Research Article
PDF EndNote BibTex RIS Cite

Social Distancing and Quality of Life Among Candidates for the Sports Science Degree During the Covid-19 Pandemic

Year 2022, Volume 13, Issue 2, 52 - 69, 29.08.2022
https://doi.org/10.54141/psbd.1084588

Abstract

This study aimed to examine the relationship between the level of compliance with COVID-19 social distancing measures and the COVID-19 impact on the quality of life of the candidate students in the Faculty of Sports Sciences, based on their gender, whether they are athletes or non-athletes, and whether they are individual athletes or team athletes. The study included 1083 candidate students, including 364 females and 719 males. The Social Distancing Scale and the COVID-19 Impact on Quality of Life Scale were used to collect data. The results showed that the degree of compliance with COVID-19 social distancing measures between athletes and non-athletes was also discovered to differ in favor of non-athletes; and the COVID-19 impact on the quality of life of athletes and non-athletes was similar, being below the average. The level of compliance with COVID-19 social distancing measures in individual or team athletes was higher, and the negative impact of COVID-19 on the quality of life of both groups was below the average. There was no relationship between the level of compliance with COVID-19 social distancing measures and the COVID-19 impact on the quality of life of athletes, and there was a weak negative relationship between the level of compliance with COVID-19 social distancing measures and the quality of life of non-athletes. Because these findings show that people who engage in movement and sports are less affected by COVID-19-related negatives, it is essential not to restrict people's movement and sports activities while taking precautions for COVID-19 and similar emergencies.

