Year 2021, Volume 3 , Issue 1, Pages 1 - 29 2021-06-30

Karma Yöntemler Araştırması: Kısa Tarihi, Tanımı, Bakış Açıları ve Temel Kavramlar/ Mixed Methods Research: A Brief History, Definitions, Perspectives, and Key Elements
Mixed Methods Research: A Brief History, Definitions, Perspectives, and Key Elements

Sinem TORAMAN [1]


Karma yöntemler araştırması, son yıllarda farklı disiplinlerde ve ülkelerde popülerlik kazanan ve araştırmacılara farklı metot, metodoloji ve paradigmaları bir arada kullanarak araştırma sorularına cevap arama imkânı veren bir yaklaşımdır. Bu makalenin amacı, okuyucuları karma yöntemler araştırmasına ilişkin genel bir yolculuğa çıkarmak ve bu metodolojiyi kullanmak isteyen araştırmacılara rehberlik etmektir. Bu makalede, karma yöntemler araştırmasının kısa tarihine, tanımına, bakış açılarına ve temel kavramlarına değinilmektedir. Karma yöntemler araştırmasını tam anlamıyla tanımak ve bu yaklaşımı çalışmalarında kullanmak isteyen araştırmacılar, yüksek lisans ve doktora öğrencileri bu makalenin hedef okuyucu kitlesini oluşturmaktadır. Bu makalede araştırmacı, karma yöntemler araştırması alanında yetişen bir metodolojist (yöntembilimci) olarak karma yöntemler araştırmasının Türkçeleştirilmesinde ve kullanılmasında gördüğü sorunlara dikkat çekmekte ve araştırmacılara karma yöntemler araştırmasının kullanımına ilişkin öneriler sunmaktadır. Crotty’nin (1998) genel olarak araştırma sürecinin temellerini açıkladığı yapısal model yaklaşımını tanıtarak araştırma sürecinin temellerini dört elementin (felsefik varsayımlar, teorik dayanaklar, metodolojik yaklaşımlar ve metotlar) oluşturduğunu belirten araştırmacı, karma yöntemler araştırmasına ilişkin farklı tanımları bu modeli kullanarak açıklamıştır. Bu makaledeki temel tartışma noktaları beş ana başlıkta özetlenebilir. Birincisi, karma yöntemler araştırması çalışmalarında karma yöntemler araştırmasının felsefe, metodoloji veya metot tanımlarından hangisinin kullanıldığı önemlidir ve araştırmacılar kullandıkları tanımı açıkça belirtmelidir. İkincisi, araştırmacıların karma yöntemler araştırması çalışmalarında kullandıkları tanımla karma yöntemler araştırmasının uygulanmasının örtüşmesi gerekmektedir. Üçüncüsü, karma yöntemler araştırması çalışmalarında nitel ve nicelin entegrasyonu (birleştirme) önemlidir ve araştırmacılar kendilerine “neden, neleri, ne zaman ve nasıl” entegre ediyoruz sorularını sormalıdırlar. Bu noktada, entegrasyon (birleştirme) olmayan karma yöntemler araştırması çalışmalarının karma yöntemler araştırmasını daha az benimsediği verisinden hareketle, araştırmacıların karma yöntemler araştırmasında entegrasyona ve birleştirilmiş karma yöntemler araştırması sonuçlarını sunmaya özen göstermeleri önerilmektedir. Dördüncüsü, karma yöntemler araştırmaları nicel ve nitel verilerin toplanması ve analizi gibi komplike bir süreci gerektirdiği için araştırmacıların çalışmalarında metodolojik prosedürlerin diyagram (procedural diagram) olarak gösterimine yer vermesi önerilmektedir. Beşincisi, araştırmacıların karma yöntemler araştırmasını kullanmanın çalışmalarına olan katkısına vurgu yapılmasına özen göstermesi önerilmektedir.

Mixed methods research is an approach that involves collecting, analyzing, and intentionally integrating qualitative and quantitative data in a study. With the growing interest in mixed methods research across countries and disciplines, researchers have adopted mixed methods research to better understand complex research problems. Turkey is such country that has paid growing attention to mixed methods research. As an example of this growing interest, some well-known mixed methods research books have been translated from English to Turkish to make mixed methods research more accessible to Turkish researchers, faculty members, and graduate students who have been interested in learning about and using mixed methods research.
As a methodologist trained in the field of mixed methods research, the author has watched the trends in the use of mixed methods research to understand the conceptualization and use of this new way of thinking in the context of Turkey. Based on the author’s interaction with colleagues and graduate students from Turkey as well as her observations about misconceptualization and misuse of mixed methods research due to translation from English to Turkish and examination of mixed methods studies, the author positioned herself in this paper to advocate for mixed methods research and provide an introductory overview of mixed methods. Accordingly, the purpose of this paper was to provide an overview of the brief history, definitions, perspectives, and key elements of mixed methods research. In addition, the author offered her suggestions about the translated versions for some of the mixed methods research concepts that have translation issues about conveying the underlying assumptions about mixed methods research as she has argued.
The author used Crotty’s framework in explaining four major elements of research process: (a) philosophical and paradigmatic assumptions, (b) theoretical perspective, (c) methodology, and (d) methods. Using this framework, the author provided some mixed methods research definitions to explain how the use of mixed methods research may vary depending on the perspective(s) taken in the research process. In addition, the author explained the formulation of mixed methods research based on the editorial written by Fetters (2018) and discussed the current status of mixed methods research in the context of Turkey based on her ongoing study about the prevalence of mixed methods research in master’s theses, doctoral dissertations, and peer-reviewed articles published in Turkey.
The author then focused on explaining 14 mixed methods research elements: mixed methods term in the title, mixed methods rationale, paradigmatic assumption for mixed methods, mixed methods design, qualitative methods, quantitative methods, sequence (timing) of qualitative and quantitative components, priority (weighting or importance) of qualitative and quantitative components, integration techniques, the results of qualitative analysis, the results of quantitative analysis, the mixed methods integrated results, added value of using mixed methods research, and advancing the field of mixed methods research. The author discussed five major points for readers to take away from this manuscript. First, the author emphasized the importance of providing the definition of mixed methods research used in a study. The author encouraged scholars to understand and embrace the various definitions of mixed methods research with the strong emphasis on mixed methods experts’ common understanding about mixed methods research.
 

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Primary Language tr
Subjects Social Sciences, Interdisciplinary
Journal Section Review
Authors

Orcid: 0000-0002-5837-4414
Author: Sinem TORAMAN (Primary Author)
Institution: University of Cincinnati
Country: United States


Thanks Bana karma yöntemler araştırmasını öğreten ve iyi bir metodolojist olarak yetişmem için desteğini benden hiçbir zaman esirgemeyen değerli danışmanım Dr. Vicki L. Plano Clark'a sonsuz teşekkürler. Ayrıca bu makalenin ilk halini okuyarak yazımı konusunda geribildirimde bulunan Dr. Ece Ömüriş'e teşekkür ederim.
Dates

Publication Date : June 30, 2021

APA Toraman, S . (2021). Karma Yöntemler Araştırması: Kısa Tarihi, Tanımı, Bakış Açıları ve Temel Kavramlar/ Mixed Methods Research: A Brief History, Definitions, Perspectives, and Key Elements . Nitel Sosyal Bilimler , 3 (1) , 1-29 . DOI: 10.47105/nsb.847688