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Adaptation of Urban Areas: Climate Shelters and the Case of Europe

Year 2023, Volume: 7 Issue: 2, 171 - 180, 01.09.2023

Abstract

Today, adverse climate effects in densely constructed urban areas make public space and infrastructure
systems insufficient to meet the comfort conditions of the city residents. The Urban
Innovative Actions Initiative, an initiative of the European Union that produces solutions to the
environmental and social problems that arise in urban areas in Europe, carries out various practices
in various regions of Europe to adapt different areas determined at the urban scale to climate
change. One of the alternative solutions supported by the Urban Innovative Actions for
climate change is climate shelters. Climate shelters are defined as adaptable spaces that help
urban users protect themselves from the effects of heat waves, cold weather, or excessive precipitation
and are sensitive to climate change through blue, green, and gray infrastructure interventions.
These pilot projects, which have been realized, appear as integrated approaches that
meet the physical and social needs of urban residents with ecological and sustainable materials
and multiple participatory groups. The aim of this study is to analyze the examples of the Climate
Shelter project, which was piloted in existing school areas in the cities of Barcelona and Paris
between 2018 and 2021, through their development processes. It is seen that the climate shelter
examples in Barcelona and Paris play an important role in reducing the negative environmental
effects of climate changes. The dissemination of these projects will further increase the positive
effects of urban spaces and open spaces on the climate.

References

  • Ajuntament de Barcelona (2020). Eleven schools turned into climate shelters. https://ajuntament.barcelona.cat/relacionsinternacional sicooperacio/en/noticia/eleven-schools-turned-into-climate- shelters_988451. Erişim:18.03.2022 . Ajuntament de Barcelona (t.y.). Climate Shelters Network. Barcelona for Climate.
  • Burroughs, W. J. (2005). Climate change in prehistory: The end of the reign of chaos. Cambridge University Press.
  • Carpe Diem (2019). There is no climate emergency, say 500 experts in letter to the United Nations. https://www.aei.org/carpe-diem/there- is-no-climate-emergency-say-500-experts-in-letter-to-the-united- nations/. Erişim: 17.03.2022.
  • Cartalis, C. (2020a). The Climate Shelters project Journal n° 1, Project led by the City of Barcelona. Urban Innovative Actions (UIA), The Urban Lab of Europe. https://www.uiainitiative.eu/sites/default/files/2020- 05/Barcelona_GBGAS2C_Journal.pdf. Erişim:11.03.2022.
  • Cartalis, C. (2020b). The Climate Shelters project Journal n° 2, Project led by the City of Barcelona. The Climate Shelters project (GBG_AS2C) project. Urban Innovative Actions (UIA).
  • Cartalis, C. (2021a). Journal No. 3, Project led by the City of Barcelona. The “final mile” of the Climate Shelters project: communication, evalua- tion and replication. https://www.uiainitiative.eu/en/news/journal- no-3-final-mile-climate-shelters-project-communication-evaluation- and-replication. Erişim: 13.03.2022.
  • Cartalis, C. (2021b). Upscaling with a vision - The school yard as a school. https://www.uia-initiative.eu/en/news/upscaling-vision-school-yar d-school. Erişim: 09.03.2022.
  • Ecology, Urban Planning, Infrastructures and Mobility. (2022, March 15). https://www.barcelona.cat/barcelona-pel-clima/en/barcelona-r esponds/specific-actions/climate-shelters-network.
  • Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2001). Impacts, adaptation and vulnerabilities (J. J. MacCarthy, et al., eds.). Cam- bridge University Press. https://www.ipcc.ch/site/assets/uploads/ 2018/03/WGII_TAR_full_report-2.pdf. Erişim: 13.03.2022.
  • Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2014). Summary for policymakers. In C. B. Field, et al. (Eds.), Climate change 2014: Impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability. Part a: global and sectoral aspects. Contribution of working group ii to the fifth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change (ss. 1–32). Cambridge University Press. https://archive.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessm ent-report/ar5/wg2/ar5_wgII_spm_en.pdf. Erişim: 18.03.2022.
  • La Ville de Paris. Les Cours Oasis (2021). https://www.paris.fr/pages/les- cours-oasis-7389/. Erişim: 11.03.2022.
  • Laboratory of Europe. (2022, March 10). https://www.uia-initiative.eu/sites/default/files/2021-02/GBGAS2C_Barcelona_Journal%202.pdf.
  • Letcher Trevor, M. (Eds.) (2009). Climate change: Observed impacts on planet earth (1st edn). Elsevier. Letter to United Nations. Professor Guus Berkhout (2019). There is no climate emergency. https://clintel.nl/wp-content/uploads/2019/09/ ecd-letter-to-un.pdf. Erişim: 05.03.2022.
  • Page, E. A. (2006). Climate change, justice and future generations. Edward Elgar Publishing.
  • Peker, E. (2020). Re-thinking the production of urban built environments in the face of climate change. Urban Research and Practice, 13(4), 465–471. [CrossRef]
  • Sitzoglou, M. (2020). TThe OASIS Schoolyards project Journal Nº 1. Project led by the City of Paris. Urban Innovative Actions (UIA), The Urban Lab of Europe. https://uia initiative.eu/sites/default/files/2020-06/Paris_ OASIS_Journal.pdf. Erişim: 03.03.2022.
  • Special Eurobarometer 513. (2021). Climate Change Report, “European Per- ceptions of Climate”. European Commission. https://ec.europa.eu/ clima/system/files/2021-07/report_2021_en.pdf. Erişim: 12.03.2022.
  • The Paris Agreement. (2015). United Nations Climate Change. https://unfccc. int/sites/default/files/english_paris_agreement.pdf. Erişim: 11.03.2022.
  • Urban Innovative Actions (UIA). (2022a, March 12). Barcelona Climate Adaptation. The Urban Lab of Europe. GBG_AS2C - Blue, Green & Grey_Adapting Schools to Climate Change “Solution proposed”. https://www.uia-initiative.eu/en/uia-cities/barcelona-call3.
  • Urban Innovative Actions (UIA) (The Urban Lab of Europe. (2022b, March 12). OASIS - School yards: Openness, Adaptation, Sensitisation, Innova- tion and Social ties: Design and transformation of local urban areas adapted to climate change, working jointly with users. Climate adap- tation. https://uia-initiative.eu/en/uia-cities/paris-call3. Erişim: 12.03.2022.
  • World Wildlife Fund (2022). Küresel iklim değişikliği ve Türkiye. https:// www.wwf.org.tr/ne_yapiyoruz/iklim_degisikligi_ve_enerji/iklim_ degisikligi/kuresel_iklim_degisikligi_ve_turkiye/. Erişim: 20.10.2022.

