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FUTBOLDA 4V4 DAR ALAN OYUNLARINA VERİLEN PSİKOLOJİK VE BİLİŞSEL CEVAPLAR

Year 2021, Volume 12, Issue 2, 186 - 199, 25.08.2021
https://doi.org/10.17155/omuspd.946523

Abstract

Bu araştırmanın amacı, farklı formatlarda oynatılan 4v4 dar alan oyunlarına verilen ruh hali, algılanan zihinsel yük ve zihinsel çaba cevaplarının incelenmesidir. Araştırmaya 24 amatör futbolcu (yaş: 17,8 ± 5,1) katılmıştır. Araştırmada, kalecili, küçük kaleli ve topa sahip olma oyunlarını içeren 3 farklı formatta 4v4 dar alan oyunu oynatılmıştır. Oyuncular Yo-Yo Aralıklı Toparlanma Testi Seviye 1 skorlarına göre takımlara ayrılarak, 4 set, 4 dakika ve setler arası 2 dakika dinlenme olacak şekilde oyunlara katılmışlardır. Brunel Ruh Hali cevapları bütün oyunlar öncesinde ve sonrasında, NASA-TLX ve Zihinsel Çaba skorları da oyunlar sırasında ve sonrasında toplanmıştır. Araştırmanın bulgularına göre, kalecili oyunda bitkinlik ve dinçlik ruh hallerinde, küçük kaleli oyunda bitkinlik, depresiflik ve dinçlik ve topa sahip olma oyunda ise bitkinlik, kızgınlık ve dinçlik ruh hali cevaplarında istatistiksel olarak anlamlı farklılıklar görülmüştür (p<0,05). Algılanan zihinsel yük (NASA-TLX) ve zihinsel çaba cevapları incelendiğinde topa sahip olma oyununda diğer oyunlara göre istatistiksel olarak anlamlı farklılık bulunmuştur (p<0,05). Zihinsel Yük ve zihinsel çaba arasındaki ilişki incelendiğinde, küçük kaleli oyun ile zihinsel talep arasında (r=,455; p<0,05), topa sahip olma oyun ile fiziksel talep (r=,582; p<0,01) ve efor (r=,552; p<0,01) arasında istatistiksel olarak anlamlı ilişki olduğu görülmüştür. Topa sahip olma oyunu diğer oyunlara göre oyuncular için daha fazla zihinsel yük ve zihinsel çaba gerektiren bir bilişsel performans ihtiyacı ortaya çıkarmıştır. Araştırmanın sonuçları, dar alan oyunlarının ruh hallerini etkilediğini ve bilişsel süreçlerdeki talepleri artırdığını göstermiştir. Antrenörlerin, oyun performansındaki artışı sağlamak için yalnızca fiziksel etkenleri değil, aynı zamanda psikolojik ve bilişsel faktörleri de göz önünde bulundurarak oyun formatlarını dizayn ettiğinde sporcular için çok yönlü bir gelişim sağlayabilecekleri söylenebilir.

References

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COMPARISON OF THE PSYCHOLOGICAL AND COGNITIVE RESPONSES TO VARIOUS 4V4 SMALL-SIDED SOCCER GAMES

Year 2021, Volume 12, Issue 2, 186 - 199, 25.08.2021
https://doi.org/10.17155/omuspd.946523

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to compare the mood state, mental workload and mental effort responses among the various small-sided soccer games (SSGs) in amateur players. Twenty-four male amateur soccer players (average age 17.8±5.1 years) participated in this study voluntarily to perform the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 and were assigned to teams according to their test scores. Following this, players performed a total of 16 minutes of various 4vs4 small-sided soccer games with 4 bouts and 2-minute passive rest periods in terms of possession, mini goals and with goalkeeper. NASA-TLX and Rating of Mental Effort Scale (RSME) were monitored during and at the end of each SSGs. Brunel Mood Scale (BRUMS) was also determined at the beginning and end of each SSGs. Our results revealed that the mood states, mental workload and mental effort affected significantly in various 4vs4 SSGs (p<0.05). The NASA-TLX and RSME showed meaningfully higher in possession games compared to the other SSGs (p<0.05). Our results also showed significantly different correlations between mini goals and RSME (r=.455; p<0.05), possession and physical demands (r=.582; p<0.01) and effort (r=.552; p<0.01). We also found higher mental workload and mental effort in possession games compared to the other SSGs. According to our results, SSGs affect mood states and increasing cognitive demands in soccer. Coaches should take into consideration not only physical parameters, but also psychological and cognitive skills to increase game performance and multi-directional development in soccer players.

