Year 2019, Volume 19 , Issue 48, Pages 61 - 80 2019-06-29

Methods in Biographic Works Written in Andalusia in the 10th and 12th Centuries
10. VE 12. YÜZYILLARDA ENDÜLÜS′TE YAZILMIŞ BİYOGRAFİK ESERLERDE YÖNTEM

Fuat DAŞ [1]


Abstract

Biographical works began to be written in Andalusia in the 10th century, and this genre has attracted the attention of Andalusian scholars. Ibn al-Faradî's work called Târîḫuʿulemâ`i′l-Endelus has emerged as a result of this interest and is a book written in the field of biography, which exemplifies many of the successive methods in the direction of their method and is the source of their works. These copyrighted works, which Ibn al-Faradî laid the foundations in Andalusia, were written in connection with each other in terms of content and method, such as the rings of a chain.

In this study, biographies written in Andalusia in the 10th and 12th centuries are examined in terms of methodology and the interaction of biographers with each other, which layers of society they include in their works, what information they have dealt with in their biographies, and which methods of biographical works written before them, In their own works, what kind of methods they use, how they affect the next authors are discussed.

In addition, in our review, brief information about the purpose of copyright writers, sources and authors are given. In this study, in addition to İbn al-Faradî's work, the annexes of this work and the work of al-Humeydî’s (death. 1095) called as Cezvetu′l-Muktebis, the work of  İbn Beşkuvâl’s (death. 1183) called as eṣ-Ṣıla and the work of  ed-Dabbî’s (death. 1203) called as Buğyetu′l-Multemis were examined. In addition, the work of İbn Bessâm eş-Şenterînî’s (death. 1147) as called ez-Zaḫîre fî Meḥâsini Ehli′l-Cezîre,  and the work of  Feth b. Ḫâḳân el-Ḳaysî’s (death.1135) as called Maṭmaḥu′l-Enfus the works with high literary values are mentioned.


Structured Abstract

Biographical works began to be written in Andalusia in the 10th century. Among the earliest works written in this copyright type is Ibn al-Faradî's work called Târîḫuʿulemâ`i′l-Endelus and this work has affected many works written after him in Andalusia in terms of both content and method. In fact, some of the biographers who came later, had their works written by considering this work. In this study, in addition to İbn al-Faradî's work, the annexes of this work and the work of al-Humeydî’s (death. 1095) called as Cezvetu′l-Muktebis, the work of  İbn Beşkuvâl’s (death. 1183) called as Eṣ-Ṣıla and the work of  ed-Dabbî’s (death. 1203) called as Buğyetu′l-Multemis were examined.

 The earliest biographers in Andalusia have often dealt with the lives of religious functionary who have become more famous in their works as they educate themselves in the disciplines of fiqh, hadith and      science of religion. For example, İbnu′l-Faraḍî, mentioned in his work, only the famous religious scholars. However, later writers have made their works more comprehensive by adding poets and scholars who are famous in the society as well as religious scholars. Even biographers such as Feth b. Ḫâḳân el-Ḳaysî (death.1135)  have included the literary products of poets and scholars rather than biographies. The authors of the Andalusian biography did not go exactly like each other. They developed new methods in their work and did not follow some of the methods used by previous authors. For example, İbn Beşkuvâl began directly with the biographies of the people, and did not enter into the history of Andalusia as the biographers of the history of Andalusia. al-Ḥumeydî, in contrast to the former biographer İbnu′l-Faraḍî, also included biographies of women under the title of Bâbu′n-Nisâ’ and his  method is used by many authors who are next to him. In general, biographers have arranged their works in alphabetical order, while others have not edited their works in any order, while others have developed new methods. While İbn Bessâm eş-Şenterînî (death.1147)  did not present the biographies of the individuals to the reader in his work named ez-Zaḫîre fî Meḥâsini Ehli′l-Cezîre, Feth b. Ḫâḳân el-Ḳaysî arranged the biographies of the individuals according to their status in the society and gave priority to the ones with high status and some biographers because of his respect for the Prophet           Muhammad began with his biographies that began with his name, followed in alphabetical order in later biographies.

Biography writers have given information about, persons in their works; names, identities, descendants, narratives and travels to the East, the famous people they meet, the teachers they take lessons, the cities they learned science, their important performances, the duties they undertake, their competences on religious issues, the dates of birth and death, etc. Biographers often provide this information about people, while some authors have different information in their works. Ibn Bessâm has included the verse and prose poems of people together with different historical events. Hakan has included the poems of the people with the theme of wine, friendship and friendship. While some keep the biographies long but  Feth b. Ḫâḳân el-Ḳaysî has included the poems of the people with the theme of wine, friendship and fellowship while some keep the biographies long. eḍ-Ḍabbî (death.1203) kept some biographies in his Buğyetu′l-Multemis very superficial. He just mentioned his names and where they came from.

Although some biographers of Andalusia have cultivated themselves in the eastern centers of study, or some of them have written their works on the demand of the Easterners, they have mentioned about the biographies of the people who grew up in the lands of Andalusia. Therefore, the biographical works in Andalusia are in the category of biographical works that have been copyrighted by region. However, some writers have opened separate titles to people from different countries and gave information about when they came to Andalusia, what they brought in the name of science. In the same way, the sources used in the works of the authors are the works of Andalusian origin. Only a few of the biographical works of the eastern section were affected, there was no impact on the content. Even writers such as Feth b. Ḫâḳân el-Ḳaysî and İbn Bessâm have published their works to carry the literary richness of Andalusia to the next century. These works have historical value as well as literary value.

