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The role of fatty acids in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

Year 2022, Volume 6, Issue 2, 214 - 220, 20.08.2022
https://doi.org/10.30565/medalanya.1059552

Abstract

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a childhood-onset disorder that affects 5% to 12% of children worldwide. Etiological factors, including nutrition, contribute to this disease, which is characterized by inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity symptoms. Fats, which form an important part of the daily diet, can have effects on ADHD and its symptoms. In the literature, it is stated that omega-3 fatty acids are low in children with ADHD, and supplementation studies may be effective in improving symptoms. In addition, high omega-6/omega-3 fatty acids ratio in the diet and diets rich in saturated and trans fatty acids are associated with ADHD. In this review, the relationship between ADHD and dietary fatty acids was evaluated.

References

  • 1. Martin A, H. Bloch M, R. Volkmar F. Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Lewis’s Child Adolesc. Psychiatry, A Compr. Textb. 5th ed., 2018.
  • 2. Verlaet AAJ, Noriega DB, Hermans N, Savelkoul HFJ. Nutrition, immunological mechanisms and dietary immunomodulation in ADHD. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2014;23:519–29. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00787-014-0522-2.
  • 3. Vaisman N, Kaysar N, Zaruk-Adasha Y, Pelled D, Brichon G, et al. Correlation between changes in blood fatty acid composition and visual sustained attention performance in children with inattention: effect of dietary n−3 fatty acids containing phospholipids. Am J Clin Nutr 2008;87:1170–80. https://doi.org/10.1093/AJCN/87.5.1170.
  • 4. Kim W, Deik A, Gonzalez C, Gonzalez ME, Fu F, et al. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Desaturation Is a Mechanism for GlycolyticNAD+ Recycling. Cell Metab 2019;29:856. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.CMET.2018.12.023.
  • 5. Paidipalli M, Pjescic I, Hindmarsh PL, Crews ND. Single-step intercalating dye strategies for DNA damage studies. J Microbiol Methods 2013;94:144-151. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mimet.2013.06.002.
  • 6. Mazidi M, Vatanparast H. Serum trans-fatty acids level are positively associated with lower food security among american adults. Nutr Diabetes 2018;8. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41387-017-0008-7.
  • 7. Hawkey E, Nigg JT. Omega-3 fatty acid and ADHD: blood level analysis and meta-analytic extension of supplementation trials. Clin Psychol Rev 2014;34:496–505. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2014.05.005.
  • 8. Howard AL, Robinson M, Smith GJ, Ambrosini GL, Piek JP, et al. ADHD is associated with a “Western” dietary pattern in adolescents. J Atten Disord 2011;15:403–11. https://doi.org/10.1177/1087054710365990.
  • 9. Parletta N, Niyonsenga T, Duff J. Omega-3 and Omega-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Levels and Correlations with Symptoms in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Autistic Spectrum Disorder and Typically Developing Controls. PLoS One 2016;11:e0156432. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0156432.
  • 10. Crippa A, Agostoni C, Mauri M, Molteni M, Nobile M. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Are Associated With Behavior But Not With Cognition in Children With and Without ADHD: An Italian study. J Atten Disord 2018;22:971–83. https://doi.org/10.1177/1087054716629215.
  • 11. Hibbeln JR, Davis JM, Steer C, Emmett P, Rogers I, et al. Maternal seafood consumption in pregnancy and neurodevelopmental outcomes in childhood (ALSPAC study): an observational cohort study. Lancet 2007;369:578–85. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(07)60277-3.
  • 12. Julvez J, Fernández-Barrés S, Gignac F, López-Vicente M, Bustamante M, et al. Maternal seafood consumption during pregnancy and child attention outcomes: a cohort study with gene effect modification by PUFA-related genes. Int J Epidemiol 2020;49:559–71. https://doi.org/10.1093/IJE/DYZ197.
  • 13. Ramakrishnan U, Gonzalez-Casanova I, Schnaas L, DiGirolamo A, Quezada AD, et al. Prenatal supplementation with DHA improves attention at 5 y of age: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr 2016;104:1075. https://doi.org/10.3945/AJCN.114.101071.
  • 14. Champe PC, Harvey RA, Ferrier DR. Nutrition. Lippincott’s Illus. Rev. Biochem., 2007, p. 359–62.
  • 15. Song J, Park J, Jung J, Lee C, Gim SY, et al. Analysis of Trans Fat in Edible Oils with Cooking Process. Toxicol Res 2015;31:307. https://doi.org/10.5487/TR.2015.31.3.307.
  • 16. Ostlund RE. Phytosterols in human nutrition. Annu Rev Nutr 2002;22:533–49. https://doi.org/10.1146/ANNUREV.NUTR.22.020702.075220.
  • 17. Matsuoka R. Property of Phytosterols and Development of Its Containing Mayonnaise-Type Dressing. Foods 2022;11. https://doi.org/10.3390/FOODS11081141.
  • 18. Giri A, Kanawjia SK, Rajoria A. Effect of phytosterols on textural and melting characteristics of cheese spread. Food Chem 2014;157:240–5. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.FOODCHEM.2014.01.127.
  • 19. Jones PJ, Rideout T. Lipids, sterols, and their metabolites. In: Ross, C., Caballero, B., Cousins, R.J., Tucker, K.L., Ziegler TR, editor. Mod. Mod. Nutr. Heal. Dis. 11th ed., Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Wolters Kluwer; 2014, p. 67.
  • 20. Gerber M, Hoffman R. The Mediterranean diet: Health, science and society. Br J Nutr 2015;113:S4–10. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114514003912.
