Year 2019, Volume 19 , Issue 48, Pages 137 - 154 2019-06-29

Various Tasks, Usage Areas and Meanings of Persian Preposition “ba” with Examples from Classical Persian Poetry
FARSÇA به EDATININ KLASİK FARS ŞİİRİNDEN ÖRNEKLERLE ÇEŞİTLİ GÖREVLERİ, KULLANIM ALANLARI VE ANLAMLARI

Pelin Seval ÇAĞLAYAN ESEN [1]


A preposition is a word used to link nounspronouns, or phrases to other words within a sentence. They act to connect the people, objects, time and locations of a sentence. Preposition does not have a meaning on its own, in sentence comes before or after noun or words like noun; establishes various meaning relations between words and verbs, gerundial, nouns and grammatical independent clauses that add different meanings to the sentence. Prepositions are usually short words, and they are normally placed directly in front of nouns. A nice way to think about prepositions is as the words that help glue a sentence together. They do this by expressing position and movement, possession, time and how an action is completed.

Indeed, several of the most frequently used words in Persian, such as به، با، در، بر، تا، تا، جز، چون، برای  از، (az-from, ba-to, dar-in, ber-on, upon, ta-up to, coz-other than, jon-for, baray-for) are prepositions. Explaining prepositions can seem complicated, but they are a common part of language and most of us use them naturally without even thinking about it. Prepositions are the smallest group of auxiliary parts of sentence, helps use of words, phrases, and sentence. While prepositions establish interest among words, creates phrases. Sometimes these phrases are complete verb such as adverbial in terms of reason, time, place, direction, purpose, quality, quantity, contrast, question, similarity, means, sometimes such as indirect object in terms of heading, availability, leaving.

In fact, it’s interesting to note that prepositions are regarded as a ‘closed class’ of words,This means, unlike verbs and nouns, no new words are added to this group over time. In a way, it reflects their role as the functional workhorse of the sentence. They are unassuming and subtle, yet vitally important to the meaning of language.

Prepositions in Persian three types are examined: simple preposition, compound preposition, defined preposition. Simple preposition are those which are not compounded with any other word. The Simple Prepositions generally assist in determining the place or position of a person or thing. For example: به، با، در، را، بر، تا، الا، باز، تا، جز، چو، چون، فرو، که، فرا، برای  از، (az, ba, dar, ra, ber, ta, ella, baz, coz, jo, jon, foro, ke, fera, baray). Compound preposition are those prepositions which are formed by prefixing the preposition to a noun, an adjective or an adverb. For example: به جز، جز از، مگر از، جز که، چون که، مگر که، همچو، از بهر، به خاطر، به غیر از ( ba, coz, coz az, magar az, coz ke, jon ke, magar ke, hamjo, az bahr, ba hatar, ba gayr az). Defined preposition come in three varieties: At the end of the words, the summoning ا (a), the beginning of the call ای (ay) the exclamation exclamation and the را (ra).

In Persian especially in the classical works type of poetry and prose it is seen that prepositions have more than one meaning. Preposition  به (ba) has a lot of meanings such as the, on, at, to, for, from, with, upon, over, towards, on account of, despite, although, spite of, like, while, under, acording to, about, near, next to, when, by. At the same time this preposition binds two words of the same kind, sometimes makes the adjective or the adverb, it was seen that this preposition was used at the beginning of the verbs, gerundial in classical Persian. While setting the sentence in the present, preposition  به (ba) was used at the beginning of verb in the imperatives and subjunctive mood of verbs. Sometimes the tanven at the end of the envelope is thrown and the preposition  به (ba) is added thus makes the task adverbial in the sentence, used to meaning of starting in sentences, used to consolidate the meaning of the word, connects two words of the same type, before these prepositions بر (bar) on, در (dar) at, جز (coz) other than accepted more and for the sentence meaning of this preposion unnecessary.

In the study, the various uses of preposition به (ba)  and its different meanings were examined with examples. Thirty-nine different uses and meanings of preposition به (ba)  were determined and explained with examples. These example are mostly selected from poems of poets of Persian literature such as Firdevsi, Enveri, Hakani, Attar, Mevlana, Iraki, Sadi, Evhadi, Hafız.