References

  • Aslan, R. (2020). Tarihten günümüze epidemiler, pandemiler ve Covid-19. Ayrıntı Dergisi, 8(85), 35-41.
  • Aydın, E. (2020). Scientific developments for health and life sciences. Dalkılıç, M. (Ed.), Opinions of individual and team sports coaches on sports recreation services provided during the pandemic process (1. Baskı, s. 57-73). Gece Kitaplığı.
  • Carmody, S., Murray, A., Borodina, M., Gouttebarge, V., & Massey, A. (2020). When can professional sport recommence safely during the COVID-19 pandemic? Risk assessment and factors to consider. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 54(16), 946-948. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2020-102539
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022). How to protect yourself & others. Retrieved January 22, 2022, from https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/prevent-getting-sick/prevention.html#stay6ft%20
  • Ciddi, P. K., & Yazgan, E. A. (2020). Investigation of the continuity of training and mental health of athletes during social isolation in the Covid-19 outbreak. International Journal of Disabilities Sports and Health Sciences, 3(2), 111-120. https://doi.org/10.33438/ijdshs.785527
  • Ciotti, M., Ciccozzi, M., Terrinoni, A., Jiang, W. C., Wang, C. B., & Bernardini, S. (2020). The COVID-19 pandemic. Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences, 57(6), 365-388. https://doi.org/10.1080/10408363.2020.1783198
  • Cullen, W., Gulati, G., & Kelly, B. D. (2020). Mental health in the COVID-19 pandemic. QJM: An International Journal of Medicine, 113(5), 311-312. https://doi.org/10.1093/qjmed/hcaa110
  • da Silva, L. F., de Almeida-Neto, P. F., BulhÕes-Correia, A., de Queiros, V. S., Matos, D. G., PM, S. D., & de Araujo Tinoco Cabral, B. G. (2021). Impact of social isolation on the level of physical activity in young Brazilian athletes caused by COVID-19. The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 62(4), 531-537. https://doi.org/10.23736/s0022-4707.21.12198-x
  • Dahab, K., Potter, M. N., Provance, A., Albright, J., & Howell, D. R. (2019). Sport specialization, club sport participation, quality of life, and injury history among high school athletes. Journal of Athletic Training, 54(10), 1061-1066. https://doi.org/10.4085/1062-6050-361-18
  • Daniel, J. (2020). Education and the COVID-19 pandemic. Prospects, 49(1), 91-96. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11125-020-09464-3
  • De Matos, D. G., Aidar, F. J., Almeida-Neto, P. F. D., Moreira, O. C., Souza, R. F. D., Marçal, A. C., Marcucci-Barbosa, L. S., Martins-Junior, F. D. A., Lobo, L. F., Santos, J. L. D., Guerra, L., de Athayde Costa e Silva, A., Neves, E. B., Cabral, B. G. D. A. T., Reis, V. M. & Nunes-Silva, A. (2020). The impact of measures recommended by the government to limit the spread of coronavirus (COVID-19) on physical activity levels, quality of life, and mental health of Brazilians. Sustainability, 12(21), 9072. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12219072
  • Di Fronso, S., Costa, S., Montesano, C., Di Gruttola, F., Ciofi, E. G., Morgilli, L., Robazza, C. & Bertollo, M. (2022). The effects of COVID-19 pandemic on perceived stress and psychobiosocial states in Italian athletes. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 20(1), 79-91. https://doi.org/10.1080/1612197X.2020.1802612
  • Evans, A. B., Blackwell, J., Dolan, P., Fahlén, J., Hoekman, R., Lenneis, V., McNarry, G., Smith, M. & Wilcock, L. (2020). Sport in the face of the COVID-19 pandemic: Towards an agenda for research in the sociology of sport. European Journal for Sport and Society, 17(2), 85-95. https://doi.org/10.1080/16138171.2020.1765100
  • Ferreira, L. N., Pereira, L. N., da Fé Brás, M., & Ilchuk, K. (2021). Quality of life under the COVID-19 quarantine. Quality of Life Research, 30(5), 1389-1405. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11136-020-02724-x
  • Graupensperger, S., Benson, A. J., Kilmer, J. R., & Evans, M. B. (2020). Social (un) distancing: Teammate interactions, athletic identity, and mental health of student-athletes during the COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Adolescent Health, 67(5), 662-670. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2020.08.001
  • Hamid, R., Sentryo, I., & Hasan, S. (2020). Online learning and its problems in the Covid-19 emergency period. Jurnal Prima Edukasia, 8(1), 86-95. https://doi.org/10.21831/jpe.v8i1.32165
  • Houston, M. N., Hoch, M. C., & Hoch, J. M. (2016). Health-related quality of life in athletes: A systematic review with meta-analysis. Journal of Athletic Training, 51(6), 442-453. https://doi.org/10.4085/1062-6050-51.7.03
  • Kar, S. K., Yasir Arafat, S. M., Kabir, R., Sharma, P., & Saxena, S. K. (2020). Coping with mental health challenges during COVID-19. In Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) (pp. 199-213). Springer, Singapore. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-4814-7_16
  • Karademir, T., Döşyilmaz, E., Çoban, B., & Kafkas, M. E. (2010). The self esteem and emotional intelligence of students who participate in special ability examinations in order to attend the department of physical education and sport. Kastamonu Eğitim Dergisi, 18(2), 653-674.