  • 21. Myles IA. Fast food fever: reviewing the impacts of the Western diet on immunity. Nutr J 2014;13:61. https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-2891-13-61.
  • 22. Ríos-Hernández A, Alda JA, Farran-Codina A, Ferreira-García E, Izquierdo-Pulido M. The Mediterranean Diet and ADHD in Children and Adolescents. Pediatrics 2017;139:e20162027. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2016-2027.
  • 23. House JS, Mendez M, Maguire RL, Gonzalez-Nahm S, Huang Z, et al. Periconceptional Maternal Mediterranean Diet Is Associated With Favorable Offspring Behaviors and Altered CpG Methylation of Imprinted Genes. Front Cell Dev Biol 2018;6:107. https://doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2018.00107.
  • 24. Steenweg-de Graaff J, Tiemeier H, Steegers-Theunissen RPM, Hofman A, Jaddoe VWV, et al. Maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy and child internalising and externalising problems. The Generation R Study. Clin Nutr 2014;33:115–21. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.CLNU.2013.03.002.
  • 25. Jacka FN, Ystrom E, Brantsaeter AL, Karevold E, Roth C, et al. Maternal and Early Postnatal Nutrition and Mental Health of Offspring by Age 5 Years: A Prospective Cohort Study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2013;52:1038–47. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2013.07.002.
  • 26. Patrick RP, Ames BN. Vitamin D and the omega-3 fatty acids control serotonin synthesis and action, part 2: relevance for ADHD, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and impulsive behavior. FASEB J 2015;29:2207–22. https://doi.org/10.1096/FJ.14-268342.
  • 27. Matsudaira T, Gow R V., Kelly J, Murphy C, Potts L, et al. Biochemical and Psychological Effects of Omega-3/6 Supplements in Male Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Clinical Trial. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 2015;25:775–82. https://doi.org/10.1089/cap.2015.0052.
  • 28. Bozzatello P, Brignolo E, Grandi E De, Bellino S. Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Health and Disease. Omega-3 Fat. Acids Heal. Dis., 2016, p. 95–113. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-1-893997-82-0.50004-9.
  • 29. Raz R, Gabis L. Essential fatty acids and attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder: a systematic review. Dev Med Child Neurol 2009;51:580–92. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8749.2009.03351.x.
  • 30. Simopoulos AP. The importance of the ratio of omega-6/omega-3 essential fatty acids. Biomed Pharmacother 2002;56:365–79. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0753-3322(02)00253-6.
  • 31. Dyall SC. Interplay Between n-3 and n-6 Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and the Endocannabinoid System in Brain Protection and Repair. Lipids 2017;52:885. https://doi.org/10.1007/S11745-017-4292-8.
  • 32. Anjos T, Altmäe S, Emmett P, Tiemeier H, Closa-Monasterolo R, et al. Nutrition and neurodevelopment in children: focus on NUTRIMENTHE project. Eur J Nutr 2013;52:1825–42. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00394-013-0560-4.
  • 33. Chalon S. The role of fatty acids in the treatment of ADHD. Neuropharmacology 2009;57:636–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.NEUROPHARM.2009.08.012.
  • 34. Wang L-J, Yu Y-H, Fu M-L, Yeh W-T, Hsu J-L, et al. Dietary Profiles, Nutritional Biochemistry Status, and Attention-deficit/hyperactivity Disorder: Path Analysis for a Case-control Study (P18-106-19). Curr Dev Nutr 2019;3. https://doi.org/10.1093/cdn/nzz039.P18-106-19.
  • 35. Montgomery P, Burton JR, Sewell RP, Spreckelsen TF, Richardson AJ. Low Blood Long Chain Omega-3 Fatty Acids in UK Children Are Associated with Poor Cognitive Performance and Behavior: A Cross-Sectional Analysis from the DOLAB Study. PLoS One 2013;8:e66697. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0066697.
  • 36. Agostoni C, Nobile M, Ciappolino V, Delvecchio G, Tesei A, et al. The Role of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Developmental Psychopathology: A Systematic Review on Early Psychosis, Autism, and ADHD. Int J Mol Sci 2017;18. https://doi.org/10.3390/IJMS18122608.
  • 37. Hawkey E, Nigg JT. Omega−3 fatty acid and ADHD: Blood level analysis and meta-analytic extension of supplementation trials. Clin Psychol Rev 2014;34:496–505. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2014.05.005.
  • 38. Niculescu MD, Lupu DS. High fat diet-induced maternal obesity alters fetal hippocampal development. Int J Dev Neurosci 2009;27:627–33. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.IJDEVNEU.2009.08.005.
  • 39. Islam MA, Amin MN, Siddiqui SA, Hossain MP, Sultana F, et al. Trans fatty acids and lipid profile: A serious risk factor to cardiovascular disease, cancer and diabetes. Diabetes Metab Syndr Clin Res Rev 2019;13:1643–7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsx.2019.03.033.
  • 40. Ginter E, Simko V. New data on harmful effects of trans-fatty acids. Bratislava Med J 2016;117:251–3. https://doi.org/10.4149/bll_2016_048.
  • 41. Grandgirard A, Bourre JM, Julliard F, Homayoun P, Dumont O, et al. Incorporation of trans long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in rat brain structures and retina. Lipids 1994;29:251–8. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02536329.
  • 42. Shimp JL, Bruckner G, Kinsella JE. The effects of dietary trilinoelaidin on fatty acid and acyl desaturases in rat liver. J Nutr 1982;112:722–35. https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/112.4.722.
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Dikkat Eksikliği ve Hiperaktivite Bozukluğunda Yağ Asitlerinin Rolü

