Year 2019, Volume 19 , Issue 49, Pages 45 - 68 2019-12-29

The Characters of Shahname in Classical Turkish and Persian Poetry

Yasemin YAYLALI [1] , Yasemin YAYLALI [2]

Firdevsî’nin büyük eseri Şahnâme içerdiği bilgiler bakımından gerek tarih alanında gerekse edebiyat alanında araştırmacıların dikkatini çekmiş ve üzerinde birçok çalışma yapılmasına olanak sağlamıştır. Şahnâme hem Fars edebiyatında hem de Türk edebiyatında büyük ilgi görmüştür. Klasik Fars edebiyatında ve Klasik Türk edebiyatında Şahnâme’den esinlenerek eserler yazılmıştır. Kimi zamanda şairler şiirlerini yazarken Şahnâme’den faydalanmış ve Şahnâme’de geçen karakterleri edebi sanatlar bünyesinde kullanmışlardır. Şairler bazen memduhları için yazdığı kasidelerde memduhu yüceltmek için Şahnâme’de geçen büyük ve güçlü bir kahramana benzetmiştir. Klasik Fars ve Türk şiirinde şairler kimi zaman da memduhun düşmanını Şahnâme’de yer alan zalim bir karaktere benzetmişlerdir. Çalışmamızda hem Klasik Fars edebiyatında hem de Klasik Türk edebiyatında çoğunlukla kasidelerde yüzlerce örneği olan Şahnâme karakterlerine yer verilen bu tarz kullanımlardan ziyade her iki edebiyatta da gazellerde geçen farklı kullanımlar tespit edilerek beyit örnekleriyle dikkatlere sunulmuştur. Konunun genişliği göz önünde bulundurulduğundan her iki edebiyatta da örneği bulunan karakterlere yer verilmeye özen gösterilmiştir. Söz konusu örneklerle ilgili olarak her iki edebiyatta da beyitler dikkatle seçilmiş; Farsça beyitler Türkçeye çevrilmiş; beyitlerde geçen kahramanlarla ilgili bilgiler verildikten sonra gerekli açıklamalar düşülmüştür. 

With regard to the information it has, the great work of Firdevsî, Shahname, attracted the attention of researchers both in the field of history and literature and it enabled many studies to be done. Shahname has received great interest both in Persian and Turkish literature. Classical Persian literature and Classical Turkish literature inspired works written by Shahname. Sometimes poets used Shahname to write their poems and used the characters in Shahname within the literary devices. The poets sometimes liken him to a great and powerful hero in Shahname to glorify the memduh in his odes. In classical Persian and Turkish poetry, poets sometimes likened the enemy of the memduh to a cruel character in Shahname. In our study, instead of the uses of Shahname characters, which have hundreds of examples in the classical Persian literature and in Classical Turkish literature, mostly in the eulogies, the different uses in odes in both literatures were determined and presented to the attention with couplet samples. Considering the breadth of the subject, care was taken to include the characters that were exemplified in both literatures. In both literatures, couplets have been carefully selected for these examples; Persian couplets were translated into Turkish. After giving information about the heroes in couplets, necessary explanations have been deducted.

Structured Abstract

In classical Persian and Classical Turkish literature, poets have profited profusely from literary arts in order to show their mastery of utterance and to make their poems more beautiful and more impressive. In the literary arts, the likening is more preferred than other arts. In classical Persian poetry and Classical Turkish poetry,While  the poets  formed their likenings,  they  made use of precious stones such as diamonds, rubies, emeralds, sometimes cosmic elements such as sun, moon, stars, sometimes beautiful, attractive and fragrant flowers such as tulips, roses, hyacinths, violets, and sometimes historical and mythological characters that stood out with their strength, splendor and courage. Of these, there is no doubt that the Shahname has been a source of treasure for everyone in terms of its historical and mythological characters. Some of the heroes in the Shahnameh were also used much more. Some are given only by name, while some have a number of prominent features, or some have multiple features, which have been used by poets for analogy. Or some of the heroes 'objects or objects that identify with them adorned the poets' poems.  For example, Cem's famous Chalice, which shows everything, as well as his throne and Crown, have been numerous metaphors for poets. In addition, Rustem's courage, bravery or fearlessness were much preferred both in classical Persian poetry and in Classical Turkish poetry when parables were made for praise by poets.

