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Changes of Muscle, Fat, Body Fluid, and Protein Values in Individuals Who Participated in Regular Sports During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 Pandemic Period

Year 2023, Volume: 25 Issue: 4, 93 - 98, 28.12.2023
https://doi.org/10.5152/JPESS.2023.23072

Abstract

The negative effects of coronavirus disease 2019 and its variants on humans are quite high. This study aims to examine the changes in muscle, fat, body fluid, and protein values of people who do sports regularly before, during, and after the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. The study group consisted of 49 healthy male individuals with a mean age of 28.75 ± 8.98 years, exercising regularly in a private sports center. The values of the research group were examined in four different periods. These periods are defined as the period before the World Health Organization declared the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic (first), 6 months before the pandemic restriction process applied in our country (second), immediately after the restriction period (third), and after the restriction (fourth) to start exercising again. In the measurements, regional muscle mass, regional fat analysis, body fluid, and protein values were examined by using the InBody 270 brand body analyzer. Statistical analyses of the obtained data were analyzed in the IBM Statistical Package for the Social Sciences Statistics software, version 24.0. Shapiro–Wilks normality analysis was used to test the suitability of the data for normal distribution, and a single-factor analysis of variance test was used for repeated measurements to evaluate the measurements according to time. According to the results obtained, it was determined that protein and total body water values decreased during the restriction process and increased statistically significantly after restriction (p < .01). In the regional muscle analysis, a significant decrease was detected in the right arm muscle mass during the restriction period, while there was a significant increase when the exercises were started again (p < .01). It was determined that there was a significant difference in right leg muscle mass after restriction (p < .05). There was no statistically significant difference in regional fat analysis. As a result, the practice of restraint had a negative effect on individuals who exercised regularly. It was determined that the removal of the restriction and starting the exercises again were effective in the recovery of these negativities. It is important in terms of body resistance and muscle strength that the measures to be taken during such epidemic periods are not in a way that will keep people away from physical activity.