Year 2022, Volume 6, Issue 2, 214 - 220, 20.08.2022
https://doi.org/10.30565/medalanya.1059552

Abstract

Dikkat eksikliği hiperaktivite bozukluğu (DEHB), çocukluk çağında başlayan ve dünya çapındaki çocukların %5 ile %12'sini etkileyen bir hastalıktır. Dikkatsizlik, dürtüsellik ve hiperaktivite semptomları bozukluklarıyla seyreden DEHB’de beslenmenin de içerisinde bulunduğu etiyolojik faktörler yer almaktadır. Günlük diyetin önemli bir parçasını oluşturan yağlar, DEHB ve semptomları üzerine etkileri olabilmektedir. Literatürde DEHB tanılı çocuklarda omega-3 yağ asitlerinin düşük olduğu ve takviye araştırmalarının semptomları iyileştirmede etkili olabileceği belirtilmektedir. Ayrıca diyetteki yüksek omega-6/omega-3 yağ asitleri oranı ile doymuş ve trans yağ asitlerinden zengin beslenme düzenleri DEHB ile ilişkilendirilmektedir. Bu derlemede DEHB ile diyetle alınan yağ asitleri arasındaki ilişki değerlendirilecektir.

References

  • 1. Martin A, H. Bloch M, R. Volkmar F. Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Lewis’s Child Adolesc. Psychiatry, A Compr. Textb. 5th ed., 2018.
  • 2. Verlaet AAJ, Noriega DB, Hermans N, Savelkoul HFJ. Nutrition, immunological mechanisms and dietary immunomodulation in ADHD. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2014;23:519–29. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00787-014-0522-2.
  • 3. Vaisman N, Kaysar N, Zaruk-Adasha Y, Pelled D, Brichon G, et al. Correlation between changes in blood fatty acid composition and visual sustained attention performance in children with inattention: effect of dietary n−3 fatty acids containing phospholipids. Am J Clin Nutr 2008;87:1170–80. https://doi.org/10.1093/AJCN/87.5.1170.
  • 4. Kim W, Deik A, Gonzalez C, Gonzalez ME, Fu F, et al. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Desaturation Is a Mechanism for GlycolyticNAD+ Recycling. Cell Metab 2019;29:856. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.CMET.2018.12.023.
  • 5. Paidipalli M, Pjescic I, Hindmarsh PL, Crews ND. Single-step intercalating dye strategies for DNA damage studies. J Microbiol Methods 2013;94:144-151. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mimet.2013.06.002.
  • 6. Mazidi M, Vatanparast H. Serum trans-fatty acids level are positively associated with lower food security among american adults. Nutr Diabetes 2018;8. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41387-017-0008-7.
  • 7. Hawkey E, Nigg JT. Omega-3 fatty acid and ADHD: blood level analysis and meta-analytic extension of supplementation trials. Clin Psychol Rev 2014;34:496–505. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2014.05.005.
  • 8. Howard AL, Robinson M, Smith GJ, Ambrosini GL, Piek JP, et al. ADHD is associated with a “Western” dietary pattern in adolescents. J Atten Disord 2011;15:403–11. https://doi.org/10.1177/1087054710365990.
  • 9. Parletta N, Niyonsenga T, Duff J. Omega-3 and Omega-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Levels and Correlations with Symptoms in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Autistic Spectrum Disorder and Typically Developing Controls. PLoS One 2016;11:e0156432. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0156432.
  • 10. Crippa A, Agostoni C, Mauri M, Molteni M, Nobile M. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Are Associated With Behavior But Not With Cognition in Children With and Without ADHD: An Italian study. J Atten Disord 2018;22:971–83. https://doi.org/10.1177/1087054716629215.
  • 11. Hibbeln JR, Davis JM, Steer C, Emmett P, Rogers I, et al. Maternal seafood consumption in pregnancy and neurodevelopmental outcomes in childhood (ALSPAC study): an observational cohort study. Lancet 2007;369:578–85. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(07)60277-3.
