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1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazy Radical-Scavenging Capabilities of 13 Essential Oils and Analysis of Volatile Components of the Most Effective Clove Essential Oil

Year 2023, Volume: 3 Issue: 4, 91 - 94, 09.10.2023

Abstract

Objective: In this study,it is aimed to research the antioxidant activity of 13 essential oils and 4 synthetic standards, which are frequently used in aromatherapy.

Methods: The essential oils were determined by their 1,1-d iphen yl-2- picry lhydr azyl (DPPH) radical- scavenging abilities and the volatile components of the most effective essential oil were analyzed by GC-MS.

Results: Among the essential oils, the one with highest DPPH radical-scavenging activity was clove essential oil (Eugenia Caryophyllus Flower Oil) (IC50 2.31 μg/mL). A low IC50 (half maximal inhibitory concentration) value indicates high radical-scavenging ability. The IC50 values of DPPH scavenging of essential oils and standard antioxidants decreased in the following order: ylangylang, frankincense, thyme, cedarwood (23.11 μg/mL), ylang-ylang, eucalyptus, bergamot, rosemary, wintergreen, lemon, ginger, immortelle, myrrh, grapefruit (34.66 μg/mL), and patchouli (69.32 μg/mL). help_outlineThe analysis of clove essential oil with the highest DPPH activity was performed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, and it was determined that it was mainly composed of eugenol (81.80%) and caryophyllene (13.90%).

Conclusion: Clove can be used for medicinal and food preservation purposes as a natural antioxidant.

