Ahmed b. İbrâhîm es-Serûcî (ö. 710/1310) born in
Serûc, emigrated to
Damascus at a young age from there to Egypt and lived there. The scholar who
lived from the second quarter of the VII/XIII century to the beginng of the
VIII/XIV century lived in the period of Bahri Mamluks. In this period,
scientific activities and those engaged in science had always been encouraged
and scholars had been assigned important duties in society. In this context,
es-Serûcî was educated in the madrasahs and mosques of Egypt which was the
science center of the period, by taking lessons from the important scholars of
the time and educating many students here. In addition, due to his duty as a
judge, he played an active role for a while in the politics of the period.
Standing out especially with his knowledge in
religious sciences, the scholar made a name for himself in his period and in
the following centuries with the work he wrote in this field and named as al-Ğâye. This work written on al-Hidâye which is about the Hanafi jurisprudence, is also
important because it is the first commentary on el- Hidâye. Learning the religious and scientific sciences from the
leading scholars of the period, the author had a deep knowledge in the field of
Arabic language and literature as well as these sciences. In addition to his virtues such as teacher and judge
duty, the best example of the author's interest in Arabic literature is
undoubtedly Tuhfetu'l-Ashâb ve Nuzhetu Zevi'l-Elbâb.
In this work written by the author collecting a large number of sources,
besides of examples from verses, hadith, and poems many genres of classical
poetry and prose are included. In addition to the Arabic language and
literature, this manuscript contains informations on different field such as
history, literary history, medicine, sociology and geography as well as
In this study,
firstly the life and works of the author will be given and then the manuscript
titled Tuḥfetu’l-Ashâb ve Nuzhetu Zevi’l-Elbâb which have not been studied in
the scientific world before, will be examined in terms of belonging to the author, copies of
manuscripts, reason for copyright, content, utilized resources and method.
(648/1250-923/1517) has an important place in Arab cultural history. In addition to their political authorities,
Mamluk rulers and statesmen have built scientific institutions such as
madrasahs, mosques, masjids and lodges, zaviya, hangah and they not only
protected the scientists but also encouraged the society to science and art by
participating in the educational circles and scientific assemblies in these
lived in Damascus for the first years of his 73-year life and the rest in Egypt
during the time of Bahrî Mamluks, was interested in science during the Bahrî
Mamluks period and was brought to important positions in the society. He grew
up by taking lessons from important scholars of the period in madrasahs and
mosques in Egypt which was the center of science of his time and taught many
students. And also, the scholar who was promoted to the authority of Ḳâḍi'l-Ḳuḍât
played an active role in the politics of this period for a while. In addition
to all this, another important point here is that as a scholar who knows the
subtleties of the Arabic language, he has a sufficient knowledge in literature
as well as religious sciences such as fiqh, hadith and Qur'an.
Each of the sources providing
information about Ebu’l-Abbâs es-Serûcî’s morality praised him by mentioning
his superior qualities.
es-Serûcî, whose place in the science is accepted and
appreciated by everyone, has a personality equipped with the characteristics of
the scholars. This person, who is one of the leading and mentioned scholars of
the period, is characterized by virtuous, imposing, supreme volunteer, piety,
dignified, fair, brave, chaste, tolerant, straightforward, trustworthy and
In addition to religious sciences,
one of the distinguished personalities who stand out with his knowledge in
various branches of science, such as language and literature, the researcher's
personality and the effort to go to primary sources are of great importance in
this experience. It is also an indication that he had an endless
curiosity towards science by writing a letter about tefsir and asking the
Andalusian scholar Abu Hayyân.
extensive knowledge of literature on topics such as Islamic sciences,
linguistics and Arabic literature, medicine, botany, natural science, neseb and
his ability to skillfuly gather different topics and bringing them together,
explain the reason for the richness of the subject in his book Tuhfetu’l- Ashâb ve Nuzhetu Zevi’l-Elbâb.
manuscript which has ten copies have been identified in eight different
libraries, incomplete and complete, has a great importance in terms of shedding
light on the ancient Arab history, language, literature and culture from the
pre-Ignorant period to the VIII./XIV. century when the author passed away. In
this context, in order to explain the subject in the best way, to impress and
persuade the reader, the author firstly brought witnesses especially in verses
and hadiths in every section and the words of scientists and scholars who had
proven their genius in their fields and their poems and then competed it by
bringing evidences from the most beautiful and rich types of classical Arabic
language and literature which formed the foundations of modern literature such
as poems, aphorisms, proverbs, ahbâr, eyyâmu’l-arab and menkıbe which were
spoken from pre-Ignorance to their own times.
also very important that the author explains the reason for writing it in the
introduction of the work. Wishing that his work should be accepted as a good
work in the sight of Allah and his mistakes should be corrected, the author
asked the readers who examined this work to cover his mistakes and pray well to
the person who ended the book with a good conclusion.