  • 12. Julvez J, Fernández-Barrés S, Gignac F, López-Vicente M, Bustamante M, et al. Maternal seafood consumption during pregnancy and child attention outcomes: a cohort study with gene effect modification by PUFA-related genes. Int J Epidemiol 2020;49:559–71. https://doi.org/10.1093/IJE/DYZ197.
  • 13. Ramakrishnan U, Gonzalez-Casanova I, Schnaas L, DiGirolamo A, Quezada AD, et al. Prenatal supplementation with DHA improves attention at 5 y of age: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr 2016;104:1075. https://doi.org/10.3945/AJCN.114.101071.
  • 14. Champe PC, Harvey RA, Ferrier DR. Nutrition. Lippincott’s Illus. Rev. Biochem., 2007, p. 359–62.
  • 15. Song J, Park J, Jung J, Lee C, Gim SY, et al. Analysis of Trans Fat in Edible Oils with Cooking Process. Toxicol Res 2015;31:307. https://doi.org/10.5487/TR.2015.31.3.307.
  • 16. Ostlund RE. Phytosterols in human nutrition. Annu Rev Nutr 2002;22:533–49. https://doi.org/10.1146/ANNUREV.NUTR.22.020702.075220.
  • 17. Matsuoka R. Property of Phytosterols and Development of Its Containing Mayonnaise-Type Dressing. Foods 2022;11. https://doi.org/10.3390/FOODS11081141.
  • 18. Giri A, Kanawjia SK, Rajoria A. Effect of phytosterols on textural and melting characteristics of cheese spread. Food Chem 2014;157:240–5. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.FOODCHEM.2014.01.127.
  • 19. Jones PJ, Rideout T. Lipids, sterols, and their metabolites. In: Ross, C., Caballero, B., Cousins, R.J., Tucker, K.L., Ziegler TR, editor. Mod. Mod. Nutr. Heal. Dis. 11th ed., Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Wolters Kluwer; 2014, p. 67.
  • 20. Gerber M, Hoffman R. The Mediterranean diet: Health, science and society. Br J Nutr 2015;113:S4–10. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114514003912.
  • 21. Myles IA. Fast food fever: reviewing the impacts of the Western diet on immunity. Nutr J 2014;13:61. https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-2891-13-61.
  • 22. Ríos-Hernández A, Alda JA, Farran-Codina A, Ferreira-García E, Izquierdo-Pulido M. The Mediterranean Diet and ADHD in Children and Adolescents. Pediatrics 2017;139:e20162027. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2016-2027.
  • 23. House JS, Mendez M, Maguire RL, Gonzalez-Nahm S, Huang Z, et al. Periconceptional Maternal Mediterranean Diet Is Associated With Favorable Offspring Behaviors and Altered CpG Methylation of Imprinted Genes. Front Cell Dev Biol 2018;6:107. https://doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2018.00107.
  • 24. Steenweg-de Graaff J, Tiemeier H, Steegers-Theunissen RPM, Hofman A, Jaddoe VWV, et al. Maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy and child internalising and externalising problems. The Generation R Study. Clin Nutr 2014;33:115–21. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.CLNU.2013.03.002.
  • 25. Jacka FN, Ystrom E, Brantsaeter AL, Karevold E, Roth C, et al. Maternal and Early Postnatal Nutrition and Mental Health of Offspring by Age 5 Years: A Prospective Cohort Study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2013;52:1038–47. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2013.07.002.
  • 26. Patrick RP, Ames BN. Vitamin D and the omega-3 fatty acids control serotonin synthesis and action, part 2: relevance for ADHD, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and impulsive behavior. FASEB J 2015;29:2207–22. https://doi.org/10.1096/FJ.14-268342.
  • 27. Matsudaira T, Gow R V., Kelly J, Murphy C, Potts L, et al. Biochemical and Psychological Effects of Omega-3/6 Supplements in Male Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Clinical Trial. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 2015;25:775–82. https://doi.org/10.1089/cap.2015.0052.