References

  • 1. Ceylan A. Tıbbi Bitkiler-II. İzmir: Ege Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Yayını; 1983.
  • 2. Ríos J-L. Chapter 1 - Essential oils: what they are and how the terms are used and defined. In: Preedy VR, ed. Essential Oils in Food Preservation, Flavor and Safety. San Diego, CA: Academic Press; 2016:3-10.
  • 3. White G L. Essen. White Willow Books; 2013:82.
  • 4. Becer E, Altundağ EM, Güran M, et al. Composition and antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anticancer activities ofRosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil. S Afr J Bot. 2023;160:437- 445. [CrossRef]
  • 5. de Lavor ÉM, Fernandes AWC, de Andrade Teles RB, et al. Essential oils and their major compounds in the treatment of chronic inflammation: a review of antioxidant potential in preclinical studies and molecular mechanisms. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2018;2018:6468593. [CrossRef]
  • 6. Küçük M, Güleç C, Yaşar A, et al. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activities of the Essential Oils of Teucrium chamaedrys. subsp. chamaedrys., T. orientale. var. puberulens., and T. chamaedrys. subsp. lydium. Pharmaceutical Biology. 2006;44(8):592-599.
  • 7. Cambaz Kurt N, Çankaya İİ. Aromaterapi uygulamaları ve uçucu yağlar. Mersin Univ Tıp Fak Lokman Hekim Tıp Tarihi Folklorik Tıp Derg. 2021;11(2):230-241. [CrossRef]
  • 8. Kanat T. Aromaterapi. J Biotechnol Strateg Health Res. 2019;3: 67-73.
  • 9. Righi N, Deghima A, Ismail D, et al. Chemical composition and in vivo/ in silico anti-inflammatory activity of an antioxidant, non-toxic essential oil from Thymus algeriensis Boiss. & Reut. S Afr J Bot. 2023;157:64-74. [CrossRef]
  • 10. Amorati R, Foti MC, Valgimigli L. Antioxidant activity of essential oils. J Agric Food Chem. 2013;61(46):10835-10847. [CrossRef]
  • 11. Goñi MG, Roura SI, Ponce AG, Moreira MR. Chapter 39. Clove (Syzygium aromaticum) oils. In: Preedy VR, ed. Essential Oils in Food Preservation, Flavor and Safety. Cambridge: Academic Press; 2016: 349-357.
  • 12. Bardelčíková A, Šoltys J, Mojžiš J. Oxidative stress, inflammation and colorectal cancer: an overview. Antioxidants (Basel). 2023;12(4):901.
  • 13. Saleh EAM, Al-Dolaimy F, Qasim Almajidi Y, et al. Oxidative stress affects the beginning of the growth of cancer cells through a variety of routes. Pathol Res Pract. 2023;249:154664.
  • 14. Korovesis D, Rubio-Tomás T, Tavernarakis N. Oxidative stress in agerelated neurodegenerative diseases: an overview of recent tools and findings. Antioxidants (Basel). 2023;12(1):131. [CrossRef]
  • 15. Gulcin İ, Alwasel SH. DPPH radical scavenging assay. Processes. 2023;11(8):2248. [CrossRef]
  • 16. Miguel MG. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of essential oils: a short review. Molecules. 2010;15(12):9252-9287. [CrossRef]
  • 17. Gulcin İ. Antioxidants and antioxidant methods: an updated overview. Arch Toxicol. 2020;94(3):651-715. [CrossRef]
  • 18. Blois MS. Antioxidant determinations by the use of a stable free radical. Nature. 1958;181(4617):1199-1200. [CrossRef]
  • 19. El amrani S, El Ouali Lalami A, Ez zoubi Y, et al. Evaluation of antibacterial and antioxidant effects of cinnamon and clove essential oils from Madagascar. Mater Today Proc. 2019;13:762-770.
  • 20. Prakash B, Singh P, Kedia A, Dubey NK. Assessment of some essential oils as food preservatives based on antifungal, antiaflatoxin, antioxidant activities and in vivo efficacy in food system. Food Res Int. 2012;49(1):201-208. [CrossRef]
  • 21. Bendaoud H, Bouajila J, Rhouma A, Savagnac A, Romdhane M. GC/ MS analysis and antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of essential oil of Eucalyptus radiata. J Sci Food Agric. 2009;89(8):1292-1297.
  • 22. Majnooni M-B, Mansouri K, Gholivand M-B, et al. Chemical composition, cytotoxicity and antioxidant activities of the essential oil from the leaves of Citrus aurantium L. Afr J Biotechnol. 2012;11(2): 498-503.
  • 23. Rašković A, Milanović I, Pavlović N, Ćebović T, Vukmirović S, Mikov M. Antioxidant activity of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) essential oil and its hepatoprotective potential. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2014;14(1):225. [CrossRef]
  • 24. Nikolić M, Marković T, Mojović M, et al. Chemical composition and biological activity of Gaultheria procumbens L. essential oil. Ind Crops Prod. 2013;49:561-567. [CrossRef]
  • 25. Meryem S, Mohamed D, Nour-eddine C, Faouzi E. Chemical composition, antibacterial and antioxidant properties of three Moroccan citrus peel essential oils. Sci Afr. 2023;20:e01592.
  • 26. Höferl M, Stoilova I, Wanner J, et al. Composition and comprehensive antioxidant activity of ginger (Zingiber officinale) essential oil from Ecuador. Nat Prod Commun. 2015;10(6):1085-1090. [CrossRef]
  • 27. Mollova S, Fidan H, Antonova D, et al. Chemical composition and antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of Helichrysum italicum (Roth) G. Don subspecies essential oils. Turk J Agric For. 2020;44(4):371- 378. [CrossRef]
  • 28. Mohamed AA, Ali SI, El-Baz FK, Hegazy AK, Kord MA. Chemical composition of essential oil and in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of crude extracts of Commiphora myrrha resin. Ind Crops Prod. 2014;57:10-16. [CrossRef]
  • 29. Deng W, Liu K, Cao S, Sun J, Zhong B, Chun J. Chemical composition, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and antiproliferative properties of grapefruit essential oil prepared by molecular distillation. Molecules. 2020;25(1):217. [CrossRef]
  • 30. Al-Mijalli SH, Mrabti HN, Assaggaf H, et al. Chemical profiling and biological activities of Pelargonium graveolens essential oils at three different phenological stages. Plants (Basel). 2022;11(17):2226. [CrossRef] 31. Pandey SK, Gogoi R, Bhandari S, et al. A Comparative Study on Chemical Composition, Pharmacological Potential and Toxicity of Pogostemon cablin Linn., (Patchouli) Flower and Leaf Essential Oil. J Essent Oil Bear Plants. 2022;25(1):160-179. [CrossRef]
  • 32. Gülçin İ, Elmastaş M, Aboul-Enein HY. Antioxidant activity of clove oil – A powerful antioxidant source. Arab J Chem. 2012;5(4):489-499. [CrossRef]
  • 33. European Medicines Agency Herbal Medicinal Products Committee. Community herbal monograph on Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merill et L. M. Perry, floris aetheroleum. 2011.

1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazy Radical-Scavenging Capabilities of 13 Essential Oils and Analysis of Volatile Components of the Most Effective Clove Essential Oil

Year 2023, Volume: 3 Issue: 4, 91 - 94, 09.10.2023

Abstract

Objective: In this study,it is aimed to research the antioxidant activity of 13 essential oils and 4 synthetic standards, which are frequently used in aromatherapy.