  • Kecmanovic, J. (2020). 7 science-based strategies to cope with coronavirus anxiety. Retrieved February 4, 2022, from https://theconversation.com/7-science-based-strategies-to-cope-with-coronavirus-anxiety-133207
  • Lam, K. C., Valier, A. R. S., Bay, R. C., & McLeod, T. C. V. (2013). A unique patient population? Health-related quality of life in adolescent athletes versus general, healthy adolescent individuals. Journal of Athletic Training, 48(2), 233-241. https://doi.org/10.4085/1062-6050-48.2.12
  • McGuine, T. A., Biese, K. M., Petrovska, L., Hetzel, S. J., Reardon, C., Kliethermes, S., Bell, D. R., Brooks, A. & Watson, A. M. (2021a). Mental health, physical activity, and quality of life of US adolescent athletes during COVID-19–related school closures and sport cancellations: A study of 13 000 athletes. Journal of Athletic Training, 56(1), 11-19. https://doi.org/10.4085/1062-6050-0478.20
  • McGuine, T. A., Biese, K., Hetzel, S. J., Petrovska, L., Kliethermes, S., Reardon, C. L., Kliethermes, S., Bell, D. R., Brooks, A. & Watson, A. M. (2021b). Changes in the health of adolescent athletes: A comparison of health measures collected before and during the CoVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Athletic Training, 56 (8), 836–844. https://doi.org/10.4085/1062-6050-0739.20
  • Mehrsafar, A. H., Gazerani, P., Zadeh, A. M., & Sánchez, J. C. J. (2020). Addressing potential impact of COVID-19 pandemic on physical and mental health of elite athletes. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 87, 147-148. https://doi.org/10.1016%2Fj.bbi.2020.05.011
  • Mehrsafar, A. H., Moghadamzadeh, A., Gazerani, P., Jaenes Sanchez, J. C., Nejat, M., Rajabian Tabesh, M., & Abolhasani, M. (2021). Mental health status, life satisfaction, and mood state of elite athletes during COVID 19 pandemic: A follow-up study in the phases of home confinement, reopening, and semi-lockdown condition. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, 1694. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.630414
  • Ministry of Interior (2021a). 81 il valiliğine tam kapanma tedbirleri genelgesi gönderildi. Retrieved February 4, 2021, from https://www.icisleri.gov.tr/81-il-valiligine-tam-kapanma-tedbirleri-genelgesi-gonderildi
  • Ministry of Interior (2021b). 81 il valiliğine kademeli normalleşme tedbirleri genelgesi gönderildi. Retrieved February 4, 2021, from https://www.icisleri.gov.tr/81-il-valiligine-kademeli-normallesme-tedbirleri-genelgesi-gonderildi
  • Mutz, M., & Gerke, M. (2021). Sport and exercise in times of self-quarantine: How Germans changed their behaviour at the beginning of the Covid-19 pandemic. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 56(3), 305-316. https://doi.org/10.1177/1012690220934335
  • Mutz, M., Müller, J., & Reimers, A. K. (2021). Use of digital media for home-based sports activities during the COVID-19 pandemic: Results from the German SPOVID survey. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(9), 4409. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094409
  • Nyenhuis, S. M., Greiwe, J., Zeiger, J. S., Nanda, A., & Cooke, A. (2020). Exercise and fitness in the age of social distancing during the COVID-19 pandemic. The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice, 8(7), 2152-2155. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaip.2020.04.039
  • Oral, T., & Günlü, A. (2021). Adaptation of the social distancing scale in the Covid-19 era: Its association with depression, anxiety, stress, and resilience in Turkey. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 20, 1336-1353. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-020-00447-1
  • Özcan, B., & Saraç, L. (2021). The Relationship between physical activity and quality of life during the COVID-19 pandemic: A case of female and male physical education teachers. Pamukkale Journal of Sport Sciences, 12(3), 1-20. http://doi.org/10.54141/psbd.979254
  • Özşenler, S. D. (2021). Covid-19 and social distance: A meta-thematic analysis. Gümüşhane Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Elektronik Dergisi, 12(1), 12-23.
  • Pensgaard, A. M., Oevreboe, T. H., & Ivarsson, A. (2021). Mental health among elite athletes in Norway during a selected period of the COVID-19 pandemic. BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine, 7(1), e001025. doi:10.1136/bmjsem-2020-001025
  • Pfefferbaum, B., & North, C. S. (2020). Mental health and the Covid-19 pandemic. New England Journal of Medicine, 383(6), 510-512. doi: 10.1056/NEJMp2008017
  • Phelps, C., & Sperry, L. L. (2020). Children and the COVID-19 pandemic. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 12(S1), S73. https://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1037/tra0000861
  • Ratten, V. (2020). Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and sport entrepreneurship. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research. Vol. 26 No. 6, 1379-1388. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJEBR-06-2020-0387
  • Ravalli, S., & Musumeci, G. (2020). Coronavirus outbreak in Italy: Physiological benefits of home-based exercise during pandemic. Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology, 5(2), 31. https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5020031
