Year 2020, Volume 6 , Issue 2, Pages 79 - 88 2020-12-31

DEVELOPING A SPACE SYNTAX-BASED EVALUATION METHOD FOR PROCEDURALLY GENERATED GAME LEVELS

Emin Alp BIYIK [1] , Elif SÜRER [2]


Procedural content generation (PCG) has been an essential catalyzer in the last decade with its efficiency in creating game elements such as textures, game levels, and maps. Despite being successfully applied in various studies, new reliable evaluation tools are still needed to assess the quality of the generated game content. One example limitation of procedurally generated game worlds is the lacking spatial configuration. To address this issue, in this study, an assessment method was developed to evaluate the spatial quality of procedurally generated game worlds. For this purpose, Space Syntax was used, which incorporates a set of methods to analyze spatial configurations and movement. The analyses were applied to a new game developed by the authors —the Haunted House— and the performance was evaluated in terms of integration, connectivity, and depth distance. Results show that changing the room dimensions (i.e., 15x15, 25x25, and 35x35 units) modifies the performance measures as well as game design parameters —number of the spawning points (ranging from 1 to 4), critical axes (1 to 5), to name a few. The proposed approach is a first attempt to create various improved spatial configurations and provide an evaluation tool to analyze the PCG algorithms in level design.
Procedural Content Generation, Space Partitioning Algorithm, Space Syntax, Spatial Analysis, Video Games
  • [1] Smelik, R. M., Tutenel, T., Bidarra, R., Benes, B., “A survey on procedural modelling for virtual worlds”, Computer Graphics Forum, 33 (6), 31-50, 2014.
  • [2] Barriga, N. A., “A Short Introduction to Procedural Content Generation Algorithms for Videogames”, International Journal on Artificial Intelligence Tools, 28 (02), 1930001, 2019.
  • [3] Shaker, N., Togelius, J., Nelson, M. J., Procedural content generation in games. Switzerland: Springer International Publishing, 2016.
  • [4] Van Der Linden, R., Lopes, R., Bidarra, R., “Procedural generation of dungeons”, IEEE Transactions on Computational Intelligence and AI in Games, 6 (1), 78-89, 2013.
  • [5] Green, M. C., Salge, C., Togelius, J., “Organic building generation in minecraft”, In Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on the Foundations of Digital Games, 2019, 1-7.
  • [6] Liapis, A., Yannakakis, G. N., Togelius, J., “Towards a generic method of evaluating game levels”, In Ninth Artificial Intelligence and Interactive Digital Entertainment Conference, 2013, 30-36.
  • [7] Bafna, S., “Space syntax: A brief introduction to its logic and analytical techniques”, Environment and behavior, 35 (1), 17-29, 2003.
  • [8] Al-Sayed, K., Space syntax methodology, 2014.
  • [9] UCL-Space Syntax Official Website, http://otp.spacesyntax.net/, Retrieved on July 20, 2020.
  • [10] Levy, R. M., O'Brien, M. G., Aorich, A., “Predicting the methbehavior of game players-space syntax and urban planning theory as a predictive tool in game design”, In 15th International Conference on Virtual Systems and Multimedia, 2009, 203-208.
  • [11] Song, A., Whitehead, J., “TownSim: Agent-based city evolution for naturalistic road network generation”, In Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on the Foundations of Digital Games, 2019, 81.
  • [12] Cho, I. O., Kim, Y. O., “The relationship between spatial configuration and spatial behavior in online game space”, In Proceedings Sixth International Space Syntax Symposium, 2007, 1-14.
  • [13] Tremblay, J., Torres, P. A., Verbrugge, C., “Measuring risk in stealth games”, In FDG, 2014, 1-8.
  • [14] Choi, S. K., Kim, D. H., Kim, Y. O., “A study on the placement of game objects using space syntax”, Journal of Korea Game Society, 12 (5), 2012.
  • [15] Ballabio, M. and Loiacono, D., “Heuristics for Placing the Spawn Points in Multiplayer First Person Shooters”, In 2019 IEEE Conference on Games (CoG), 2019, 1-8.
  • [16] Martin, P., Space and place as expressive categories in videogames, 2011.
  • [17] Hillier, B. and Hanson, J., The social logic of space, Cambridge university press, 1989.
  • [18] Asami, Y., Kubat, A.S., Kitagawa, K., Iida, S.I., “Introducing the third dimension on Space Syntax: Application on the historical Istanbul”, In Proc. 6th International Space Syntax Symposium, 2003, 48-49.
  • [19] El-Agouri, F.A., Privacy And Segregation as A Basis For Analyzing and Modelling The Urban Space Composition of The Libyan Traditional City Case Study: The City of Ghadames, 2004.
  • [20] DepthMap Tool GitHub Page, https://github.com/varoudis/depthmapX/, Retrieved on July 20, 2020.
Primary Language en
Subjects Engineering
Journal Section Journals
Authors

