Nakaid, kökleri Cahiliye dönemi Hicv/yergi şiirlerine dayanan, aynı vezin ve kafiye kafiye ile söylenen edebi bir sanattır. Şairlerin amaçları ve arzuları dışında tek bir kasideymiş gibi aynı bahr, aynı ölçü ve aynı kafiye ile söylenmiş iki kasidedir. Bu çalışma, İslami Dönem Nakaid sanatının kendine has özellikleriyle sanatsal olarak çerçevelenmeye çalışılması ve İslam öncesi dönemde de bu sanatın başlangıcına dikkatle bakma çabasıdır. Dini, politik ve sosyal etkenler, İslami Dönem Nakaid sanatının ortaya çıkmasında temel nedenlerindendir.
İslami dönemin başları, Müslümanlar ve putperestler arasındaki dini çatışma ve aynı zamanda Müslümanların kendi içindeki siyasi çatışmaya eşlik eden geniş bir şiir koleksiyonuna şahit oldu. İslami Dönem Nakaid sanatı, o dönemdeki en etkili şiirlerden biriydi ve İslami fetihlerde yaygınlaşarak popüler oldular.
Nakaid sanatının tohumları cahiliye döneminde atıldı, sulandı, büyütüldü, gün yüzüne çıktı ve şairlerin dilinde dolanmaya başladı. Besus, Dâhis-Ğabra, Evs-Hazrec savaşları gibi zamanlarda gerçek kimliğine kavuşmaya başladı. Bu dönemin diğer şairlerinin ulaşamadığı bir şöhrete sahip olan meşhur iki şair Hassan b. Sabit ve Ka‘b b. Malik, Nakaid sanatının ağırlığını ve sorumluluğunu üstlendiler ve tüm alanlarda mükemmel katkı sağladılar. Şiirsel savaş Müslüman şairler ve Müşrik şairler arasında kızışmıştı ve iki taraf arasında şiddetini ve hararetini artırarak devam etti.
Bu çalışma, İslami Dönem Nakaid sanatının doğasını ve imajını ortaya koymaya yönelik ciddi bir çalışmadır. Bu çalışma iki bölümden oluşmaktadır. Birinci bölümde İslami Dönem Nakaid sanatı, gelişimi, evrimi, sanatsal yönleri, Nakaid, savaşlar ve diğer sebepler ele alındı. İkinci bölümde de İslami Dönem Nakaid sanatının sanatsal özellikleri incelendi.
النقائض فن جذوره تمتد إلى الشعر الهجاء في الجاهلية وهي قصائد تشترك في الوزن والقافية والروي فكل قصيدتين متضادتين تأتيان من بحر واحد وروي واحد وقافية واحدة كأنهما قصيدة واحدة لولا اختلاف المقاصد والأهواء لدى الشاعرين. جاءت هذه الدراسة في محاولة رسم النقائض تأطیراً نظریاً لفن النقائض وتعریفاته المحددة، كما بیّن التمهيد الخیوط العامة لشروط النقائض وخصائصها، بالإضافة إلى نظرة متأنیة في البدایة الأولى لفن النقائض في العصر الجاهلي. أنّ الدوافع الدینیة والسیاسیة والاجتماعیة هي الدوافع الجوهرية لنشأة فن النقائض الإسلامیة.
اشتمل عصر صدر الإسلام على مجموعة كبیرة من الأشعار التي واكبت فترة الصراع الدیني بین المسلمین والمشركین والصراع السیاسي بین المسلمین أنفسهم، وكان لشعر النقائض أثر واضح بین هذه الأشعار، إذ شاع هذا الشعر وانتشر في ظلال الغزوات والوقائع الإسلامیة.