  • Reardon, C. L., Bindra, A., Blauwet, C., Budgett, R., Campriani, N., Currie, A., Gouttebarge, V., McDuff, D., Mountjoy, M., Purcell, R., Putukian, M., Rice, S. & Hainline, B. (2021). Mental health management of elite athletes during COVID-19: A narrative review and recommendations. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 55(11), 608-615. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2020-102884
  • Repišti, S., Jovanović, N., Kuzman, M. R., Medved, S., Jerotić, S., Ribić, E., Majstorovic, T., Simoska, S. M., Novotni, L., Milutinovic, M., Stoilkovska, B. B., Radojicic, T., Ristic, I., Zebic, M., Pemovska, T. & Russo, M. (2020). How to measure the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on quality of life: COV19-QoL–the development, reliability and validity of a new scale. Global Psychiatry, 3(2), 1-10. https://doi.org/10.2478/gp-2020-0016
  • Riiser, K., Helseth, S., Haraldstad, K., Torbjørnsen, A., & Richardsen, K. R. (2020). Adolescents’ health literacy, health protective measures, and health-related quality of life during the Covid-19 pandemic. PLoS One, 15(8), e0238161. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0238161
  • Schinke, R., Papaioannou, A., Henriksen, K., Si, G., Zhang, L., & Haberl, P. (2020). Sport psychology services to high performance athletes during COVID-19. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 18(3), 269-272. https://doi.org/10.1080/1612197X.2020.1754616
  • Sümen, A., & Adıbelli, D. (2021). Adaptation of the COV19-QoL scale to Turkish culture: Its psychometric properties in diagnosed and undiagnosed individuals. Death Studies, 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1080/07481187.2021.1925376
  • Sun, C., & Zhai, Z. (2020). The efficacy of social distance and ventilation effectiveness in preventing COVID-19 transmission. Sustainable Cities and Society, 62, 102390. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scs.2020.102390
  • Suryavanshi, N., Kadam, A., Dhumal, G., Nimkar, S., Mave, V., Gupta, A., Cox, S. R. & Gupte, N. (2020). Mental health and quality of life among healthcare professionals during the COVID‐19 pandemic in India. Brain and Behavior, 10(11), e01837. https://doi.org/10.1002/brb3.1837
  • Toprak, N., & Saraç, L. (2014). An examination of attitudes toward teaching profession among female and male physical education and sports department entrance examination applicants. Pamukkale Journal of Sport Sciences, 5(2), 35-47.
  • Ünver, O., Dinç, H., Çetin, E., & Argan, M. (2021). Don't let my worries be my nightmare! investigation of football player’s worries during the covid-19 pandemic process using photovoice. International Journal of Sport Exercise and Training Sciences-IJSETS, 7(2), 60-72. doi:10.18826/useeabd.830125
  • Uroh, C. C., & Adewunmi, C. M. (2021). Psychological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on athletes. Frontiers in Sports and Active Living, 3, 78. https://doi.org/10.3389/fspor.2021.603415
  • Van Rooij, B., de Bruijn, A. L., Reinders Folmer, C., Kooistra, E. B., Kuiper, M. E., Brownlee, M., Olthuis, E. & Fine, A. (2020). Compliance with COVID-19 mitigation measures in the United States. Amsterdam Law School Research Paper, (2020-21). https://ssrn.com/abstract=3582626
  • Varea, V., González-Calvo, G., & García-Monge, A. (2022). Exploring the changes of physical education in the age of Covid-19. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 27(1), 32-42. https://doi.org/10.1080/17408989.2020.1861233
  • Ward, P. R. (2020). A sociology of the Covid-19 pandemic: A commentary and research agenda for sociologists. Journal of Sociology, 56(4), 726-735. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1440783320939682
  • Wilke, J., Mohr, L., Tenforde, A. S., Edouard, P., Fossati, C., González-Gross, M., Ramirez, C. S., Laino, F., Tan, B., Pillay, J. D., Pigozzi, F., Jimenez-Pavon, D., Novak, B., Jaunig, J., Zhang, M., van Poppel, M., Heidt, C., Willwacher, S., Yuki, G. & Hollander, K. (2021). A pandemic within the pandemic? Physical activity levels substantially decreased in countries affected by COVID-19. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(5), 2235. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18052235
  • World Health Organization (2020). Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Retrieved January 25, 2022, from https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/situation-reports/20200322-sitrep-62-covid-19.pdf?sfvrsn=755c76cd_2
  • World Health Organization (2021). Status of COVID-19 vaccines within WHO EUL/PQ evaluation process. Retrieved February 4, 2022, from https://extranet.who.int/pqweb/sites/default/files/documents/Status_COVID_VAX_23Dec2021.pdf
  • Yalnız, N., Köseoğlu, E., Kaplanoğlu, A., & Altin, S. (2020). Covid-19 and in-service training. Yoğun Bakım Hemşireliği Dergisi, 24(EK-1), 81-82.
  • Yeo, T. J. (2020). Sport and exercise during and beyond the COVID-19 pandemic. European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, 27(12), 1239-1241. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F2047487320933260
  • Zhang, Y., & Ma, Z. F. (2020). Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health and quality of life among local residents in Liaoning Province, China: A cross-sectional study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(7), 2381. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072381