  • 28. Bozzatello P, Brignolo E, Grandi E De, Bellino S. Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Health and Disease. Omega-3 Fat. Acids Heal. Dis., 2016, p. 95–113. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-1-893997-82-0.50004-9.
  • 29. Raz R, Gabis L. Essential fatty acids and attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder: a systematic review. Dev Med Child Neurol 2009;51:580–92. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8749.2009.03351.x.
  • 30. Simopoulos AP. The importance of the ratio of omega-6/omega-3 essential fatty acids. Biomed Pharmacother 2002;56:365–79. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0753-3322(02)00253-6.
  • 31. Dyall SC. Interplay Between n-3 and n-6 Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and the Endocannabinoid System in Brain Protection and Repair. Lipids 2017;52:885. https://doi.org/10.1007/S11745-017-4292-8.
  • 32. Anjos T, Altmäe S, Emmett P, Tiemeier H, Closa-Monasterolo R, et al. Nutrition and neurodevelopment in children: focus on NUTRIMENTHE project. Eur J Nutr 2013;52:1825–42. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00394-013-0560-4.
  • 33. Chalon S. The role of fatty acids in the treatment of ADHD. Neuropharmacology 2009;57:636–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.NEUROPHARM.2009.08.012.
  • 34. Wang L-J, Yu Y-H, Fu M-L, Yeh W-T, Hsu J-L, et al. Dietary Profiles, Nutritional Biochemistry Status, and Attention-deficit/hyperactivity Disorder: Path Analysis for a Case-control Study (P18-106-19). Curr Dev Nutr 2019;3. https://doi.org/10.1093/cdn/nzz039.P18-106-19.
  • 35. Montgomery P, Burton JR, Sewell RP, Spreckelsen TF, Richardson AJ. Low Blood Long Chain Omega-3 Fatty Acids in UK Children Are Associated with Poor Cognitive Performance and Behavior: A Cross-Sectional Analysis from the DOLAB Study. PLoS One 2013;8:e66697. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0066697.
  • 36. Agostoni C, Nobile M, Ciappolino V, Delvecchio G, Tesei A, et al. The Role of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Developmental Psychopathology: A Systematic Review on Early Psychosis, Autism, and ADHD. Int J Mol Sci 2017;18. https://doi.org/10.3390/IJMS18122608.
  • 37. Hawkey E, Nigg JT. Omega−3 fatty acid and ADHD: Blood level analysis and meta-analytic extension of supplementation trials. Clin Psychol Rev 2014;34:496–505. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2014.05.005.
  • 38. Niculescu MD, Lupu DS. High fat diet-induced maternal obesity alters fetal hippocampal development. Int J Dev Neurosci 2009;27:627–33. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.IJDEVNEU.2009.08.005.
  • 39. Islam MA, Amin MN, Siddiqui SA, Hossain MP, Sultana F, et al. Trans fatty acids and lipid profile: A serious risk factor to cardiovascular disease, cancer and diabetes. Diabetes Metab Syndr Clin Res Rev 2019;13:1643–7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsx.2019.03.033.
  • 40. Ginter E, Simko V. New data on harmful effects of trans-fatty acids. Bratislava Med J 2016;117:251–3. https://doi.org/10.4149/bll_2016_048.
  • 41. Grandgirard A, Bourre JM, Julliard F, Homayoun P, Dumont O, et al. Incorporation of trans long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in rat brain structures and retina. Lipids 1994;29:251–8. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02536329.
  • 42. Shimp JL, Bruckner G, Kinsella JE. The effects of dietary trilinoelaidin on fatty acid and acyl desaturases in rat liver. J Nutr 1982;112:722–35. https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/112.4.722.
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Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Medicine
Published Date 2022-2
Journal Section Review
Authors