Structured Abstract

A preposition is a word used to link nounspronouns, or phrases to other words within a sentence. They act to connect the people, objects, time and locations of a sentence. Preposition does not have a meaning on its own, in sentence comes before or after noun or words like noun; establishes various meaning relations between words and verbs, gerundial, nouns and grammatical independent clauses that add different meanings to the sentence. Prepositions are usually short words, and they are normally placed directly in front of nouns. A nice way to think about prepositions is as the words that help glue a sentence together. They do this by expressing position and movement, possession, time and how an action is completed.

Indeed, several of the most frequently used words in Persian, such as به، با، در، بر، تا، تا، جز، چون، برای  از، (az-from, ba-to, dar-in, ber-on, upon, ta-up to, coz-other than, jon-for, baray-for) are prepositions. Explaining prepositions can seem complicated, but they are a common part of language and most of us use them naturally without even thinking about it. Prepositions are the smallest group of auxiliary parts of sentence, helps use of words, phrases, and sentence. While prepositions establish interest among words, creates phrases. Sometimes these phrases are complete verb such as adverbial in terms of reason, time, place, direction, purpose, quality, quantity, contrast, question, similarity, means, sometimes such as indirect object in terms of heading, availability, leaving.

In fact, it’s interesting to note that prepositions are regarded as a ‘closed class’ of words,This means, unlike verbs and nouns, no new words are added to this group over time. In a way, it reflects their role as the functional workhorse of the sentence. They are unassuming and subtle, yet vitally important to the meaning of language.

Prepositions in Persian three types are examined: simple preposition, compound preposition, defined preposition. Simple preposition are those which are not compounded with any other word. The Simple Prepositions generally assist in determining the place or position of a person or thing. For example: به، با، در، را، بر، تا، الا، باز، تا، جز، چو، چون، فرو، که، فرا، برای  از، (az, ba, dar, ra, ber, ta, ella, baz, coz, jo, jon, foro, ke, fera, baray). Compound preposition are those prepositions which are formed by prefixing the preposition to a noun, an adjective or an adverb. For example: به جز، جز از، مگر از، جز که، چون که، مگر که، همچو، از بهر، به خاطر، به غیر از ( ba, coz, coz az, magar az, coz ke, jon ke, magar ke, hamjo, az bahr, ba hatar, ba gayr az). Defined preposition come in three varieties: At the end of the words, the summoning ا (a), the beginning of the call ای (ay) the exclamation exclamation and the را (ra).

In Persian especially in the classical works type of poetry and prose it is seen that prepositions have more than one meaning. Preposition  به (ba) has a lot of meanings such as the, on, at, to, for, from, with, upon, over, towards, on account of, despite, although, spite of, like, while, under, acording to, about, near, next to, when, by. At the same time this preposition binds two words of the same kind, sometimes makes the adjective or the adverb, it was seen that this preposition was used at the beginning of the verbs, gerundial in classical Persian. While setting the sentence in the present, preposition  به (ba) was used at the beginning of verb in the imperatives and subjunctive mood of verbs. Sometimes the tanven at the end of the envelope is thrown and the preposition  به (ba) is added thus makes the task adverbial in the sentence, used to meaning of starting in sentences, used to consolidate the meaning of the word, connects two words of the same type, before these prepositions بر (bar) on, در (dar) at, جز (coz) other than accepted more and for the sentence meaning of this preposion unnecessary.

In the study, the various uses of preposition به (ba)  and its different meanings were examined with examples. Thirty-nine different uses and meanings of preposition به (ba)  were determined and explained with examples. These example are mostly selected from poems of poets of Persian literature such as Firdevsi, Enveri, Hakani, Attar, Mevlana, Iraki, Sadi, Evhadi, Hafız.