 In classical Persian and Classical Turkish literature, the Persian historical and mythological characters mentioned in the Shahnameh have been used for praise in the literary arts, especially in eulogies. There are numerous examples of poetry in the works of poets of such uses in both literatures. Although studies and studies have been conducted by researchers in both Persian and Turkish literature to identify and examine these uses, these are rather eulogies in which the praise of memduhun is made. And there are examples of poetry in which memduhun is compared with Shahname heroes in terms of courage, bravery, glory, or that memduhun is regarded as superior to them. In our study, mostly Ghazal poems are preferred, but there are also a few kasids and continents.  In classical Persian poetry and Classical Turkish poetry, examples where the interest in analogy was established except for the praise of Shahname characters and memduhun were identified; the Persian ones were translated into Turkish and the interest in analogy was explained. While the work in question was done, the subject was somewhat limited by scanning the major poets and their divans in classical Persian poetry and Classical Turkish poetry. Later, the common ones were preferred in both literatures. Metaphor in classical Turkish poetry Classical Persian poetry as a result of this study in the context of Şehnâme about the use of characters and all of the issues have been identified: Iranian classical mythological and historical characters mentioned in sahname in classical Turkish poetry in Persian cute and the priorities of, for example, Rustam's aggression, bravery, brutality dahhak; or stories of heroes such as Rustem's unknowingly stabbing his son Sohrab with a dagger in his chest, Rustem's removal of Bijen from the well and the shedding of Siyavush's blood, or objects such as Cem's Goblet, Alexander's mirror, Kubad's crown, and sometimes the lover's beauty elements such as face, cheek and hair have been established as an analogy. Flowers such as Daffodils, tulips, Jasmine and roses, or trees such as the willow tree, which are sometimes found in nature in terms of color, shape and images, have been likened to Shahname characters. For example, in classical Persian poetry, the two zülfü of the lover were likened to dahhak's serpents with their shape, color and appearance; and Cem's goblet with its beautiful face in terms of brightness, redness and reception. In terms of the color and appearance of the daffodil flower, the crown of Cem; the tulip, which is black in the middle, is red in color and shape, and the Rose is similar to the chalice of Cem and the mirror of Alexander. Or the spring season Kavus, Rüstem Nowruza and autumn are likened to the white camel. Nowruz is similar to the fact that the plants come out of the soil and grow with the arrival of Spring, and Rüstem breaks the White giant's stomach and brings his liver for the treatment of Kavus. In classical Turkish literature, the lover's red lips were compared to Cem's goblet in terms of color and brightness; his attractive and radiant face was compared to Alexander's mirror; and sometimes the lover's red lip and bright beautiful face, like a goblet, were held superior to Cem's goblet and Alexander's mirror. Some time in spring with the arrival of spring is likened to a sultan on the throne while cemsid growing grass on each side, and also with Alexander's crown shape and attractive color tulips among the grass; the color of tulips, the Cem has been likened to a cone in terms of shape. The yellow Daffodil flower has been likened to the crown of Kubad in terms of the shape and yellow color of its leaves. The lover, enchanted by the influence and peace of Love, has revealed himself to Bijen and Rustem in terms of  fighting against  all the troubles of love.

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Primary Language tr
Subjects Literature
Journal Section Articles

Orcid: 0000-0002-6904-1471
Author: Yasemin YAYLALI (Primary Author)
Country: Turkey

Author: Yasemin YAYLALI (Primary Author)
Country: Turkey


Application Date : October 4, 2019
Acceptance Date : November 27, 2019
Publication Date : December 29, 2019

APA YAYLALI, Y , YAYLALI, Y . (2019). KLASİK FARS VE TÜRK ŞİİRİNDE ŞAHNÂME KARAKTERLERİ. Nüsha , 19 (49) , 45-68 . DOI: 10.32330/nusha.629575