Kentsel Alanların Adaptasyonu: İklim Sığınakları ve Avrupa Örneği

Year 2023, Volume: 7 Issue: 2, 171 - 180, 01.09.2023

Abstract

Günümüzde yoğun olarak yapılaşmış kentlerde olumsuz iklim etkileri kamusal alan ve altyapı sistemlerini
ve kent sakinlerinin konfor koşullarını karşılamada yetersiz bırakmaktadır. Avrupa’daki
kentsel alanlarda beliren çevresel ve sosyal sorunlara çözüm üreten Avrupa Birliği’nin bir inisiyatifi
olan Kentsel Yenilikçi Eylemler Girişimi (Urban Innovative Actions-UIA), Avrupa’nın çeşitli
bölgelerinde kent ölçeğinde belirlenmiş farklı alanları iklim değişikliğine uyarlamak için çeşitli
uygulamalar yapmaktadır. İklim sığınakları UIA’nın iklim değişikliğine yönelik desteklediği alternatif
çözümlerinden birisidir. İklim sığınakları, ısı dalgası, soğuk hava ya da fazla yağış etkilerinden
kent kullanıcılarının kendilerini korumasına yardımcı olan ve mavi, yeşil ve gri altyapı müdahaleleri
yoluyla iklim değişikliğine duyarlı, adapte edilebilir mekan tasarımları olarak tanımlanmaktadır.
Gerçekleştirilen bu pilot projeler, ekolojik ve sürdürülebilir malzemelerle, çoklu katılımcı gruplarla
kentliler için fiziksel ve sosyal açıdan çeşitli ihtiyaçların karşılandığı entegre yaklaşımlardır. Bu
çalışmanın amacı, 2018–2021 yılları arasında Barselona ve Paris kentlerinde mevcut okul alanlarında
pilot uygulaması yapılmış İklim Sığınakları projesi örneklerini gelişim süreçleri üzerinden
analiz etmektir. Barselona ve Paris’teki iklim sığınağı örneklerinin, iklim değişikliklerinin olumsuz
çevre etkilerinin azaltılmasında önemli rol üstlendiği görülmektedir. Bu projelerin yaygınlaştırılması,
özellikle kentsel mekan ve açık alanların iklim üzerinde yarattıkları olumlu etkilerin daha da
arttırılmasını sağlayacaktır.