فقد كانت البذرة الأولى لها مدفونة في حقل العصر الجاهلي، الذي رعاها وسقاها، فبدأت تتفتح شيئاً فشيئاً لتظهر على السطح، حيث بدأت بالتداول على ألسنة الشعراء، فكان حضورها الحقيقي وقتئذٍ زمن الحروب والأيام في ذلك العصر، فكانت أيام حرب البسوس، وداحس والغبراء، والأوس والخزرج وقود هذه النقائض فظهرت وذاعت. فكان حسان بن ثابت الأنصاري وكعب بن مالك الأنصاري الشاعرين المسلمين اللذين استطاعا أن يحملا فن النقيضة الإسلامية على عاتقهما مع مجموعة أخرى من الشعراء الذين لم ينالوا ما ناله الشاعران السابقان من شهرة وتفوّق في جميع المجالات التي أدلوا بدلوهما فيها . لقد كانت المعركة الشعرية حامية الوطيس بين شعراء الدعوة الإسلامية من جانب، وشعراء الشرك من جانب آخر، فهذه الحرب لا تقلّ في شدتها وحرارتها عن تلك الحرب الحقيقية بين الطرفين.
ومن هنا جاءت هذه الدراسة في محاولة جادّة منها للكشف عن ماهيّة النقائض الإسلامية وصورها. في الفصل الأول قد بحثت عن النقائض الإسلامية، تطورها وطرقها وفنونها والنقائض والغزوات والعناصر الأخرى وفي الفصل الثاني بحثت عن الخصائص الفنية للنقائض الإسلامية.
Islamic poetry duals are an art form that extends back its roots to the Hija'a poetry movement during the pre-Islamic period. These poems have a shared scale, rhyme and narration; each two contrasting poems are made with the same rhyme and scale as though they are one poem except the differences in meanings and whims of the two poets. This study emerged in attempting to artistically frame the 'duals' in Islamic poetry and their specific characteristics. The initial research conducted for this study provided us with a general set of conditions and requirements for this specific type of poem as well as a close examination of its beginnings during the pre-Islamic times. The religious, social and political motivations were the driving forces behind the establishment of the Islamic poetry duals.
The early Islamic era witnessed a large collection of poetry which was concurrent with the religious conflict between Muslims and heathens, as well as the political conflict between Muslims within themselves. The Islamic poetry duals were one of the most influential poems during that period; they became widely popular during the Islamic conquests.
The initial seed for this type of poem was planted, watered and nourished during the pre-Islamic era. It gradually grew to appear on the surface when it was adopted by many poets and had a real presence since those times of war. The wars during that period, namely, the Besus war; the Dahis and Ghabra'a war; and Alaws and Khazraj war were all fuel to this type of poetry as it became well known after surfacing. The two poets, Hassan b. Thabit Alansary and Ka'ab b. Malik Alansary were able to carry the weight of this form of Islamic poetry on their shoulders, along with a group of other less known poets who never attained the same level of fame or mastery in all fields. The poetic war intensity heated between the pro-Islamic poets on one side and the heathen poets on the other. This poetic war was as rigorous and heated as the real war between the two sides.
This is where the study emerged in a serious attempt to discover the nature of the Islamic poetry Duals and their images. In the first chapter, I address the origin, evolution, artistic methods, as well as the Islamic conquests and other factors. In the second chapter, I further explore the artistic characteristics of the Islamic poetry Duals.
Key words: Poetry, Duals, Islamic literature, Early Islamic Era, Hassan b. Thabit, Ka'ab b. Malik.
This style, which was used in the defense of religious, political or social issues among the tribes during the Pre-Islamic period of ignorance, was benefited as an effective weapon in the religious struggle during the Sadr al-Islam period when the Prophet began to explain and spread the Islam. Hassan b. Sâbit, Ka‘b b. Malik and Abdullah b. Reveha were the sharp swords that defended Islam with their strengths. However, the poets including Abdullah b. Zuba‘râ and Dırâr b. Like al-Khattab were infidels who attack Islam and its values.
In Arabic poetry, al-Naqa’id is a style that was seen in the period of ignorance and took place between Muslim poets and polytheist poets after Islam came. Polytheist poets used humiliating expressions on issues related to the Prophet and Muslims; Islam, Allah. On the other hand, Muslim poets defended these issues by expressing the greatness of these concepts. The Prophet always encouraged Hassan b. Sâbit, Ka‘b b. Malik and Abdullah b. Revaha to sing poetry on this subject.