Year 2022, Volume 13, Issue 2, 52 - 69, 29.08.2022
https://doi.org/10.54141/psbd.1084588

Abstract

References

  • Aslan, R. (2020). Tarihten günümüze epidemiler, pandemiler ve Covid-19. Ayrıntı Dergisi, 8(85), 35-41.
  • Aydın, E. (2020). Scientific developments for health and life sciences. Dalkılıç, M. (Ed.), Opinions of individual and team sports coaches on sports recreation services provided during the pandemic process (1. Baskı, s. 57-73). Gece Kitaplığı.
  • Carmody, S., Murray, A., Borodina, M., Gouttebarge, V., & Massey, A. (2020). When can professional sport recommence safely during the COVID-19 pandemic? Risk assessment and factors to consider. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 54(16), 946-948. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2020-102539
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022). How to protect yourself & others. Retrieved January 22, 2022, from https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/prevent-getting-sick/prevention.html#stay6ft%20
  • Ciddi, P. K., & Yazgan, E. A. (2020). Investigation of the continuity of training and mental health of athletes during social isolation in the Covid-19 outbreak. International Journal of Disabilities Sports and Health Sciences, 3(2), 111-120. https://doi.org/10.33438/ijdshs.785527
  • Ciotti, M., Ciccozzi, M., Terrinoni, A., Jiang, W. C., Wang, C. B., & Bernardini, S. (2020). The COVID-19 pandemic. Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences, 57(6), 365-388. https://doi.org/10.1080/10408363.2020.1783198
  • Cullen, W., Gulati, G., & Kelly, B. D. (2020). Mental health in the COVID-19 pandemic. QJM: An International Journal of Medicine, 113(5), 311-312. https://doi.org/10.1093/qjmed/hcaa110
  • da Silva, L. F., de Almeida-Neto, P. F., BulhÕes-Correia, A., de Queiros, V. S., Matos, D. G., PM, S. D., & de Araujo Tinoco Cabral, B. G. (2021). Impact of social isolation on the level of physical activity in young Brazilian athletes caused by COVID-19. The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 62(4), 531-537. https://doi.org/10.23736/s0022-4707.21.12198-x
  • Dahab, K., Potter, M. N., Provance, A., Albright, J., & Howell, D. R. (2019). Sport specialization, club sport participation, quality of life, and injury history among high school athletes. Journal of Athletic Training, 54(10), 1061-1066. https://doi.org/10.4085/1062-6050-361-18
  • Daniel, J. (2020). Education and the COVID-19 pandemic. Prospects, 49(1), 91-96. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11125-020-09464-3
  • De Matos, D. G., Aidar, F. J., Almeida-Neto, P. F. D., Moreira, O. C., Souza, R. F. D., Marçal, A. C., Marcucci-Barbosa, L. S., Martins-Junior, F. D. A., Lobo, L. F., Santos, J. L. D., Guerra, L., de Athayde Costa e Silva, A., Neves, E. B., Cabral, B. G. D. A. T., Reis, V. M. & Nunes-Silva, A. (2020). The impact of measures recommended by the government to limit the spread of coronavirus (COVID-19) on physical activity levels, quality of life, and mental health of Brazilians. Sustainability, 12(21), 9072. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12219072
  • Di Fronso, S., Costa, S., Montesano, C., Di Gruttola, F., Ciofi, E. G., Morgilli, L., Robazza, C. & Bertollo, M. (2022). The effects of COVID-19 pandemic on perceived stress and psychobiosocial states in Italian athletes. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 20(1), 79-91. https://doi.org/10.1080/1612197X.2020.1802612
  • Evans, A. B., Blackwell, J., Dolan, P., Fahlén, J., Hoekman, R., Lenneis, V., McNarry, G., Smith, M. & Wilcock, L. (2020). Sport in the face of the COVID-19 pandemic: Towards an agenda for research in the sociology of sport. European Journal for Sport and Society, 17(2), 85-95. https://doi.org/10.1080/16138171.2020.1765100
  • Ferreira, L. N., Pereira, L. N., da Fé Brás, M., & Ilchuk, K. (2021). Quality of life under the COVID-19 quarantine. Quality of Life Research, 30(5), 1389-1405. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11136-020-02724-x
  • Graupensperger, S., Benson, A. J., Kilmer, J. R., & Evans, M. B. (2020). Social (un) distancing: Teammate interactions, athletic identity, and mental health of student-athletes during the COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Adolescent Health, 67(5), 662-670. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2020.08.001
  • Hamid, R., Sentryo, I., & Hasan, S. (2020). Online learning and its problems in the Covid-19 emergency period. Jurnal Prima Edukasia, 8(1), 86-95. https://doi.org/10.21831/jpe.v8i1.32165
  • Houston, M. N., Hoch, M. C., & Hoch, J. M. (2016). Health-related quality of life in athletes: A systematic review with meta-analysis. Journal of Athletic Training, 51(6), 442-453. https://doi.org/10.4085/1062-6050-51.7.03
  • Kar, S. K., Yasir Arafat, S. M., Kabir, R., Sharma, P., & Saxena, S. K. (2020). Coping with mental health challenges during COVID-19. In Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) (pp. 199-213). Springer, Singapore. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-4814-7_16
  • Karademir, T., Döşyilmaz, E., Çoban, B., & Kafkas, M. E. (2010). The self esteem and emotional intelligence of students who participate in special ability examinations in order to attend the department of physical education and sport. Kastamonu Eğitim Dergisi, 18(2), 653-674.