References

  • Ajuntament de Barcelona (2020). Eleven schools turned into climate shelters. https://ajuntament.barcelona.cat/relacionsinternacional sicooperacio/en/noticia/eleven-schools-turned-into-climate- shelters_988451. Erişim:18.03.2022 . Ajuntament de Barcelona (t.y.). Climate Shelters Network. Barcelona for Climate.
  • Burroughs, W. J. (2005). Climate change in prehistory: The end of the reign of chaos. Cambridge University Press.
  • Carpe Diem (2019). There is no climate emergency, say 500 experts in letter to the United Nations. https://www.aei.org/carpe-diem/there- is-no-climate-emergency-say-500-experts-in-letter-to-the-united- nations/. Erişim: 17.03.2022.
  • Cartalis, C. (2020a). The Climate Shelters project Journal n° 1, Project led by the City of Barcelona. Urban Innovative Actions (UIA), The Urban Lab of Europe. https://www.uiainitiative.eu/sites/default/files/2020- 05/Barcelona_GBGAS2C_Journal.pdf. Erişim:11.03.2022.
  • Cartalis, C. (2020b). The Climate Shelters project Journal n° 2, Project led by the City of Barcelona. The Climate Shelters project (GBG_AS2C) project. Urban Innovative Actions (UIA).
  • Cartalis, C. (2021a). Journal No. 3, Project led by the City of Barcelona. The “final mile” of the Climate Shelters project: communication, evalua- tion and replication. https://www.uiainitiative.eu/en/news/journal- no-3-final-mile-climate-shelters-project-communication-evaluation- and-replication. Erişim: 13.03.2022.
  • Cartalis, C. (2021b). Upscaling with a vision - The school yard as a school. https://www.uia-initiative.eu/en/news/upscaling-vision-school-yar d-school. Erişim: 09.03.2022.
  • Ecology, Urban Planning, Infrastructures and Mobility. (2022, March 15). https://www.barcelona.cat/barcelona-pel-clima/en/barcelona-r esponds/specific-actions/climate-shelters-network.
  • Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2001). Impacts, adaptation and vulnerabilities (J. J. MacCarthy, et al., eds.). Cam- bridge University Press. https://www.ipcc.ch/site/assets/uploads/ 2018/03/WGII_TAR_full_report-2.pdf. Erişim: 13.03.2022.
  • Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2014). Summary for policymakers. In C. B. Field, et al. (Eds.), Climate change 2014: Impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability. Part a: global and sectoral aspects. Contribution of working group ii to the fifth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change (ss. 1–32). Cambridge University Press. https://archive.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessm ent-report/ar5/wg2/ar5_wgII_spm_en.pdf. Erişim: 18.03.2022.
  • La Ville de Paris. Les Cours Oasis (2021). https://www.paris.fr/pages/les- cours-oasis-7389/. Erişim: 11.03.2022.
  • Laboratory of Europe. (2022, March 10). https://www.uia-initiative.eu/sites/default/files/2021-02/GBGAS2C_Barcelona_Journal%202.pdf.
  • Letcher Trevor, M. (Eds.) (2009). Climate change: Observed impacts on planet earth (1st edn). Elsevier. Letter to United Nations. Professor Guus Berkhout (2019). There is no climate emergency. https://clintel.nl/wp-content/uploads/2019/09/ ecd-letter-to-un.pdf. Erişim: 05.03.2022.
  • Page, E. A. (2006). Climate change, justice and future generations. Edward Elgar Publishing.
  • Peker, E. (2020). Re-thinking the production of urban built environments in the face of climate change. Urban Research and Practice, 13(4), 465–471. [CrossRef]
  • Sitzoglou, M. (2020). TThe OASIS Schoolyards project Journal Nº 1. Project led by the City of Paris. Urban Innovative Actions (UIA), The Urban Lab of Europe. https://uia initiative.eu/sites/default/files/2020-06/Paris_ OASIS_Journal.pdf. Erişim: 03.03.2022.
  • Special Eurobarometer 513. (2021). Climate Change Report, “European Per- ceptions of Climate”. European Commission. https://ec.europa.eu/ clima/system/files/2021-07/report_2021_en.pdf. Erişim: 12.03.2022.
  • The Paris Agreement. (2015). United Nations Climate Change. https://unfccc. int/sites/default/files/english_paris_agreement.pdf. Erişim: 11.03.2022.
  • Urban Innovative Actions (UIA). (2022a, March 12). Barcelona Climate Adaptation. The Urban Lab of Europe. GBG_AS2C - Blue, Green & Grey_Adapting Schools to Climate Change “Solution proposed”. https://www.uia-initiative.eu/en/uia-cities/barcelona-call3.
  • Urban Innovative Actions (UIA) (The Urban Lab of Europe. (2022b, March 12). OASIS - School yards: Openness, Adaptation, Sensitisation, Innova- tion and Social ties: Design and transformation of local urban areas adapted to climate change, working jointly with users. Climate adap- tation. https://uia-initiative.eu/en/uia-cities/paris-call3. Erişim: 12.03.2022.
  • World Wildlife Fund (2022). Küresel iklim değişikliği ve Türkiye. https:// www.wwf.org.tr/ne_yapiyoruz/iklim_degisikligi_ve_enerji/iklim_ degisikligi/kuresel_iklim_degisikligi_ve_turkiye/. Erişim: 20.10.2022.

Details

Primary Language Turkish
Subjects Architecture (Other)
Journal Section Research Articles
Authors

Selda KABULOĞLU KARAOSMAN 0000-0003-4342-9774

Zeliha Banu YAVUZ PELVAN 0000-0002-4143-6586

Esen Gökçe ÖZDAMAR 0000-0001-7189-3633

Publication Date September 1, 2023
Submission Date June 2, 2022
Published in Issue Year 2023 Volume: 7 Issue: 2

Cite

APA KABULOĞLU KARAOSMAN, S., YAVUZ PELVAN, Z. B., & ÖZDAMAR, E. G. (2023). Kentsel Alanların Adaptasyonu: İklim Sığınakları ve Avrupa Örneği. PLANARCH - Design and Planning Research, 7(2), 171-180.

Content of this journal is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial 4.0 International License

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