Orcid: 0000-0002-2771-0489
Author: Emin Alp BIYIK
Institution: MIDDLE EAST TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY
Country: Turkey


Orcid: 0000-0002-0738-6669
Author: Elif SÜRER (Primary Author)
Institution: Middle East Technical University
Country: Turkey


Dates

Publication Date : December 31, 2020

Bibtex @research article { muglajsci706895, journal = {Mugla Journal of Science and Technology}, issn = {2149-3596}, address = {}, publisher = {Muğla Sıtkı Koçman Üniversitesi}, year = {2020}, volume = {6}, pages = {79 - 88}, doi = {10.22531/muglajsci.706895}, title = {DEVELOPING A SPACE SYNTAX-BASED EVALUATION METHOD FOR PROCEDURALLY GENERATED GAME LEVELS}, key = {cite}, author = {Bıyık, Emin Alp and Sürer, Elif} }
APA Bıyık, E , Sürer, E . (2020). DEVELOPING A SPACE SYNTAX-BASED EVALUATION METHOD FOR PROCEDURALLY GENERATED GAME LEVELS . Mugla Journal of Science and Technology , 6 (2) , 79-88 . DOI: 10.22531/muglajsci.706895
MLA Bıyık, E , Sürer, E . "DEVELOPING A SPACE SYNTAX-BASED EVALUATION METHOD FOR PROCEDURALLY GENERATED GAME LEVELS" . Mugla Journal of Science and Technology 6 (2020 ): 79-88 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/muglajsci/issue/57006/706895>
Chicago Bıyık, E , Sürer, E . "DEVELOPING A SPACE SYNTAX-BASED EVALUATION METHOD FOR PROCEDURALLY GENERATED GAME LEVELS". Mugla Journal of Science and Technology 6 (2020 ): 79-88
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - DEVELOPING A SPACE SYNTAX-BASED EVALUATION METHOD FOR PROCEDURALLY GENERATED GAME LEVELS AU - Emin Alp Bıyık , Elif Sürer Y1 - 2020 PY - 2020 N1 - doi: 10.22531/muglajsci.706895 DO - 10.22531/muglajsci.706895 T2 - Mugla Journal of Science and Technology JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 79 EP - 88 VL - 6 IS - 2 SN - 2149-3596- M3 - doi: 10.22531/muglajsci.706895 UR - https://doi.org/10.22531/muglajsci.706895 Y2 - 2020 ER -
EndNote %0 Mugla Journal of Science and Technology DEVELOPING A SPACE SYNTAX-BASED EVALUATION METHOD FOR PROCEDURALLY GENERATED GAME LEVELS %A Emin Alp Bıyık , Elif Sürer %T DEVELOPING A SPACE SYNTAX-BASED EVALUATION METHOD FOR PROCEDURALLY GENERATED GAME LEVELS %D 2020 %J Mugla Journal of Science and Technology %P 2149-3596- %V 6 %N 2 %R doi: 10.22531/muglajsci.706895 %U 10.22531/muglajsci.706895
ISNAD Bıyık, Emin Alp , Sürer, Elif . "DEVELOPING A SPACE SYNTAX-BASED EVALUATION METHOD FOR PROCEDURALLY GENERATED GAME LEVELS". Mugla Journal of Science and Technology 6 / 2 (December 2020): 79-88 . https://doi.org/10.22531/muglajsci.706895
AMA Bıyık E , Sürer E . DEVELOPING A SPACE SYNTAX-BASED EVALUATION METHOD FOR PROCEDURALLY GENERATED GAME LEVELS. Mugla Journal of Science and Technology. 2020; 6(2): 79-88.
Vancouver Bıyık E , Sürer E . DEVELOPING A SPACE SYNTAX-BASED EVALUATION METHOD FOR PROCEDURALLY GENERATED GAME LEVELS. Mugla Journal of Science and Technology. 2020; 6(2): 79-88.
IEEE E. Bıyık and E. Sürer , "DEVELOPING A SPACE SYNTAX-BASED EVALUATION METHOD FOR PROCEDURALLY GENERATED GAME LEVELS", Mugla Journal of Science and Technology, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 79-88, Dec. 2021, doi:10.22531/muglajsci.706895