Methods: The essential oils were determined by their 1,1-d iphen yl-2- picry lhydr azyl (DPPH) radical- scavenging abilities and the volatile components of the most effective essential oil were analyzed by GC-MS.

Results: Among the essential oils, the one with highest DPPH radical-scavenging activity was clove essential oil (Eugenia Caryophyllus Flower Oil) (IC50 2.31 μg/mL). A low IC50 (half maximal inhibitory concentration) value indicates high radical-scavenging ability. The IC50 values of DPPH scavenging of essential oils and standard antioxidants decreased in the following order: ylangylang, frankincense, thyme, cedarwood (23.11 μg/mL), ylang-ylang, eucalyptus, bergamot, rosemary, wintergreen, lemon, ginger, immortelle, myrrh, grapefruit (34.66 μg/mL), and patchouli (69.32 μg/mL). help_outlineThe analysis of clove essential oil with the highest DPPH activity was performed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, and it was determined that it was mainly composed of eugenol (81.80%) and caryophyllene (13.90%).

Conclusion: Clove can be used for medicinal and food preservation purposes as a natural antioxidant.

References

  • 1. Ceylan A. Tıbbi Bitkiler-II. İzmir: Ege Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Yayını; 1983.
  • 2. Ríos J-L. Chapter 1 - Essential oils: what they are and how the terms are used and defined. In: Preedy VR, ed. Essential Oils in Food Preservation, Flavor and Safety. San Diego, CA: Academic Press; 2016:3-10.
  • 3. White G L. Essen. White Willow Books; 2013:82.
  • 4. Becer E, Altundağ EM, Güran M, et al. Composition and antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anticancer activities ofRosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil. S Afr J Bot. 2023;160:437- 445. [CrossRef]
  • 5. de Lavor ÉM, Fernandes AWC, de Andrade Teles RB, et al. Essential oils and their major compounds in the treatment of chronic inflammation: a review of antioxidant potential in preclinical studies and molecular mechanisms. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2018;2018:6468593. [CrossRef]
  • 6. Küçük M, Güleç C, Yaşar A, et al. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activities of the Essential Oils of Teucrium chamaedrys. subsp. chamaedrys., T. orientale. var. puberulens., and T. chamaedrys. subsp. lydium. Pharmaceutical Biology. 2006;44(8):592-599.
  • 7. Cambaz Kurt N, Çankaya İİ. Aromaterapi uygulamaları ve uçucu yağlar. Mersin Univ Tıp Fak Lokman Hekim Tıp Tarihi Folklorik Tıp Derg. 2021;11(2):230-241. [CrossRef]
  • 8. Kanat T. Aromaterapi. J Biotechnol Strateg Health Res. 2019;3: 67-73.
  • 9. Righi N, Deghima A, Ismail D, et al. Chemical composition and in vivo/ in silico anti-inflammatory activity of an antioxidant, non-toxic essential oil from Thymus algeriensis Boiss. & Reut. S Afr J Bot. 2023;157:64-74. [CrossRef]
  • 10. Amorati R, Foti MC, Valgimigli L. Antioxidant activity of essential oils. J Agric Food Chem. 2013;61(46):10835-10847. [CrossRef]
  • 11. Goñi MG, Roura SI, Ponce AG, Moreira MR. Chapter 39. Clove (Syzygium aromaticum) oils. In: Preedy VR, ed. Essential Oils in Food Preservation, Flavor and Safety. Cambridge: Academic Press; 2016: 349-357.
  • 12. Bardelčíková A, Šoltys J, Mojžiš J. Oxidative stress, inflammation and colorectal cancer: an overview. Antioxidants (Basel). 2023;12(4):901.
  • 13. Saleh EAM, Al-Dolaimy F, Qasim Almajidi Y, et al. Oxidative stress affects the beginning of the growth of cancer cells through a variety of routes. Pathol Res Pract. 2023;249:154664.
  • 14. Korovesis D, Rubio-Tomás T, Tavernarakis N. Oxidative stress in agerelated neurodegenerative diseases: an overview of recent tools and findings. Antioxidants (Basel). 2023;12(1):131. [CrossRef]
  • 15. Gulcin İ, Alwasel SH. DPPH radical scavenging assay. Processes. 2023;11(8):2248. [CrossRef]
  • 16. Miguel MG. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of essential oils: a short review. Molecules. 2010;15(12):9252-9287. [CrossRef]
  • 17. Gulcin İ. Antioxidants and antioxidant methods: an updated overview. Arch Toxicol. 2020;94(3):651-715. [CrossRef]