  • Kecmanovic, J. (2020). 7 science-based strategies to cope with coronavirus anxiety. Retrieved February 4, 2022, from https://theconversation.com/7-science-based-strategies-to-cope-with-coronavirus-anxiety-133207
  • Lam, K. C., Valier, A. R. S., Bay, R. C., & McLeod, T. C. V. (2013). A unique patient population? Health-related quality of life in adolescent athletes versus general, healthy adolescent individuals. Journal of Athletic Training, 48(2), 233-241. https://doi.org/10.4085/1062-6050-48.2.12
  • McGuine, T. A., Biese, K. M., Petrovska, L., Hetzel, S. J., Reardon, C., Kliethermes, S., Bell, D. R., Brooks, A. & Watson, A. M. (2021a). Mental health, physical activity, and quality of life of US adolescent athletes during COVID-19–related school closures and sport cancellations: A study of 13 000 athletes. Journal of Athletic Training, 56(1), 11-19. https://doi.org/10.4085/1062-6050-0478.20
  • McGuine, T. A., Biese, K., Hetzel, S. J., Petrovska, L., Kliethermes, S., Reardon, C. L., Kliethermes, S., Bell, D. R., Brooks, A. & Watson, A. M. (2021b). Changes in the health of adolescent athletes: A comparison of health measures collected before and during the CoVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Athletic Training, 56 (8), 836–844. https://doi.org/10.4085/1062-6050-0739.20
  • Mehrsafar, A. H., Gazerani, P., Zadeh, A. M., & Sánchez, J. C. J. (2020). Addressing potential impact of COVID-19 pandemic on physical and mental health of elite athletes. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 87, 147-148. https://doi.org/10.1016%2Fj.bbi.2020.05.011
  • Mehrsafar, A. H., Moghadamzadeh, A., Gazerani, P., Jaenes Sanchez, J. C., Nejat, M., Rajabian Tabesh, M., & Abolhasani, M. (2021). Mental health status, life satisfaction, and mood state of elite athletes during COVID 19 pandemic: A follow-up study in the phases of home confinement, reopening, and semi-lockdown condition. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, 1694. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.630414
  • Ministry of Interior (2021a). 81 il valiliğine tam kapanma tedbirleri genelgesi gönderildi. Retrieved February 4, 2021, from https://www.icisleri.gov.tr/81-il-valiligine-tam-kapanma-tedbirleri-genelgesi-gonderildi
  • Ministry of Interior (2021b). 81 il valiliğine kademeli normalleşme tedbirleri genelgesi gönderildi. Retrieved February 4, 2021, from https://www.icisleri.gov.tr/81-il-valiligine-kademeli-normallesme-tedbirleri-genelgesi-gonderildi
  • Mutz, M., & Gerke, M. (2021). Sport and exercise in times of self-quarantine: How Germans changed their behaviour at the beginning of the Covid-19 pandemic. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 56(3), 305-316. https://doi.org/10.1177/1012690220934335
  • Mutz, M., Müller, J., & Reimers, A. K. (2021). Use of digital media for home-based sports activities during the COVID-19 pandemic: Results from the German SPOVID survey. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(9), 4409. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094409
  • Nyenhuis, S. M., Greiwe, J., Zeiger, J. S., Nanda, A., & Cooke, A. (2020). Exercise and fitness in the age of social distancing during the COVID-19 pandemic. The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice, 8(7), 2152-2155. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaip.2020.04.039
  • Oral, T., & Günlü, A. (2021). Adaptation of the social distancing scale in the Covid-19 era: Its association with depression, anxiety, stress, and resilience in Turkey. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 20, 1336-1353. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-020-00447-1
  • Özcan, B., & Saraç, L. (2021). The Relationship between physical activity and quality of life during the COVID-19 pandemic: A case of female and male physical education teachers. Pamukkale Journal of Sport Sciences, 12(3), 1-20. http://doi.org/10.54141/psbd.979254
  • Özşenler, S. D. (2021). Covid-19 and social distance: A meta-thematic analysis. Gümüşhane Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Elektronik Dergisi, 12(1), 12-23.
  • Pensgaard, A. M., Oevreboe, T. H., & Ivarsson, A. (2021). Mental health among elite athletes in Norway during a selected period of the COVID-19 pandemic. BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine, 7(1), e001025. doi:10.1136/bmjsem-2020-001025
  • Pfefferbaum, B., & North, C. S. (2020). Mental health and the Covid-19 pandemic. New England Journal of Medicine, 383(6), 510-512. doi: 10.1056/NEJMp2008017
  • Phelps, C., & Sperry, L. L. (2020). Children and the COVID-19 pandemic. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 12(S1), S73. https://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1037/tra0000861
  • Ratten, V. (2020). Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and sport entrepreneurship. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research. Vol. 26 No. 6, 1379-1388. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJEBR-06-2020-0387
  • Ravalli, S., & Musumeci, G. (2020). Coronavirus outbreak in Italy: Physiological benefits of home-based exercise during pandemic. Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology, 5(2), 31. https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5020031