This manuscript is divided into
five main sections according to their subjects and each individual section is
divided into sub-titles within itself. Accordingly, the content of the work is
First chapter is the section where science, virtue,
decency and related issues are covered.
chapter is about lyric (ghazal), youth and old days, women and mans etc.
third chapter deals with issues such as rulers, statesmen, letters and
chapter is about the history, epigrams and strange events accepted by everyone.
The fifth chapter
is related to the verbal and meaning arts and the subjects in this style.
Consequently, in line with all of this information, by giving information
about the life and works of Şemsuddîn es-Serûcî, his work titled
Tuḥfetu’l-Ashâb ve Nuzhetu Ẕevi’l-Elbâb will be examined under the subtitles
such as introduction of the manuscripts, the reason for copyright, content and
Serûc’da doğan Aḥmed
b. İbrâhîm es-Serûcî (ö. 710/1310), küçük yaşlarda Şam’a oradan da Mısır’a göç
etmiş ve burada yaşamını sürdürmüştür. VII/XIII yüzyılın ikinci çeyreği ile
VIII/XIV. yüzyılın başları arasında Bahrî Memlükler döneminde yaşamıştır. Bu
dönemde ilmî faaliyetler ve ilimle meşgul olanlar her zaman teşvik edilmiş ve
âlimler toplumda önemli görevlere getirilmiştir. Bu bağlamda es-Serûcî de
dönemin ilim merkezi olan Mısır’daki medreselerde ve camilerde devrin önemli
âlimlerinden ders alarak yetişmiş ve burada birçok talebe yetiştirmiştir.
Ayrıca kadılık vazifesinden dolayı bir süre dönemin siyaseti içerisinde aktif
bir rol oynamıştır.
Hususiyetle dinî ilimlerdeki bilgisiyle öne çıkan âlim,
bu alanda telif ettiği ve el-Ġâye
adını verdiği eserle gerek kendi devrinde gerekse kendinden sonraki asırlarda adından
çokça söz ettirmiştir. Hanefi fıkhına dair kaleme alınan el-Hidâye üzerine yazılan bu eser, ilk mufassal Hidâye şerhi olması hasebiyle de önemlidir.
Devrin önde gelen âlimlerinden aklî ve naklî ilimleri öğrenen müellif, bu
ilimlerin yanı sıra Arap dili ve edebiyatı alanında da derin bilgi sahibidir.
Hocalığı ve kadılığı gibi meziyetlerinin yanısıra müellifin Arap edebiyatına
olan ilgisinin en güzel örneği de hiç şüphesiz bu alana dair yazmış olduğu ve tespit
edilen tek eseri Tuḥfetu’l-Aṣḥâb ve
Nuzhetu Ẕevi’l-Elbâb’dır. Çok sayıda kaynağın toplanılmasıyla telif edilen
bu çalışmada ayet, hadis ve şiirlerden getirilen şevâhidlerle birlikte klasik
nesir ve nazım geleneğine ait birçok türe yer verilmiştir. Bu eser, Arap dili
ve edebiyatının yanı sıra dinî ilimlerle birlikte tarih, edebiyat tarihi, tıp,
sosyoloji ve coğrafya gibi muhtelif alanlara dair bilgiler de içermektedir.
Bu çalışmada ilk olarak müellifin hayatı ve eserleri
hakkında bilgi verilecek akabinde şimdiye kadar bilim dünyasında hakkında
hiçbir çalışma yapılmamış olan Tuḥfetu’l-Aṣḥâb ve Nuzhetu Ẕevi’l-Elbâb adlı yazma
halindeki eseri müellife aidiyet, yazma eser nüshaları, telif sebebi, muhteva,
yararlanılan kaynaklar ve metod gibi açılardan incelenecektir.
es-Serûcî, Tuhfetu’l-Ashâb, Arap edebiyatı, Edebiyat Tarihi, Yazma Eser
|Subjects||Creative Arts and Writing|
|Publication Date||June 30, 2020|
|Submission Date||March 16, 2020|
|Acceptance Date||June 24, 2020|
|Published in Issue||Year 2020 Volume: 20 Issue: 50|