References

  • ACSM’s Fitness Assessment Manual. (2021). https://www.acsm.org/education- resources/books/ACSMs-Fitness-Assessment-Manual.
  • American Heart Association. (2021). My Life Check–Life’s Simple 7. Accessed July 28, 2020. https://www.heart.org/en/healthy-living/ healthy-lifestyle/my-lifecheck–lifes-simple-7.
  • Bavel, J. J. V., Baicker, K., Boggio, P. S., Capraro, V., Cichocka, A., Cikara, M., & Willer, R. (2020). Using social and behavioural science to support COVID-19 pandemic response. Nature Human Behaviour, 4(5), 460- 471. [CrossRef]
  • Bentlage, E., Ammar, A., How, D., Ahmed, M., Trabelsi, K., Chtourou, H., & Brach, M. (2020). Practical recommendations for maintaining active lifestyle during the COVID-19 pandemic: A systematic literatüre review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(17). [CrossRef]
  • Blokland, I. J., Ilbrink, S., Houdijk, H., Dijkstra, J. W., van Bennekom, C. A. M., Fickert, R., de Lijster, R., & Groot, F. P. (2020). Exercise capacity after mechanical ventilation because of COVID-19: Cardiopulmonary exercise tests in clinical rehabilitation. Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde, 164.
  • Büyükkıyıcı, O. (2022). Covid-19 eve Kapanma Sürecinde Adolesanlarda beden kitle İndeksi ve yaşam tarzı Değişiklikleri İzlemi [Uzmanlık tezi]. Tekirdağ Namık Kemal üniversitesi tıp Fakültesi aile Hekimliği Anabilim Dalı.
  • Caner, Z. G., Ünal, M., Apaydın, Z., Dağ, A., Okur, Ş., Kara, E., & Bildik, C. (2020). Covid-19 hastalığı ve ev egzersizlerinin önemi. Journal of Medical Sciences, 1(3), 25–33.
  • Chen, P., Mao, L., Nassis, G. P., Harmer, P., Ainsworth, B. E., & Li, F. (2020). Coronavirus disease (COVID-19): The need to maintain regular physical activity while taking precautions. Journal of Sport and Health Science, 9(2), 103–104. [CrossRef]
  • Chodzko-Zajko, W. J., Proctor, D. N., Fiatarone Singh, M. A., Minson, C. T., Nigg, C. R., Salem, G. J., & Skinner, J. S. (2009). American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Exercise and physical activity for older adults. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 41(7), 1510–1530. [CrossRef]
  • Çubukçu, M. (2022). COVID-19 ve fiziksel. Aktivite. https ://ww w.research gate. net/p ublic ation /3643 35656 COVI D-19_ ve_Fi zikse l_Akt ivite ?enri chId= rgreq -742f 25ab7 b116d 684ac 054a6 ac569 491-X XX&en richS ource =Y292 ZXJQY WdlOz M2NDM zNTY1 NjtBU zoxMT QzMTI 4MTA5 MDEzN zcwNE AxNjY 1OTM3 ODUwN TM2&e l=1_x 3&_e sc=publicationCoverPdf
  • da Silveira, M. P., da Silva Fagundes, K. K., Bizuti, M. R., Starck, É., Rossi, R. C., & de Resende E Silva, D. T. (2021). Physical exercise as a tool to help the immune system against COVID-19: An integrative review of the current literature. Clinical and Experimental Medicine, 21(1), 15–28. [CrossRef]
  • Gençalp, D. K. (2020). Covid-19 salgını döneminde ilk ve acil yardım öğrencilerinin beslenme alışkanlıkları ve fiziksel aktivite durumlarının değerlendirilmesi. Paramedik ve Acil Sağlık Hizmetleri Dergisi, 1(1), 1–15.
  • Ghiasee, A., & Arslan, H. (2022). Covid-19 pandemisinde fiziksel aktivitenin önemi. Anasay, 19, 205–212.
  • Kanık, Z. H. (2020). Covid-19 pandemisinde ev tabanlı fiziksel aktivite. Gazi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi, Özel Sayı, 46–51.
  • Ling, P. R., Andersson, C., Strijbosch, R., Lee, S., Silvestri, A., Gura, K. M., & Bistrian, B. R. (2011). Effects of glucose or fat calories in total parenteral nutrition on fat metabolism and systemic inflammation in rats. Metabolism, 60(2), 195–205.
  • Maher, J. P., & Conroy, D. E. (2015). Habit strength moderates the effects of daily action planning prompts on physical activity but not sedentary behavior. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 37(1), 97–107. [CrossRef]
  • Medrinal, C., Prieur, G., Bonnevie, T., Gravier, F. E., Mayard, D., Desmalles, E., Smondack, P., Lamia, B., Combret, Y., & Fossat, G. (2021). Muscle weakness, functional capacities and recovery for COVID-19 ICU survivors. BMC Anesthesiology, 21(1), 64. [CrossRef]
  • Narin, G. (2022). Coronavirüs enfeksiyonu (Covid-19) geçiren bireylerde egzersiz kapasitesi ve kas gücünün belirlenmesi ve aerobik egzersiz eğitiminin etkisi (Tez No: 788393). [Tıpta Uzmanlık Tezi, Bülent Ecevit Üniversitesi, Fiziksel Tıp ve Rehabilitasyon Anabilim Dalı].
  • Paneroni, M., Simonelli, C., Saleri, M., Bertacchini, L., Venturelli, M., Troosters, T., & Vitacca, M. (2021). Muscle strength and physical performance in patients without previous disabilities recovering from COVID-19 pneumonia. American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, 100(2), 105-109.
  • Polero, P., Rebollo-Seco, C., Adsuar, J. C., Pérez-Gómez, J., Rojo-Ramos, J., Manzano-Redondo, F., Garcia-Gordillo, M. Á., & Carlos-Vivas, J. (2021). Physical activity recommendations during COVID-19: Narrative review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(1), 65. [CrossRef]
  • Prince, S. A., Saunders, T. J., Gresty, K., & Reid, R. D. (2014). A comparison of the effectiveness of physical activity and sedentary behaviour interventions in reducing sedentary time in adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled trials. Obesity Reviews, 15(11), 905–919. [CrossRef]
  • Rahiminezhad, E., Zakeri, M. A., & Dehghan, M. (2022). Muscle strength/ intensive care unit acquired weakness in COVID-19 and non- COVID-19 patients. Nursing in Critical Care, 1–10. [CrossRef]
  • Sutherland, T. N., Wunsch, H., Pinto, R., Newcomb, C., Brensinger, C., Gaskins, L., & Neuman, M. D. (2021). Association of the 2016 US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention opioid prescribing guideline with changes in opioid dispensing after surgery. JAMA Network Open, 4(6), e2111826-e2111826.
  • Tanrıverdi, A., Savci, S., Kahraman, B. O., & Ozpelit, E. (2022). Extrapulmonary features of post-COVID-19 patients: Muscle function, physical activity, mood, and sleep quality. Irish Journal of Medical Science, 191(3), 969–975. [CrossRef]
  • World Health Organization. (2021). https://www.who.int/activities/ highlighting-priorities-for-ear-and-hearing-care.

