Declines of wild bees together with unsustainably high losses of managed colonies and worsening bee health have become global issues. Southwest Nigeria has one of the most biologically diverse ecosystems, with the changing agricultural development and climate overwhelmingly impacting it. The impact is also significant on beekeeping vis: colony establishment, health and productivity of the native bees the West African honeybees, Apis mellifera adansonii Latreille (Hymenoptera: Apidae). This study was carried out between December, 2015 to December, 2018 to determine the stress factors associated with colony establishment, health and productivity of the bee colonies. Four states were purposively selected in the Southwest Nigeria. Some beekeepers were selected, sampling and colony observations were made in selected apiaries and laboratory investigations were conducted. Results indicated decline in colony numbers and honey production; colonies have become weakened or lost due to bee pests and diseases this is greater than losses recorded due to other factors. Infestation with small hive beetles (SHB) across the region is greater than 67(69.93 ± 2.08) (Mean ± SD) recorded for Galleria mellonella infestation. The mean levels of Gluthathion-S-Transferase (GST) detoxifier chemical signal in the tissues of bees tested in the colonies for the three years were higher than the normal value for bees. The climate change, and the adaptation policy and development such as agricultural intensification programme adopted is a relevant and sustainable mitigation tool but with a pervasive influence on beekeeping, honeybee health, population and productivity.
Colony establishment, Decline, Productivity, Pest, Climate change