Year 2019, Volume 19 , Issue 49, Pages 183 - 202 2019-12-29

ALİ el-CÂRİM DİVÂNI'NDA COĞRAFİ ATIFLAR
Geographical References in Diwan 'Ali al-Jarem
الإحالات الجغرافية في ديوان علي الجارم

Emad Abdelbaky Abdelbaky ALY [1]


  Bu makalenin araştırma konusu: dil, mekân ve coğrafya ile dilin, dil araştırmaları kadar eskiye dayanan karşılıklı ilişkisidir. Zira dil bir çevrede yaşayan bir toplum tarafından konuşulur. Aynı şekilde dil çevrenin değişmesine bağlı olarak değişir. Arap şiirinde geçen coğrafi tasvirler şiir ve coğrafya arasındaki bu ilişkiyi teyit etmektedir. Coğrafi şiirler şehir ve ülkelerin isimlerini tespit etmek konusunda büyük bir öneme sahiptir. Arap şiirinde  coğrafi mekân sıklıkla kullanılmaktadır. Coğrafya, dil ve şiire benzer, çünkü insanlar bir çevrede yaşarlar. Yaşadıkları çevreyi etkiledikleri gibi yaşadıkları çevreden de etkilenirler. Modern şiirde, yer isimleri şairlerin yaşadıkları olaylardan etkilenmesi ve sosyal ortam hakkında konuşmaları ile  ortaya çıktı. Şairlerin bahsettiği ülke ve şehirden söz ederken  çevrenin şiir  üzerindeki etkisi de incelenmelidir. Bu sebeple bu makalede modern çağın önde gelen şairlerinden sayılan aynı zamanda asrının vakalarını en iyi kaydeden şairlerden olan Ali el-Cârim'in şiirlerindeki  coğrafi atıfları anlambilimsel çözümleme metoduyla araştırılmıştır. Ve bu araştırma Ali el-Cârim divanındaki coğrafi atıfları ortaya çıkarmayı hedeflemektedir. Böylece şairin fikrî çerçevesi yaşadığı coğrafya, vakaları ile ona tesir eden mekanlar tanınmış olur. Aynı zamanda şiir cümlelerinin yapısındaki terkiplerin manaları ve bazen nasıl değişiklik gösterdiği anlaşılmış olur. Özellikle Ali el-Cârim'in şiirlerinde çok sayıda ülke ve coğrafi mekândan bahsetmesi hatta pek çok kasidesinin başlığını bu mekanlardan seçmesi de çalışmada işlenmiştir.

Abstract

The research topic of this article is the relationship between language and space on one hand and geography and language on the other hand. The relationship between language and geography is as old as linguistic research because language is spoken by a society living in an environment. Likewise, there are language changes depending on the environment. Geographical descriptions in Arabic poetry confirm this relationship between poetry and geography. Geographical poems are of great importance in determining the names of cities and countries. Geographical places in Arabic poetry are many. Geography is similar to language and poetry because people live in an environment and are influenced by what is in it and comes out of this effect in poetry. In modern poetry, places and their names appeared in the poet's talk about his social environment in which he lives and is affected by its events. As the poet mentioned many countries and cities, the environment should be studied and its impact on the poet and the sentences he uses in his poetry should be studied too. For this reason, this article explores the geographical references in the poems of 'Ali al-Jarem, one of the leading poets of the modern age and one of the best recording poets of the century. Thus, this research aims to know the geographical references in 'Ali al-Jarem council. Thus, the poet's intellectual framework is known with its geography and its places. At the same time, it is understood that the meaning and sometimes the compositions in the structure of poetry sentences change particularly 'Ali al-Jarem's mention of numerous countries and geographical places in his poems, and even the fact that many of his poems were chosen from these places are mentioned in this study.


Structured Abstract

      Linguists have spoken, since old times, about the relationship between geography, poetry, and language. Geography studies people and what is going on around them in their environment or in the great community in which they live.