  • Reardon, C. L., Bindra, A., Blauwet, C., Budgett, R., Campriani, N., Currie, A., Gouttebarge, V., McDuff, D., Mountjoy, M., Purcell, R., Putukian, M., Rice, S. & Hainline, B. (2021). Mental health management of elite athletes during COVID-19: A narrative review and recommendations. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 55(11), 608-615. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2020-102884
  • Repišti, S., Jovanović, N., Kuzman, M. R., Medved, S., Jerotić, S., Ribić, E., Majstorovic, T., Simoska, S. M., Novotni, L., Milutinovic, M., Stoilkovska, B. B., Radojicic, T., Ristic, I., Zebic, M., Pemovska, T. & Russo, M. (2020). How to measure the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on quality of life: COV19-QoL–the development, reliability and validity of a new scale. Global Psychiatry, 3(2), 1-10. https://doi.org/10.2478/gp-2020-0016
  • Riiser, K., Helseth, S., Haraldstad, K., Torbjørnsen, A., & Richardsen, K. R. (2020). Adolescents’ health literacy, health protective measures, and health-related quality of life during the Covid-19 pandemic. PLoS One, 15(8), e0238161. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0238161
  • Schinke, R., Papaioannou, A., Henriksen, K., Si, G., Zhang, L., & Haberl, P. (2020). Sport psychology services to high performance athletes during COVID-19. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 18(3), 269-272. https://doi.org/10.1080/1612197X.2020.1754616
  • Sümen, A., & Adıbelli, D. (2021). Adaptation of the COV19-QoL scale to Turkish culture: Its psychometric properties in diagnosed and undiagnosed individuals. Death Studies, 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1080/07481187.2021.1925376
  • Sun, C., & Zhai, Z. (2020). The efficacy of social distance and ventilation effectiveness in preventing COVID-19 transmission. Sustainable Cities and Society, 62, 102390. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scs.2020.102390
  • Suryavanshi, N., Kadam, A., Dhumal, G., Nimkar, S., Mave, V., Gupta, A., Cox, S. R. & Gupte, N. (2020). Mental health and quality of life among healthcare professionals during the COVID‐19 pandemic in India. Brain and Behavior, 10(11), e01837. https://doi.org/10.1002/brb3.1837
  • Toprak, N., & Saraç, L. (2014). An examination of attitudes toward teaching profession among female and male physical education and sports department entrance examination applicants. Pamukkale Journal of Sport Sciences, 5(2), 35-47.
  • Ünver, O., Dinç, H., Çetin, E., & Argan, M. (2021). Don't let my worries be my nightmare! investigation of football player’s worries during the covid-19 pandemic process using photovoice. International Journal of Sport Exercise and Training Sciences-IJSETS, 7(2), 60-72. doi:10.18826/useeabd.830125
  • Uroh, C. C., & Adewunmi, C. M. (2021). Psychological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on athletes. Frontiers in Sports and Active Living, 3, 78. https://doi.org/10.3389/fspor.2021.603415
  • Van Rooij, B., de Bruijn, A. L., Reinders Folmer, C., Kooistra, E. B., Kuiper, M. E., Brownlee, M., Olthuis, E. & Fine, A. (2020). Compliance with COVID-19 mitigation measures in the United States. Amsterdam Law School Research Paper, (2020-21). https://ssrn.com/abstract=3582626
  • Varea, V., González-Calvo, G., & García-Monge, A. (2022). Exploring the changes of physical education in the age of Covid-19. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 27(1), 32-42. https://doi.org/10.1080/17408989.2020.1861233
  • Ward, P. R. (2020). A sociology of the Covid-19 pandemic: A commentary and research agenda for sociologists. Journal of Sociology, 56(4), 726-735. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1440783320939682
  • Wilke, J., Mohr, L., Tenforde, A. S., Edouard, P., Fossati, C., González-Gross, M., Ramirez, C. S., Laino, F., Tan, B., Pillay, J. D., Pigozzi, F., Jimenez-Pavon, D., Novak, B., Jaunig, J., Zhang, M., van Poppel, M., Heidt, C., Willwacher, S., Yuki, G. & Hollander, K. (2021). A pandemic within the pandemic? Physical activity levels substantially decreased in countries affected by COVID-19. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(5), 2235. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18052235
  • World Health Organization (2020). Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Retrieved January 25, 2022, from https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/situation-reports/20200322-sitrep-62-covid-19.pdf?sfvrsn=755c76cd_2
  • World Health Organization (2021). Status of COVID-19 vaccines within WHO EUL/PQ evaluation process. Retrieved February 4, 2022, from https://extranet.who.int/pqweb/sites/default/files/documents/Status_COVID_VAX_23Dec2021.pdf
  • Yalnız, N., Köseoğlu, E., Kaplanoğlu, A., & Altin, S. (2020). Covid-19 and in-service training. Yoğun Bakım Hemşireliği Dergisi, 24(EK-1), 81-82.
  • Yeo, T. J. (2020). Sport and exercise during and beyond the COVID-19 pandemic. European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, 27(12), 1239-1241. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F2047487320933260
  • Zhang, Y., & Ma, Z. F. (2020). Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health and quality of life among local residents in Liaoning Province, China: A cross-sectional study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(7), 2381. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072381