Düzenli Spor Yapan Bireylerde Kas, Yağ, Vücut Sıvısı ve Protein Değerlerinin Koronavirüs Hastalıkları 2019 Pandemi Sürecindeki Değişimleri

Year 2023, Volume: 25 Issue: 4, 93 - 98, 28.12.2023
https://doi.org/10.5152/JPESS.2023.23072

Abstract

Koronavirüs hastalıkları 2019 ve varyantlarının insanlar üzerinde olumsuz etkileri oldukça fazladır. Bu araştırmanın amacı, düzenli spor yapan kişilerin kas, yağ, vücut sıvısı ve protein değerlerinin koronavirüs hastalıkları 2019 pandemi öncesi, esnası ve sonrasındaki değişimlerini incelemektir. İnceleme grubu özel bir spor merkezinde düzenli egzersiz yapan, yaş ortalaması 28,75 ± 8,98 yıl olan 49 sağlıklı erkek bireyden oluşmaktadır. Araştırma grubunun değerleri dört farklı dönemde incelenmiştir. Bu dönemler, Dünya Sağlık Örgütünün koronavirüs hastalıkları 2019 pandemi ilanından önce (1), ülkemizde uygulanan pandemi kısıtlama sürecinden 6 ay öncesi (2), kısıtlama döneminden hemen sonrası (3) ve kısıtlama sonrasında tekrar egzersize başlaması (4) dönemi ifade etmektedir. Ölçümlerde InBody 270 marka vücut analiz cihazı kullanılarak bölgesel kas kütlesi, bölgesel yağ analizi, vücut sıvısı ve protein değerleri incelenmiştir. Elde edilen verilerin istatiksel analizlerini IBM Statistical Package for the Social Sciences Statistics versiyon 24,0 paket programında analiz edilmiştir. Verilerin normal dağılıma uygunluğunu test etmek için Shapiro– Wilks normallik analizi ve yapılan ölçümlerin zamana göre değerlendirmesini yapmak için tekrarlı ölçümlerde tek faktörlü ANOVA testi uygulanmıştır. Elde edilen sonuçlara göre protein ve toplam vücut suyu değerleri kısıtlama sürecinde azaldığı, kısıtlama sonrasında istatiksel olarak anlamlı bir şekilde yükseldiği tespit edilmiştir (p < ,01). Bölgesel kas analizinde kısıtlama döneminde sağ kol kas kütlesinde anlamlı düzeyde azalma tespit edilirken, egzersizlere tekrar başlanmasıyla anlamlı bir artış olmuştur (p < ,01). Sağ bacak kas kütlesinde ise kısıtlama sonrasında anlamlı farklılığın olduğu tespit edilmiştir (p< ,05). Bölgesel yağ analizinde ise istatistiksel olarak anlamlı bir fark olmadığı tespit edilmiştir. Sonuç olarak, kısıtlama uygulamasının düzenli egzersiz yapan bireyler üzerinde olumsuz etkisi olmuştur. Kısıtlamanın kaldırılması ve tekrar egzersizlere başlanması bu olumsuzlukların toparlanmasında etkili olduğu tespit edildi. Bu tür salgın dönemlerinde alınacak tedbirlerin insanları fiziksel aktiviteden uzaklaştıracak şekilde olmaması vücut direnci ve kas kuvveti açısından önemlidir.

