1956 yılında bağımsızlığına kavuşan Tunus, Fransız sömürgesi döneminde uygulanan politikalar nedeniyle edebi bağlamda gelişimini geç tamamlamıştır. Tunus’ta Fransızcadan yapılan edebi çeviriler neticesinde tercüme hareketleri başlamış ve edebi anlamda bir canlanma yaşanmıştır. Zamanla özgün eserler verilmeye çalışılmış ve öykü ile roman türlerinin temelleri atılmıştır. Roman türünde kaleme alınan ilk çalışmaların deneme vaziyetinde olduğu görülürken aynı zamanda hem teknik hem de sanatsal bağlamda zayıf kaldıkları görülmüştür. Buna rağmen bu çalışmalar devam etmiş ve sanatsal anlamda romanın oluşumuna dair bir zemin hazırlanmıştır. Aslında ilk çalışmalar yapılırken Muhammed Hüseyin Heykel’e ait olan ve 1914 yılında Mısır’da yayımlanan Zeyneb romanından daha önce Tunus’ta roman türüne dair bir çalışma yapıldığı da gözlenmiştir. Bütün bu gelişmeler yaşanırken Tunus’ta edebi türlerin gelişimine dair en büyük katkının gazeteler ve dergiler tarafından sağlandığı görülmektedir. Söz konusu bu dergiler ve gazeteler üretilen edebi ürünlerin, eleştirilerin ve yazarların tanıtılması hususunda adeta bir meşale olmuşlardır. Söz konusu dergiler ve gazetelerde sadece Tunus’ta ortaya konulan ürünlere yer verilmeyip aynı zamanda Fransız işgaline sahne olan bir diğer ülke Cezayir’de de kaleme alınan çalışmalar ve yazarların hangi konuları işledikleri görülecektir. Söz konusu bu çalışmada tarihi bağlamda roman türünün doğuşu ile gelişimi ve bu gelişim esnasında üretilen edebi ürünler ile romanın ayrıldığı türlere dair detaylı bilgi verilmesi amaçlanmıştır.
Tunisia, which became independent in 1956, completed its development very late in the literary context due to policies implemented during the French colonial period. In Tunisia as a result of literary translations made in French, translation movements started and a rebirth literature occured. In the process of time original works were published and the genres of story and novel were laid. While the first novels written in the genre were in experimental condition, they were found to be weak in both technical and artistic contexts. Nevertheless, story and novel proceeded the ground work of artistic basis for the novel was provided. In fact, throughout the first studies, it was observed that there was a study on the novel genre in Tunisia before the novel of Zaynab, which was published in Egypt in 1914 and belonged to Muhammad Husayn Haykal. While all these developments took place, it was considered that newspapers and magazines made the major contribution to the development of literary genres in Tunisia. These magazines and newspapers elucidated for advertising literary works, critics and authors. In these socalled magazines, not only the products produced in Tunisia, but also the works written in Algeria that witnessed the French invasion and themes they dealts with will be elaborated. In this study, it is aimed to inform the genesis and development of the novel in historical context and the literary products produced during this process and the genres where the novel is separated.
In 1881, Tunisia was occupied by the French. This country, which had many censorship and published stages during the French occupation, gained its independence in 1956. Not only Tunisia but also the Maghreb countries, such as Algeria and Morocco, completed their literary development late because of the French occupation and the policies implemented by the colony and the influence of the French language. Therefore, it is seen that the first samples of literary genres such as short stories and novels appeared in these countries later than their counterparts in eastern Arab countries. To determine the authenticity of Tunisian literature, we must first recall that it was subjected to two major influences. First of all, in the literary context, Tunisia is an integral part of Arab literature produced in an area extending from Mauritania in the West to Iraq in the East. The second is an ancient French colony, only 120 kilometers from Italy. For this reason, it was influenced by European ideas both because of geographical proximity and translations from the West.
After the French occupation, Tunisia lived between the years of 1956-1987, the founding leader of the country Habib Bourguiba. However, political changes did not fundamentally change the content of Tunisian literary texts, and the departure of Bourguiba had almost no influence on Tunisian literature. Therefore, it would be better to look at other instruments other than politics in order to understand the literature of this period. During this period, approximately 680 literary works were published by Tunisian writers, especially from independence to the 1990s, of which 270 were poetry collections and 100 were novels.
The political and social events taking place in the Arab countries were a major obstacle to the reflection of the literary works produced in these countries to other Arab countries. Although writers and literary works in Tunisia are under a repressive regime and heavy censorship by the French, it is seen that they have made considerable progress in all genres of literature. However, these studies were carried out through local newspapers for a long time and were confined to narrow borders. In spite of all these negativities, it is obvious that as early as 1905 there were some exits about the genre of story.
In Tunisia, it should be mentioned that Taher al-Haddad (1901/1935), who could be considered as a starting point in the genres of stories and novels, and who could be considered as a pioneer in the issue of the rights of workers and women, carried out in this early period. In terms of the geography of North Africa, many novels have been published since the early years in Tunisia, although the Arab novel did not appear too soon compared to its neighbors. When looking at Arab novelists in Tunisia probably the first of these, Mahmud al-Mas'adî who was professor of Higher Education in France. His expertise in Arabic literature enabled him to gain excellent competence in both Arabic and French cultures. Taha Husayn once mentioned him as follows:
” This Tunisian litterateur has become truly erudite in Arabic culture and has completed his studies in France, where he has reached an excellent standard in his knowledge of French literature. He has been much influenced by the renowned French philosophical writer Albert Camus ”.
In any case, al-Mas'adî’s novels show a broad culture and intellectual depth. According to some researchers, the definitive beginning of Tunisian novel is based on translations up to the attempts to create original texts. These early essays are not adequate in terms of having the simplest characteristics of artistic Tunisian novels, but they are similar in terms of being short, and discourses are distinguished by the superiority of ideas rather than the characteristics of novel art.
The most vivid use of medium in French colonialism was newspaper articles. At the same time, these intellectual writings, which were used as a weapon against imperialism, had an important role in the development of the prose style in the countries under colonialism. Journalism plays an important role in the publication of novels and short stories in modern Tunisian literature so this situation has continued until just before independence.
Modern Tunisian literature has made significant progress in the literary context after Tunisia's liberation from the French occupation in 1956. Especially as a result of the studies conducted before the independence in general, literature in particular, the novel genre has achieved an artistic momentum. Both this effect and developments in the printing of literary products positively affected the increase in the number of readers and literature. Especially after the independence of Tunisia, it is seen that literary works are given at a very serious level and the genre in question is divided into various genres such as national, social and mental novels. According to these genres, various writings were written by the authors, and at the same time, various themes, especially the problems in Tunisian society, were dealt with in various studies and a critical attitude was taken when necessary.
: September 21, 2019
|APA||GÖKGÖZ, T . (2019). MODERN TUNUS ROMANINA BİR BAKIŞ. Nüsha , 19 (49) , 69-96 . DOI: 10.32330/nusha.623074|