zeynep} }
APA Türkan İpek, İ. Z. (2018). Electoral Integrity and Election Monitoring in Turkey . Marmara Üniversitesi Siyasal Bilimler Dergisi , 6 (1) , 143-168 . DOI: 10.14782/marusbd.412637
MLA Türkan İpek, İ. Z. "Electoral Integrity and Election Monitoring in Turkey" . Marmara Üniversitesi Siyasal Bilimler Dergisi 6 (2018 ): 143-168 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/marusbd/issue/33431/412637>
Chicago Türkan İpek, İ. Z. "Electoral Integrity and Election Monitoring in Turkey". Marmara Üniversitesi Siyasal Bilimler Dergisi 6 (2018 ): 143-168
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Electoral Integrity and Election Monitoring in Turkey AU - İşıl ZeynepTürkan İpek Y1 - 2018 PY - 2018 N1 - doi: 10.14782/marusbd.412637 DO - 10.14782/marusbd.412637 T2 - Marmara Üniversitesi Siyasal Bilimler Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 143 EP - 168 VL - 6 IS - 1 SN - 2147-6934- M3 - doi: 10.14782/marusbd.412637 UR - https://doi.org/10.14782/marusbd.412637 Y2 - 2018 ER -
EndNote %0 Journal of Political Science Electoral Integrity and Election Monitoring in Turkey %A İşıl Zeynep Türkan İpek %T Electoral Integrity and Election Monitoring in Turkey %D 2018 %J Marmara Üniversitesi Siyasal Bilimler Dergisi %P 2147-6934- %V 6 %N 1 %R doi: 10.14782/marusbd.412637 %U 10.14782/marusbd.412637
ISNAD Türkan İpek, İşıl Zeynep . "Electoral Integrity and Election Monitoring in Turkey". Marmara Üniversitesi Siyasal Bilimler Dergisi 6 / 1 (April 2018): 143-168 . https://doi.org/10.14782/marusbd.412637
AMA Türkan İpek İ. Z. Electoral Integrity and Election Monitoring in Turkey. Marmara Üniversitesi Siyasal Bilimler Dergisi. 2018; 6(1): 143-168.
Vancouver Türkan İpek İ. Z. Electoral Integrity and Election Monitoring in Turkey. Marmara Üniversitesi Siyasal Bilimler Dergisi. 2018; 6(1): 143-168.
IEEE İ. Z. Türkan İpek , "Electoral Integrity and Election Monitoring in Turkey", Marmara Üniversitesi Siyasal Bilimler Dergisi, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 143-168, Apr. 2018, doi:10.14782/marusbd.412637

Siyasal Bilimler Dergisi, Marmara Üniversitesi Siyasal Bilgiler Fakültesi’nin hakemli akademik yayınıdır. Altı ayda bir yayınlanır. Dergide yayınlanan makalelerdeki görüşler yazarlarına aittir. Yayın Kurulu tarafından benimsendiği anlamına gelmez. Yayın Kurulu, yazının özüne dokunmaksızın gerekli yazım ve cümle değişikliklerini yapma hakkını saklı tutar. Siyasal Bilimler Dergisi, ulusal (TÜBİTAK ULAKBİM Sosyal ve Beşerî Bilimler Veri Tabanı) ve uluslararası (EBSCO, ULRICH) alan endekslerinde taranmaktadır.  

 

Journal of Political Science is a peer-reviewed academic journal of Marmara University Faculty of Political Science. The journal is a biannual publication. All the views and opinions expressed in the articles are those of the authors and they do not necessarily reflect the views or opinions of the editor, the editorial board, or the publisher. The editorial board reserves the right to make necessary changes in spelling and sentences without changing content. The journal is indexed by EBSCO International Index, ULRICH's and the ULAKBİM Social and Human Sciences Database.