The most prominent features of al-Naqa’id poems are that they cover satire and the second poet, as the defender, has common features in terms of rhyme, meter, and subject with the first poet in attacking position. In addition, the second poet tries to provide strong evidence that the first poet does not tell the truth. While defending this, he defies the other poet and his supporters and praises his own followers. In doing so, they use separation, modification, orientation, and denial. The poet prides himself on his tribe in al-Naqa’id poetry, praises himself, criticizes the other side and then starts praising himself and his tribe again.
One of the most common occasions of al-Naqa’id poems is the Battles such as Badr, Uhud, and Khandaq, which took place between Muslims and infidels. Muslim poets used expressions of joy and good news for martyrs, stating that they went to the holy places and would be in heaven. However, as for those who died of the infidels, they were in hell and insulted them. As for infidel poets, they cried for death of their supporters and vowed revenge.
The content is the same in the poetry of the Pre-Islamic Period of Ignorance and Islamic period. However, when we look at the content of Islamic poets, we see that they differ from each other. Some look at the remnants of a lover who deserted the poet and make up the introductory part of classical poetry, and begin their poetry with sadness, and then pass to satire, which is the main subject. While this entry is long in its classical form in some poets, in others it is kept shorter with the intention to keep it short. Some, without making an introduction to the subject directly start the satire. The poems that started without the classical introduction are the poems that were sung during the war. The last couplet, in terms of its summative features, includes the issue of infidelity of the infidels and their renouncing their infidelity and accepting Islam. Islamic period al-Naqa’id poems are composed of short poems that do not exceed 25 couplets in terms of number of couplets.
There are 3 main factors that make up the style of a literary work. These are as follows: the personality of the literary person, the content of the work and the period in which the work takes place. Muslim poets used verses from the Holy Quran and hadiths from the Prophet to support their ideas in their al-Naqa’id poems of the Islamic era. The language used in poetry is different in wartime and peacetime. In wartime, a strong language was used under the influence of war. However, in peacetime, a simple and soft language was used.
Poets sometimes benefited from repeating words to make their words more effective. For example, Hasan b. Sâbit used the words (هجوتَ) and (تهجو) a lot when talking about Abu Sufyan's satirizing the Prophet. They also used literary arts such as pun to add even to the words even stronger.
Imagination is an important aspect of poetry because it is one of the artistic ways in which poets express their ideas and clarify them to bring their meaning closer and impress the audience. The poetic image is in solidarity with passion and imagination and cannot be photographed apart from the other two basic elements or otherwise can lose its spirit and power. The imagination is comprised of elements such as desert, desert animals, rain, etc.
Musicality is more important than other elements in catching the style in poetry and making the pieces in poetry a whole. The contribution of rhyme and literary arts to get this musicality is of great importance. The musicality in the al-Naqa’id poems of Islamic poets differs slightly from the poems of the pre-Islamic period of ignorance. The poems of the pre-Islamic period of ignorance praise themselves or their tribes, while Islamic poets praise Islamic values.
Due to the lack of al-Naqa’id poetry books and sources related to the Islamic period, the differences between meter and rhyme could not be studied in a broader sense. However, within the framework of our data, it can be claimed that prosody meter is the most used meter. This meter is followed by Kamil Vâfir and serî‘.
As a result, al-Naqa’id poems in the Islamic period are the most commonly used poems by Muslims in defending Islam and inviting to Islam. The style of ignorance poetry was used as a style, it begins sometimes with an introduction, and sometimes it passes to the subject without introduction. The language and style used in war and peace situations are different from each other.
: October 21, 2019
|APA||YEŞİLDAĞ, A . (2019). رؤية في النقائض الإسلامية. Nüsha , 19 (49) , 121-150 . DOI: 10.32330/nusha.635698|