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Sport Sciences
Journal Section Physical Activity, Health & Exercise
Authors

Burhan PARSAK> (Primary Author)
ÇUKUROVA ÜNİVERSİTESİ, SPOR BİLİMLERİ FAKÜLTESİ
0000-0001-5007-1286
Türkiye


Leyla SARAÇ>
MERSİN ÜNİVERSİTESİ, SPOR BİLİMLERİ FAKÜLTESİ
0000-0002-8593-6873
Türkiye

Publication Date August 29, 2022
Acceptance Date August 5, 2022
Published in Issue Year 2022, Volume 13, Issue 2

Cite

Bibtex @research article { psbd1084588, journal = {Pamukkale Journal of Sport Sciences}, eissn = {1309-0356}, address = {}, publisher = {Pamukkale University}, year = {2022}, volume = {13}, number = {2}, pages = {52 - 69}, doi = {10.54141/psbd.1084588}, title = {Social Distancing and Quality of Life Among Candidates for the Sports Science Degree During the Covid-19 Pandemic}, key = {cite}, author = {Parsak, Burhan and Saraç, Leyla} }
APA Parsak, B. & Saraç, L. (2022). Social Distancing and Quality of Life Among Candidates for the Sports Science Degree During the Covid-19 Pandemic . Pamukkale Journal of Sport Sciences , 13 (2) , 52-69 . DOI: 10.54141/psbd.1084588
MLA Parsak, B. , Saraç, L. "Social Distancing and Quality of Life Among Candidates for the Sports Science Degree During the Covid-19 Pandemic" . Pamukkale Journal of Sport Sciences 13 (2022 ): 52-69 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/psbd/issue/72367/1084588>
Chicago Parsak, B. , Saraç, L. "Social Distancing and Quality of Life Among Candidates for the Sports Science Degree During the Covid-19 Pandemic". Pamukkale Journal of Sport Sciences 13 (2022 ): 52-69
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Social Distancing and Quality of Life Among Candidates for the Sports Science Degree During the Covid-19 Pandemic AU - BurhanParsak, LeylaSaraç Y1 - 2022 PY - 2022 N1 - doi: 10.54141/psbd.1084588 DO - 10.54141/psbd.1084588 T2 - Pamukkale Journal of Sport Sciences JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 52 EP - 69 VL - 13 IS - 2 SN - -1309-0356 M3 - doi: 10.54141/psbd.1084588 UR - https://doi.org/10.54141/psbd.1084588 Y2 - 2022 ER -
EndNote %0 Pamukkale Journal of Sport Sciences Social Distancing and Quality of Life Among Candidates for the Sports Science Degree During the Covid-19 Pandemic %A Burhan Parsak , Leyla Saraç %T Social Distancing and Quality of Life Among Candidates for the Sports Science Degree During the Covid-19 Pandemic %D 2022 %J Pamukkale Journal of Sport Sciences %P -1309-0356 %V 13 %N 2 %R doi: 10.54141/psbd.1084588 %U 10.54141/psbd.1084588
ISNAD Parsak, Burhan , Saraç, Leyla . "Social Distancing and Quality of Life Among Candidates for the Sports Science Degree During the Covid-19 Pandemic". Pamukkale Journal of Sport Sciences 13 / 2 (August 2022): 52-69 . https://doi.org/10.54141/psbd.1084588
AMA Parsak B. , Saraç L. Social Distancing and Quality of Life Among Candidates for the Sports Science Degree During the Covid-19 Pandemic. Pamukkale Journal of Sport Sciences. 2022; 13(2): 52-69.
Vancouver Parsak B. , Saraç L. Social Distancing and Quality of Life Among Candidates for the Sports Science Degree During the Covid-19 Pandemic. Pamukkale Journal of Sport Sciences. 2022; 13(2): 52-69.
IEEE B. Parsak and L. Saraç , "Social Distancing and Quality of Life Among Candidates for the Sports Science Degree During the Covid-19 Pandemic", Pamukkale Journal of Sport Sciences, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 52-69, Aug. 2022, doi:10.54141/psbd.1084588