Edat tek başına bir anlamı olmayan, cümle içerisinde isim veya isim soylu kelimelerden önce ya da sonra gelerek bağlı olduğu kelimeler ile fiiller, fiilimsiler, isimler arasında çeşitli anlam ilgileri kuran, cümleye farklı anlamlar katan, gramer görevli bağımsız kelime türüdür. Edatlar cümlenin yardımcı parçalarının en küçük grubunu oluşturur, birlikte kullanıldıkları kelimelerin, kelime gruplarının ve cümlelerin kullanışlarına, ifade kabiliyetlerine yardım eder. Edatlar sözcükler arasında ilgi kurarken aynı zamanda tümleç öbekleri oluşturur, bu öbekler bazen zarf tümleçleri gibi yüklemi neden, zaman, yer, yön, amaç, nitelik, nicelik, karşıtlık, soru, benzerlik, vasıta, beraberlik, açıklama bakımından bazen de dolaylı tümleçler gibi yönelme, bulunma, ayrılma bakımından tümler. Farsçada özellikle nazım ve nesir türünde kaleme alınan klasik eserlerde edatların birbirlerinin yerine ve öz anlamları dışında farklı anlamlarda kullanıldığı görülmektedir. Çeşitli kullanım alanları ve farklı görevleri olan, isme –e halini veren به edatı da از، با، بر، برای، تا، در، نزدِ، از روی، از جهتِ، به سوی، مطابقِ، به واسطۀ، به سببِ  gibi edatlar yerine kullanılarak öz anlamı dışında -i,  -de, -den, ile, için, üzerine, üzerinde, -e doğru, tarafına, -e karşın, karşılığında, -e rağmen, yerine, kadar, bir, bakımından, gibi, sebebiyle, yüzünden, -e uygun, -e göre, -iken, olarak, altında, hakkında, yanına, yanında, -dığı zaman, yoluyla, …gibi birçok anlamı karşılamaktadır.

Çalışmada به edatının klasik şiirde kullanım alanları, görevleri ve farklı anlamları Firdevsî, Enverî, Hakânî, Attâr, Mevlânâ, Irâkî, Saʻdî, Evhâdî, Hâfız gibi klasik Fars şairlerinin şiirlerinden tarafımızca tespit edilen örneklerle incelenmiştir. Örneklerin sayfa numarasının yanında beyit numarası da verilmiştir. Kendinden sonra gelen kelimeye tamlama kesresi ile bağlanan edatlarda kesre işareti gösterilmiştir. 

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  • Şahinoğlu, M. N. (1997). Farsça Grameri (Sarf ve Nahiv). İstanbul: Kitabevi Yayınevi.
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  • Şîrâzî, H. (1372 hş.). Şâh-i Nebât-i Hâfız. (tsh. Muhammed Rıza Berzger Hâlikî) Tahran: İntişârât-i Zevvâr.
  • Şîrâzî, S. (1377 hş.). Dîvân-i Gazeliyât-i Sadî-yi Şîrâzî I. (tsh. Halîl Hatîb Rehber) Tahran: İntişârât-i Danişgâh-i Tahran.
  • Şükûn, Z. (1984). Farsça-Türkçe Lûgat Gencinei Güftar Ferhengi Ziya I. İstanbul: Milli Eğitim Basımevi.
  • Tebrîzî, S. (1364 hş.). Dîvân-i Sâib-i Tebrîzî I. (tsh. Muhammed-i Kahramanî) Tahran: Şirket-i İntişârât-i İlmî ve Ferhengî.
  • Yıldırım, N. (2015). Farsça Dilbilgisi. İstanbul: Kabalcı Yayınevi.
Primary Language tr
Subjects Social
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Orcid: 0000-0002-5922-5613
Author: Pelin Seval ÇAĞLAYAN ESEN
Institution: TOKAT GAZİOSMANPAŞA ÜNİVERSİTESİ
Country: Turkey


Dates

Application Date : February 12, 2019
Acceptance Date : May 28, 2019
Publication Date : June 29, 2019

APA ÇAĞLAYAN ESEN, P . (2019). FARSÇA به EDATININ KLASİK FARS ŞİİRİNDEN ÖRNEKLERLE ÇEŞİTLİ GÖREVLERİ, KULLANIM ALANLARI VE ANLAMLARI. Nüsha , 19 (48) , 137-154 . DOI: 10.32330/nusha.526028