Sümeyye AKIN> (Primary Author)
SAĞLIK BİLİMLERİ ÜNİVERSİTESİ, HAMİDİYE SAĞLIK BİLİMLERİ ENSTİTÜSÜ, TIBBİ BİYOKİMYA (DR)
0000-0002-4773-0161
Türkiye


Fatih GÜLTEKİN>
SAĞLIK BİLİMLERİ ÜNİVERSİTESİ, HAMİDİYE TIP FAKÜLTESİ, TEMEL TIP BİLİMLERİ BÖLÜMÜ, TIBBİ BİYOKİMYA ANABİLİM DALI
0000-0003-2888-3215
Türkiye


Eray Metin GÜLER>
SAĞLIK BİLİMLERİ ÜNİVERSİTESİ, HAMİDİYE TIP FAKÜLTESİ, TEMEL TIP BİLİMLERİ BÖLÜMÜ, TIBBİ BİYOKİMYA ANABİLİM DALI
0000-0003-4351-1719
Türkiye

Early Pub Date August 20, 2022
Publication Date August 20, 2022
Submission Date January 18, 2022
Acceptance Date July 1, 2022
Published in Issue Year 2022, Volume 6, Issue 2

Cite

Vancouver Akın S. , Gültekin F. , Güler E. M. The role of fatty acids in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Acta Medica Alanya. 2022; 6(2): 214-220.

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