The Arabs have organized many of their sciences in poetry such as philosophy, grammar, logic and others. Moreover, the Arabs recorded their heritage and experiences in life through poetry. Geography is similar to language and poetry because people live in an environment and are influenced by what is in it and comes out with this effect in poetry.

Arabic poetry was filled with many places and geographical features; in ancient Arabic poetry, geographical places appeared, especially in the introductions. In modern poetry, places and their names appeared in the poet's talk about his social environment in which he lives and is affected by its events. As the poet mentioned many countries and cities, the environment should be studied and its impact on the poet and the sentences he uses in his poetry should be studied too. The role of the social context (environment) that surrounds the poet, and he lives in is reflected in his literary production, too. This also makes it easier to understand a society and its culture and how to deal with it. It sometimes even makes it easier to understand societies because knowing the language of each society is the real gateway to understanding it. In fact, language is the entrance to the culture of a society, or what we can call the cultural and social context of each society, which is expressed by the poet through his poetry.

 Understanding the literary text (poetry) does not depend on understanding the language in which the literary text (poetry) is presented, but rather on the context of each text, the circumstances, and factors surrounding the production of the text (Poetry). So literature is the true expression of society, its ideas and culture, whether in the form of direct expression, by describing reality in literary work, or by indirect expression, through the culture of a writer. The poet lives in that environment with all its different places, nature and geographic factors, and then presents his literature influenced by what he saw and felt.  Because the poet (writer) sees in the ordinary situation and recurring environmental factors in daily life what is not seen by others, he writes while influenced by what is going on in the society in which he lives. He does not have to be  influenced by a major event, but he may also be influenced by a minor situation that happens daily in front of everyone. Writers reflect society in their works as a result of their interaction with the attitudes and factors that occur in it. Some texts also affect them in their literary works either directly or indirectly. Furthermore, the culture of the writer varies with the diversity of the culture that influenced him, whether religious or other, and all this within the cultural and social context of the writer. Knowing that context is very important in understanding the text and what it refers to, many critics recommend studying and understanding the cultural and social context of the writer to understand the text correctly.

'Ali al-Jarem states on the day of the Prophet's birthday in a poem entitled Abu Zahra:

نَافَسَت الأرض السّماء بكوكبٍ          وَضي المَحيَا ما حَوَتْه سماء

The earth competed with the sky by a planet; lighted face and sky do not contain him. Here, the word planet has shifted from a geographical location to a sign of the Prophet Muhammad. The poet, Ali al-Jarem, confirms, about the city of Rashid:

 حين سَمّوْكِ (وردةً) زُهِىَ الحســـ          ـــنُ، وودّ الخدودُ لو كنّ وَرْدًا

يا ابنةَ اليمِّ لا تُراعي فإنّي               قد رأيتُ الأمورَ جَزْرًا ومدًّا

When they named you a rose, beauty was beautiful, and the cheeks wanted to be a rose. Daughter of the sea, do not care  I have seen some things tides and ebbs. He talks about Rashid and a reference to her name in English (Rosetta)

Here the poet benefited from the name of his city which adds a new linguistic connotation to the name of the city where the poet grew up and loved. He also benefited from the geographical location of the city to call her (daughter of the sea), The poet 'Ali al-Jarem took advantage of the name of the city in another instance when he said in a poem (Rashid greeted the king Farouk):

رَشيد لاقَت رَشِيدًا     شَهمًا مُحببا مُجابا

City of  Rashid met a wise man; he is a brave, loved, and respected man. Here the geographical name of the city of Rashid was changed to present King Farouk as a guide. The geographic city names have acquired different meanings.  As a result of the linguistic structure of the House of Poetry, which gave a new linguistic connotation, this new meaning makes the reader in a dilemma between the geographical places in Alexandria and the new connotation of the poetic structures.