  • 18. Blois MS. Antioxidant determinations by the use of a stable free radical. Nature. 1958;181(4617):1199-1200. [CrossRef]
  • 19. El amrani S, El Ouali Lalami A, Ez zoubi Y, et al. Evaluation of antibacterial and antioxidant effects of cinnamon and clove essential oils from Madagascar. Mater Today Proc. 2019;13:762-770.
  • 20. Prakash B, Singh P, Kedia A, Dubey NK. Assessment of some essential oils as food preservatives based on antifungal, antiaflatoxin, antioxidant activities and in vivo efficacy in food system. Food Res Int. 2012;49(1):201-208. [CrossRef]
  • 21. Bendaoud H, Bouajila J, Rhouma A, Savagnac A, Romdhane M. GC/ MS analysis and antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of essential oil of Eucalyptus radiata. J Sci Food Agric. 2009;89(8):1292-1297.
  • 22. Majnooni M-B, Mansouri K, Gholivand M-B, et al. Chemical composition, cytotoxicity and antioxidant activities of the essential oil from the leaves of Citrus aurantium L. Afr J Biotechnol. 2012;11(2): 498-503.
  • 23. Rašković A, Milanović I, Pavlović N, Ćebović T, Vukmirović S, Mikov M. Antioxidant activity of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) essential oil and its hepatoprotective potential. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2014;14(1):225. [CrossRef]
  • 24. Nikolić M, Marković T, Mojović M, et al. Chemical composition and biological activity of Gaultheria procumbens L. essential oil. Ind Crops Prod. 2013;49:561-567. [CrossRef]
  • 25. Meryem S, Mohamed D, Nour-eddine C, Faouzi E. Chemical composition, antibacterial and antioxidant properties of three Moroccan citrus peel essential oils. Sci Afr. 2023;20:e01592.
  • 26. Höferl M, Stoilova I, Wanner J, et al. Composition and comprehensive antioxidant activity of ginger (Zingiber officinale) essential oil from Ecuador. Nat Prod Commun. 2015;10(6):1085-1090. [CrossRef]
  • 27. Mollova S, Fidan H, Antonova D, et al. Chemical composition and antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of Helichrysum italicum (Roth) G. Don subspecies essential oils. Turk J Agric For. 2020;44(4):371- 378. [CrossRef]
  • 28. Mohamed AA, Ali SI, El-Baz FK, Hegazy AK, Kord MA. Chemical composition of essential oil and in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of crude extracts of Commiphora myrrha resin. Ind Crops Prod. 2014;57:10-16. [CrossRef]
  • 29. Deng W, Liu K, Cao S, Sun J, Zhong B, Chun J. Chemical composition, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and antiproliferative properties of grapefruit essential oil prepared by molecular distillation. Molecules. 2020;25(1):217. [CrossRef]
  • 30. Al-Mijalli SH, Mrabti HN, Assaggaf H, et al. Chemical profiling and biological activities of Pelargonium graveolens essential oils at three different phenological stages. Plants (Basel). 2022;11(17):2226. [CrossRef] 31. Pandey SK, Gogoi R, Bhandari S, et al. A Comparative Study on Chemical Composition, Pharmacological Potential and Toxicity of Pogostemon cablin Linn., (Patchouli) Flower and Leaf Essential Oil. J Essent Oil Bear Plants. 2022;25(1):160-179. [CrossRef]
  • 32. Gülçin İ, Elmastaş M, Aboul-Enein HY. Antioxidant activity of clove oil – A powerful antioxidant source. Arab J Chem. 2012;5(4):489-499. [CrossRef]
  • 33. European Medicines Agency Herbal Medicinal Products Committee. Community herbal monograph on Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merill et L. M. Perry, floris aetheroleum. 2011.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical Sciences (Other)
Journal Section Research Articles
Authors

Leyla GÜVEN 0000-0002-3189-6415

Publication Date October 9, 2023
Published in Issue Year 2023 Volume: 3 Issue: 4

Cite

EndNote GÜVEN L (October 1, 2023) 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazy Radical-Scavenging Capabilities of 13 Essential Oils and Analysis of Volatile Components of the Most Effective Clove Essential Oil. Pharmata 3 4 91–94.

Content of this journal is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial 4.0 International License

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