Biographical works are not just about the lives of those who became famous. In these works; Information about the political history of the Andalusian Umayyad State, interesting historical events taking place in society, information about the social and cultural life of the society, literature, history, language, tafsir, fiqh, hadith, and the Arabic-Islamic thought structure. In the same way, these works help us to learn about the position of Andalusian literature in comparison to the eastern regions of Damascus, Iraq and Baghdad, and also the cultural levels of the Andalusian scholars. In short, these works have both historical and literary value.

Özet

Biyografik eserler Endülüs’te 10. yüzyılda yazılmaya başlamış ve bu tür, Endülüslü âlimlerin ilgisini oldukça cezbetmiştir. İbnu′l-Faradî′nin Târîḫuʿulemâ`i′l-Endelus adlı eseri de bu ilginin sonucunda ortaya çıkmış ve biyografi alanında yazılan, kendinden sonra gelen birçok âlime yöntem bakımından örnek oluşturan, onların eserlerine kaynaklık eden kitaptır. İbnu′l-Faradî′nin Endülüs’te temellerini attığı bu telif türündeki eserler hem içerik hem yöntem bakımından birbirleriyle bir zincirin halkaları gibi bağlantılı şekilde yazılmıştır.

Bu çalışmamızda Endülüs’te 10. ve 12. yüzyıllarda yazılmış biyografi eserleri, yöntem bakımından incelenmiş ve biyografi yazarlarının birbirleriyle etkileşimi, eserlerinde toplumun hangi katmanlarına yer verdikleri, kişilerin biyografilerinde onlar hakkında hangi bilgileri ele aldıkları, kendinden önce yazılmış biyografik eserlerin hangi yöntemlerine tabi oldukları, kendi eserlerinde farklı olarak ne tür yöntemler kullandıkları, kendinden sonraki yazarları nasıl etkiledikleri vb. açılardan ele alınmıştır.

Ayrıca incelememizde biyografi yazarlarının eserlerini telif etmelerindeki amaç, kullandıkları kaynaklar ve yazarlar hakkında kısa bilgiler verilmiştir. Çalışmamızda İbnu′l-Faradî′nin zikrettiğimiz eserinin yanı sıra bu eserin zeyilleri olan El-Ḥumeydî′nin (ö.1095) Cezvetu’l-Muḳtebis′i, İbn Beşkuvâl′ın (ö.1183) Eṣ-Ṣıla′, Eḍ-Ḍabbî′nin (ö.1203) Buğyetu′l-Multemis′i incelenmiş, ayrıca edebi değerleri yüksek olan İbn Bessâm eş-Şenterînî′nin (ö.1147) Ez-Zaḫîre fî Meḥâsini Ehli′l-Cezîre′siyle Feth b. Ḫâḳân el-Ḳaysî′nin (ö.1135) Maṭmaḥu′l-Enfus adlı eserlerine de yer verilmiştir.


Abstract

Biographical works began to be written in Andalusia in the 10th century, and this genre has attracted the attention of Andalusian scholars. Ibn al-Faradî's work called Târîḫuʿulemâ`i′l-Endelus has emerged as a result of this interest and is a book written in the field of biography, which exemplifies many of the successive methods in the direction of their method and is the source of their works. These copyrighted works, which Ibn al-Faradî laid the foundations in Andalusia, were written in connection with each other in terms of content and method, such as the rings of a chain.

In this study, biographies written in Andalusia in the 10th and 12th centuries are examined in terms of methodology and the interaction of biographers with each other, which layers of society they include in their works, what information they have dealt with in their biographies, and which methods of biographical works written before them, In their own works, what kind of methods they use, how they affect the next authors are discussed.

In addition, in our review, brief information about the purpose of copyright writers, sources and authors are given. In this study, in addition to İbn al-Faradî's work, the annexes of this work and the work of al-Humeydî’s (death. 1095) called as Cezvetu′l-Muktebis, the work of  İbn Beşkuvâl’s (death. 1183) called as Eṣ-Ṣıla and the work of  Ed-Dabbî’s (death. 1203) called as Buğyetu′l-Multemis were examined. In addition, the work of İbn Bessâm eş-Şenterînî’s (death. 1147) as called Ez-Zaḫîre fî Meḥâsini Ehli′l-Cezîre,  and the work of  Feth b. Ḫâḳân el-Ḳaysî’s (death.1135) as called Maṭmaḥu′l-Enfus the works with high literary values are mentioned.

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Primary Language tr
Subjects Social
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Author: Fuat DAŞ (Primary Author)
Institution: MİLLİ EĞİTİM BAKANLIĞI
Country: Turkey


Dates

Application Date : January 2, 2019
Acceptance Date : March 25, 2019
Publication Date : June 29, 2019

APA DAŞ, F . (2019). 10. VE 12. YÜZYILLARDA ENDÜLÜS′TE YAZILMIŞ BİYOGRAFİK ESERLERDE YÖNTEM. Nüsha , 19 (48) , 61-80 . DOI: 10.32330/nusha.507143