Search results: The geographical places in the poems of 'Ali al-Jarem contributed to the knowledge of the environment of the poet and the places that were affected by it. 'Ali al-Jarem was influenced by the geographical names and added new linguistic meanings to them. The relationships between geography and linguistic sciences would produce new meanings and connotations. The semantic structures also differ from one community to another. This reflects a certain culture and a certain society.


يبحث هذا المقال  في اللغة والمكان، فالعلاقة بين اللغة والجغرافيا علاقة متلازمة وقديمة قِدَم البحث اللغوي نفسه، لأنَّ اللغة تأتي من مجتمع يعيش في بيئة، كما أنَّ اللغة تختلف باختلاف البيئة، والتصويرات الجغرافية التي ذكرها الشعر العربي تؤكد تلك العلاقة بين الجغرافيا والشعر، وللأشعار الجغرافية أهمية كبيرة في توثيق أسماء المدن والبلدان، إضافة إلى الأماكن الجغرافية التي حظت بحظ وافر في الشعر العربي.

الجغرافيا تشبه اللغة والشعر؛ حيث إنَّ الناس يعيشون في بيئة، فهم يتأثرون بالبيئة التي يعيشون فيها كما أنَّ هذه البيئة نفسها تؤثر فيهم وهو ما ظهر في الشعر، ففي الشعر الحديث ظهرت أسماء الأماكن في حديث الشاعر عن بيئته الاجتماعية وتأثّره بالأحداث فيها، فينبغي دراسة تأثير البيئة أيضًا على الشعر عند الحديث عن البلد والمدينة التي يتحدث عنها الشعراء، لذلك يبحث هذا المقال في الإحالات الجغرافية -عبر الدّراسة الدلالية- في شعر علي الجارم الذي يُعدّ من أبرز شعراء العصر الحديث، كما أنَّه من أبرز الشّعراء الذين سجلوا أحداث عصره. وهكذا تهدف الدراسة إلى معرفة الإحالات الجغرافية في ديوان علي الجارم لمعرفة الإطار الفكريّ والجغرافيّ الذي كان يعيش فيه الشّاعر، والمناطق التي تأثّر بها وبأحداثها، وكذلك معرفة معاني التراكيب في بناء الجملة الشعرية وتغيّر معانيها في بعض الأحيان، خاصة مع ذكر علي الجارم العديد من الدول والبلدان والأماكن الجغرافية، حتى إنّ الكثير من عناوين قصائده كانت بأسماء تلك الأماكن، والتي تحمل العديد من الدلالات اللغويّة.