References

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  • Arslan, E., Orer, G. E., & Clemente, F. M. (2020). Running-based high-intensity interval training vs. small-sided game training programs: Effects on the physical performance, psychophysiological responses and technical skills in young soccer players. Biology of Sport, 37(2), 165–173. https://doi.org/10.5114/BIOLSPORT.2020.94237
  • Arslan, E., Soylu, Y., Clemente, F. M., Hazir, T., Kin-Isler, A., & Kilit, B. (2021). Short-term effects of on-field combined core strength and small-sided games training on physical performance in young soccer players. Biology of Sport, 38(4), 609–616. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.5114/biolsport.2021.102865
  • Beedie, C. J., Terry, P. C., & Lane, A. M. (2000). The profile of mood states and athletic performance: Two meta-analyses. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 12(1), 49–68. https://doi.org/10.1080/10413200008404213
  • Çakıroğlu, A. A. (2016). Brunel ruh hali ölçeği’nin yetişkin sporcularda geçerlik - güvenirlik çalışması (Türkçe uyarlaması). Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart Üniversitesi.
  • Casamichana, D., Castellano, J., González-Morán, A., García-Cueto, H., & García-López, J. (2011). Physiological demand in small-sided games on soccer with different orientation of space. RICYDE. Revista Internacional de Ciencias Del Deporte, 7(23), 141–154. https://doi.org/10.5232/ricyde2011.02306
  • Chaudhuri, A., & Behan, P. O. (2000). Fatigue and basal ganglia. Journal of the Neurological Sciences, 179(S 1-2), 34–42. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0022-510x(00)00411-1
  • Clemente, F., Couceiro, M. S., Martins, F. M. L., & Mendes, R. (2012). The usefulness of small-sided games on soccer training. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 12(1), 93–102. https://doi.org/1006394
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  • Clemente, F., & Sarmento, H. (2020). The effects of small-sided soccer games on technical actions and skills: A systematic review. Human Movement, 21(3), 100–119. https://doi.org/10.5114/hm.2020.93014
  • Coutts, A. J. (2016). Fatigue in football: it’s not a brainless task! Journal of Sports Sciences, 34(14), 1296–1296. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2016.1170475
  • Davids, K., Araújo, D., Correia, V., & Vilar, L. (2013a). How small-sided and conditioned games enhance acquisition of movement and decision-making skills. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, 41(3), 154–161. https://doi.org/10.1097/JES.0b013e318292f3ec
  • Davids, K., Araújo, D., Correia, V., & Vilar, L. (2013b). How small-sided and conditioned games enhance acquisition of movement and decision-making skills. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, 41(3), 154–161. https://doi.org/10.1097/JES.0b013e318292f3ec
  • Davis, J. S., Roeske, S. M., McClelland, W. C., & Kay, S. M. (2000). Mafic and ultramafic crustal fragments of the southwestern Precordillera terrane and their bearing on tectonic models of the early Paleozoic in western Argentina. Geology, 28(2), 171. https://doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(2000)28<171:MAUCFO>2.0.CO;2
  • DiDomenico, A., & Nussbaum, M. A. (2011). Effects of different physical workload parameters on mental workload and performance. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 41(3), 255–260. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ergon.2011.01.008
  • Fink, A., Bay, J. U., Koschutnig, K., Prettenthaler, K., Rominger, C., Benedek, M., … & Memmert, D. (2019). Brain and soccer: Functional patterns of brain activity during the generation of creative moves in real soccer decision‐making situations. Human Brain Mapping, 40(3), 755–764. https://doi.org/10.1002/hbm.24408
  • Frazão, D. T., de Farias Junior, L. F., Dantas, T. C. B., Krinski, K., Elsangedy, H. M., Prestes, J., … & Costa, E. C. (2016). Feeling of pleasure to high-ıntensity interval exercise is dependent of the number of work bouts and physical activity status. PLOS ONE, 11(3), e0152752. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0152752
  • Halouani, J., Chtourou, H., Gabbett, T., Chaouachi, A., & Chamari, K. (2014). Small-Sided games in team sports training. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 28(12), 3594–3618. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000000564
  • Hart, S. G., & Staveland, L. E. (1988). Development of NASA-TLX (Task Load Index): Results of empirical and theoretical research. Advances in Psychology, 139–183. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0166-4115(08)62386-9
  • Hopkins, W. G., Marshall, S. W., Batterham, A. M., & Hanin, J. (2009). Progressive statistics for studies in sports medicine and exercise science. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 41(1), 3–13. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e31818cb278
  • Kenttä, G., Hassmén, P., & Raglin, J. S. (2006). Mood state monitoring of training and recovery in elite kayakers. European Journal of Sport Science, 6(4), 245–253. https://doi.org/10.1080/17461390601012652
  • Köklü, Y., Alemdaroğlu, U., Cihan, H., & Wong, D. P. (2017). Effects of bout duration on players’ internal and external loads during small-sided games in young soccer players. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 12(10), 1370–1377. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2016-0584
  • Lane, A. M., Thelwell, R. C., Lowther, J., & Devonport, T. J. (2009). Emotional intelligence and psychological skills use among athletes. Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal, 37(2), 195–201. https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.2009.37.2.195
  • Lochbaum, M., Zanatta, T., Kirschling, D., & May, E. (2021). The profile of moods states and athletic performance: A meta-analysis of published studies. European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education, 11(1), 50–70. https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe11010005
  • Los Arcos, A., Vázquez, J. S., Martín, J., Lerga, J., Sánchez, F., Villagra, F., & Zulueta, J. J. (2015). Effects of small-sided games vs. ınterval training in aerobic fitness and physical enjoyment in young elite soccer players. PLOS ONE, 10(9), e0137224. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0137224
  • Mehta, R. K., & Agnew, M. J. (2012). Influence of mental workload on muscle endurance, fatigue, and recovery during intermittent static work. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 112(8), 2891–2902. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-011-2264-x
  • Morgan, W. P., Brown, D. R., Raglin, J. S., O’Connor, P. J., & Ellickson, K. A. (1987). Psychological monitoring of overtraining and staleness. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 21(3), 107–114. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.21.3.107
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Details

Primary Language Turkish
Subjects Sport Sciences
Journal Section Research Article
Authors

Yusuf SOYLU> (Primary Author)
TOKAT GAZIOSMANPASA UNIVERSITY, SPORT SCIENCES FACULTY
0000-0003-0609-0601
Türkiye

Publication Date August 25, 2021
Submission Date June 1, 2021
Acceptance Date August 10, 2021
Published in Issue Year 2021, Volume 12, Issue 2

Cite

APA Soylu, Y. (2021). FUTBOLDA 4V4 DAR ALAN OYUNLARINA VERİLEN PSİKOLOJİK VE BİLİŞSEL CEVAPLAR . Spor ve Performans Araştırmaları Dergisi , 12 (2) , 186-199 . DOI: 10.17155/omuspd.946523