Year 2019, Volume 19 , Issue 49, Pages 1 - 16 2019-12-29

HUMÂM-İ TEBRÎZÎ’NİN GÂZÂN HÂN’A METHİYELERİ
The Persian Praise Poems of Homam Tabrizi to Ghazan Khan

Esengül UZUNOĞLU SAYIN [1]


Moğol İmparatorluğunun İran’daki İlhânlı kolunun yedinci hükümdarı olan Gâzân Hân (ö. 704/1304), iyi bir kumandan ve âdil bir devlet adamıdır. Gâzân Hân tahta çıktıktan sonra yirmi üç yaşında yüz bin Moğol askeriyle birlikte Müslüman olmuş, devletin resmi dini İslam olarak kabul edilmiş, idareciler ve halk arasındaki din ayrımı ortadan kalkarak Müslüman halka yapılan baskı ve zulümler sona ermiştir. Gâzân Hân, Argun Hân’ın (ö. 691/1291) ölümünden sonra ülkede çıkan kargaşayı sona erdirmiş, ülkede huzur ve güven ortamını sağlamak için sert tedbirler almış, herkesi birbiriyle eşit tutmuş, kimsenin bir başkasına zulüm etmesine izin vermemiştir.

Humâm-ı Tebrîzî (öl. 713/714-1313/1314), Moğol İlhânlılar’ı döneminde yaşamış, İran’ın tanınmış şair ve şeyhlerindendir. Humâm-ı Tebrîzî, kıta, gazel, kaside, mesnevi ve rubai nazım şekilleriyle yazdığı Dîvân’ında Farşça ve Arapça şiirler kaleme almıştır. Şiirlerinin bir kısmında Şemsuddîn-i Sahîbdîvân, Gâzân Hân, Argun Hân, Olcayto gibi zamanın alim ve büyüklerini övmüştür.

Humâm-ı Tebrîzî, Gâzân Hân’a methiye Farsça bir gazel, iki kaside ve bir kıta olmak üzere dört adet şiir kaleme almıştır. Humâm-ı Tebrîzî şiirlerinde Gâzân Hân’ın adaletinden, ülkeyi refah ve huzur içinde yönetmesinden, ülkede var olan kargaşayı ortadan kaldırmasından, onun ve ordusunun Müslüman olmasından bahsetmiştir.

Çalışmada Humâm-ı Tebrîzî ve Gâzân Hân’ın hayatına kısaca değindikten sonra, Humâm-ı Tebrîzî’nin Gâzân Hân’a yazdığı Farsça methiyeleri Türkçeye çevrilmiş ve konuları kısaca anlatılmıştır.

Homam Tabrizi was one of the prominent poets and sheikhs of Iran who lived during the Mongolian Ilkhanete period. He was born in 636/1239 in Tabriz. The name in the tezkires is Hace Humamuddin Ala Tabrizi, his nickname is Homam, Homamuddin, Mewlana and Hace, and his pseudonym is Homam. Saheb Diwan Hace is a contemporary and close friend of Shamseddin Juveyni (d. 678/1284). Homam Tabrizi had intimate relations not only with the famous vizier of the period, Shamseddin Juveyni, but also with other members of the Juveyni family, especially with the son of Shamseddin Juveyni and Hace Harun (d. 694/1286). In his youth, Homam worked in state affairs, served as vizier of Azerbaijan, and went to Rum with the assignment of Shamseddin Juveyni. Although it is not known where he got his mystic and Islamic knowledge, it is known that he was a friend of Kutbuddin Shrazi (d. 710/1311), where he studied with Hace Nasireddin Tusi. His contemporaries praised him with adjectives specific to the sheikhs and the elders of the sect, reached the upper level of Sufism, and became one of the leading figures of Arabic and Persian poetry and writing, beautiful calligraphy and contemporary subjects. Homam has a Diwan with Persian and Arabic poems consisting of continental, ghazal, ode, mathnawi and rubai. Homam praised Shamseddin Juveyni, Residuddin Fazlullah (d. 718/1318), Kutbuddin Shrazi (d. 711/1311), Sultan Muhammad Oljayto (d. 716/1316), such as the age of Arghun Khan, Ghazan Khan.

Ghazan Khan who is the seventh ruler of the Mongolian Ilkhanetes in Iran, is a good commander and a fair statesman. He was the son of Arghun Khan, one of the Ilkhanate rulers. After his father ascended the throne, he succeeded him as the governor of Khorasan, Mazenderan, Kumis and Rey. Ghazan Khan was supported by Ilkhanetes statesmen, especially Nevruz Bey (d. 729/1297), and was greeted with a ceremony in Tabriz by prominent statesmen and clergy when Baydu (d. 727/1295) lost his reign. Then he went to Karabakh and sat on the throne of Ilkhanetes with the ceremonial ceremony. Ghazan Khan accepted the Islam with a hundred thousand Mongol soldiers when he was twenty-three years old, the official religion of the state has been recognized as Islam, the distinction between public authorities and religious finished, the oppression and oppression of the Muslim people has ended. After Arghun Khan’s death, finished the chaos in country. Ghazan Khan have taken harsh measures to ensure peace and security in the country, everyone kept equal to each other, he did not allow anyone to persecute anyone else.

Homam’s praise written to Ghazan Khan consists of four verses. The first of these is an ode of eight couplets, the second is a sixteen couplet in a ode, the third is a fifteen couplet in a ode, and the fourth is a four couplet verse. In Homam’s ghazal, he mentions Ghazan Khan as “World Sultan and King of King” because he provides the trust and peace that never existed in the country and is fair. Ghazan Khan is described in the gazel with his justice and the peaceful management of the country. In first ode, Homam praises Ghazan Khan and his army and says that they are “the desire of heart and the light of the eye”. According to Homam, Ghazan Khan and his army have a soul full of sweet and divine light. In second ode, Homam says that Ghazan Khan was the greatest queen of the period. Homam says that Ghazan Khan was the queen of the seven continents and that a queen like him had never been born before and would not come. In verse, Homam says that no sultan had ever been as fair as Ilkhanetes Ghazan Khan, and that he had not been unemployed other than the guard and guard during his reign, and that there was no need for a guard and guard because the country was ruled with justice. According to Homam, Ghazan Khan makes his name mentioned in the poems of previous poets by eliminating hostility in the country and ensuring that everyone lives friendly.

In conclusion, Homam, Ghazan Khan resembles Keyhosrev and Ferroh with the atmosphere of peace and security in the country, Behram, Enuşirvan, Cemşid, Feridun and Alexander with his justice, Rüstem with his warrior and Süleyman with his seal. In addition, Homam, one of the prophets Hz. Muhammad, among the queen Ghazan Khan was chosen by saying that he refers to the value of God. Homam says that thanks to Ghazan Khan, the Mongolian lived in peace and tranquility by stopping burning and plundering.


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Primary Language tr
Subjects Language and Linguistics
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Orcid: 0000-0002-5338-8067
Author: Esengül UZUNOĞLU SAYIN (Primary Author)
Institution: GAZİOSMANPAŞA ÜNİVERSİTESİ, FEN-EDEBİYAT FAKÜLTESİ
Country: Turkey


Dates

Application Date : May 16, 2019
Acceptance Date : November 21, 2019
Publication Date : December 29, 2019

APA UZUNOĞLU SAYIN, E . (2019). HUMÂM-İ TEBRÎZÎ’NİN GÂZÂN HÂN’A METHİYELERİ. Nüsha , 19 (49) , 1-16 . DOI: 10.32330/nusha.566492