  • *قائمة بالمصادر:1- ابن قتيبة: الشعر والشعراء، تحقيق وشرح أحمد محمد شاكر، ط2، دار المعارف، 1985م.2- ابن القطاع الصقلي: أبنية الأسماء والأفعال والمصادر، تحقيق أحمد محمد عبد الدايم، القاهرة، مطبعة دار الكتب المصرية، 1999م.3- الشريف الجرجاني: التعريفات، مؤسسة الحسني، الدار البيضاء، ط1، 2006.4- المتنبي: الديوان، دار بيروت للطباعة والنشر، لبنان، 1983. 5- المعجم الكبير: مجمع اللغة العربية، مؤسسة روز اليوسف الجديدة، القاهرة، ط1، 1992م. 6- المعجم الوسيط: مجمع اللغة العربية، مطابع الدار الهندسية، القاهرة، 1985. 7- امرئ القيس: الديوان، دار الكتب العلمية، لبنان، 2004. 8- أبو القاسم الزمخشري: كتاب الجبال والأمكنة والمياه، مطبعة بريل، ليدن، 1855م.9- أبو الفتح عثمان بن جني: الخصائص، القاهرة، الهيئة المصرية العامة لقصور الثقافة، 2006م.10- أبو الفضل جمال الدين محمد بن مكرم بن منظور المصري: لسان العرب، دار صادر، لبنان، ط1، 1997. 11- أبو عبيد الله عبد الله بن عبد العزيز البكري الأندلسي: معجم ما استعجم من أسماء البلاد والمواضع، عالم الكتب، بيروت، ب.ت. 12- أبو عثمان عمرو بن بحر الجاحظ: الحيوان، تحقيق عبد السلام هارون، مكتبة مصطفى البابلي، القاهرة، ط2، 1965م. 13- إبراهيم ناجي: الديوان، دار العودة، بيروت، 1980.14- شهاب الدين أبي عبد الله ياقوت بن عبد الله الحموي الرومي: معجم البلدان، دار صادر، بيروت، 1977م. 15- قدامة بن جعفر: نقد الشعر، ت: كمال مصطفى، مكتبة الخانجي، القاهرة،1987م،16- علي الجارم: الديوان، القاهرة، دار الشروق، ط2، 1990م. 17- مجد الدين محمد بن يعقوب الفيروز أبادي الشيرازي: القاموس المحيط، الهيئة المصرية العامة للكتاب، 1978. 18- معجم اللغة العربية المعاصرة: أحمد مختار عمر وآخرون، عالم الكتب، القاهرة، ط1، 2008م. *قائمة بالمراجع: 1- حسن محمد حماد: تداخل النصوص في الرواية العربية، سلسلة دراسات أدبية، الهيئة المصرية العامة للكتاب، 1998م. 2- شوقي ضيف: دراسات في الشعر العربي المعاصر، القاهرة، دار المعارف، ط8، 1994.3- عاطف مدكور: علم اللغة بين التراث والمعاصرة، دار الثقافة، القاهرة، 1987. 4- عبد السلام المسدي: السياسة وسلطة اللغة، القاهرة، الدار المصرية اللبنانية، 2007م.5- عبد الرحمن الرافعي: شعراء الوطنية في مصر، القاهرة، دار المعارف، ط3، د.ت.6- عبده الراجحي: اللغة وعلوم المجتمع، دار الصحابة للتراث، طنطا، ط1، 2013.7- علي عبد الواحد وافي: اللغة والمجتمع، مكتبة زهراء الشرق، 1998م.8- كريم زكي حسام الدين: أصول تراثية في علم اللغة، مكتبة الأنجلو المصرية، ط2، 1993. 9- لطفي عبد البديع: الشعر واللغة، القاهرة، مكتبة النهضة العربية، 1969م.10- محمد حماسة عبد اللطيف: اللغة وبناء الشعر، القاهرة، دار غريب، 2001م.11- محمد حماسة عبد اللطيف: بناء الجملة العربية، القاهرة، دار غريب، 2003م.12- محمود سعران: اللغة والمجتمع، طرابلس، 1985.
  • *المراجع الأجنبية- جون كويني: بنية اللغة الشعرية، ترجمة محمد الوالي ومحمد العمري، المغرب، دار توبقال، ط1، 1986.- ج.ب.براون و ج.بول: تحليل الخطاب. ترجمة محمد لطفي الزليطي، ومنير التريكي، الرياض، 1997م.- م. م. لويس: اللغة والمجتمع، ترجمة: تمام حسان، القاهرة، 1959.-Loreto Todd: AN INTRODUCTION TO LINGUISTICS, LONGMAN YORK PRESS, Eighith impression,1987.
Primary Language ar
Subjects Language and Linguistics
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Orcid: 0000-0001-8163-9225
Author: Emad Abdelbaky Abdelbaky ALY (Primary Author)
Institution: KARAMANOĞLU MEHMETBEY ÜNİVERSİTESİ
Country: Turkey


Dates

Application Date : October 7, 2019
Acceptance Date : December 24, 2019
Publication Date : December 29, 2019

APA ALY, E . (2019). الإحالات الجغرافية في ديوان علي الجارم. Nüsha , 19 (49) , 183-202 . DOI: 10.32330/nusha.630512