References

  • ACSM’s Fitness Assessment Manual. (2021). https://www.acsm.org/education- resources/books/ACSMs-Fitness-Assessment-Manual.
  • American Heart Association. (2021). My Life Check–Life’s Simple 7. Accessed July 28, 2020. https://www.heart.org/en/healthy-living/ healthy-lifestyle/my-lifecheck–lifes-simple-7.
  • Bavel, J. J. V., Baicker, K., Boggio, P. S., Capraro, V., Cichocka, A., Cikara, M., & Willer, R. (2020). Using social and behavioural science to support COVID-19 pandemic response. Nature Human Behaviour, 4(5), 460- 471. [CrossRef]
  • Bentlage, E., Ammar, A., How, D., Ahmed, M., Trabelsi, K., Chtourou, H., & Brach, M. (2020). Practical recommendations for maintaining active lifestyle during the COVID-19 pandemic: A systematic literatüre review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(17). [CrossRef]
  • Blokland, I. J., Ilbrink, S., Houdijk, H., Dijkstra, J. W., van Bennekom, C. A. M., Fickert, R., de Lijster, R., & Groot, F. P. (2020). Exercise capacity after mechanical ventilation because of COVID-19: Cardiopulmonary exercise tests in clinical rehabilitation. Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde, 164.
  • Büyükkıyıcı, O. (2022). Covid-19 eve Kapanma Sürecinde Adolesanlarda beden kitle İndeksi ve yaşam tarzı Değişiklikleri İzlemi [Uzmanlık tezi]. Tekirdağ Namık Kemal üniversitesi tıp Fakültesi aile Hekimliği Anabilim Dalı.
  • Caner, Z. G., Ünal, M., Apaydın, Z., Dağ, A., Okur, Ş., Kara, E., & Bildik, C. (2020). Covid-19 hastalığı ve ev egzersizlerinin önemi. Journal of Medical Sciences, 1(3), 25–33.
  • Chen, P., Mao, L., Nassis, G. P., Harmer, P., Ainsworth, B. E., & Li, F. (2020). Coronavirus disease (COVID-19): The need to maintain regular physical activity while taking precautions. Journal of Sport and Health Science, 9(2), 103–104. [CrossRef]
  • Chodzko-Zajko, W. J., Proctor, D. N., Fiatarone Singh, M. A., Minson, C. T., Nigg, C. R., Salem, G. J., & Skinner, J. S. (2009). American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Exercise and physical activity for older adults. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 41(7), 1510–1530. [CrossRef]
  • Çubukçu, M. (2022). COVID-19 ve fiziksel. Aktivite. https ://ww w.research gate. net/p ublic ation /3643 35656 COVI D-19_ ve_Fi zikse l_Akt ivite ?enri chId= rgreq -742f 25ab7 b116d 684ac 054a6 ac569 491-X XX&en richS ource =Y292 ZXJQY WdlOz M2NDM zNTY1 NjtBU zoxMT QzMTI 4MTA5 MDEzN zcwNE AxNjY 1OTM3 ODUwN TM2&e l=1_x 3&_e sc=publicationCoverPdf
  • da Silveira, M. P., da Silva Fagundes, K. K., Bizuti, M. R., Starck, É., Rossi, R. C., & de Resende E Silva, D. T. (2021). Physical exercise as a tool to help the immune system against COVID-19: An integrative review of the current literature. Clinical and Experimental Medicine, 21(1), 15–28. [CrossRef]
  • Gençalp, D. K. (2020). Covid-19 salgını döneminde ilk ve acil yardım öğrencilerinin beslenme alışkanlıkları ve fiziksel aktivite durumlarının değerlendirilmesi. Paramedik ve Acil Sağlık Hizmetleri Dergisi, 1(1), 1–15.
  • Ghiasee, A., & Arslan, H. (2022). Covid-19 pandemisinde fiziksel aktivitenin önemi. Anasay, 19, 205–212.
  • Kanık, Z. H. (2020). Covid-19 pandemisinde ev tabanlı fiziksel aktivite. Gazi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi, Özel Sayı, 46–51.
  • Ling, P. R., Andersson, C., Strijbosch, R., Lee, S., Silvestri, A., Gura, K. M., & Bistrian, B. R. (2011). Effects of glucose or fat calories in total parenteral nutrition on fat metabolism and systemic inflammation in rats. Metabolism, 60(2), 195–205.
  • Maher, J. P., & Conroy, D. E. (2015). Habit strength moderates the effects of daily action planning prompts on physical activity but not sedentary behavior. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 37(1), 97–107. [CrossRef]
  • Medrinal, C., Prieur, G., Bonnevie, T., Gravier, F. E., Mayard, D., Desmalles, E., Smondack, P., Lamia, B., Combret, Y., & Fossat, G. (2021). Muscle weakness, functional capacities and recovery for COVID-19 ICU survivors. BMC Anesthesiology, 21(1), 64. [CrossRef]
  • Narin, G. (2022). Coronavirüs enfeksiyonu (Covid-19) geçiren bireylerde egzersiz kapasitesi ve kas gücünün belirlenmesi ve aerobik egzersiz eğitiminin etkisi (Tez No: 788393). [Tıpta Uzmanlık Tezi, Bülent Ecevit Üniversitesi, Fiziksel Tıp ve Rehabilitasyon Anabilim Dalı].
  • Paneroni, M., Simonelli, C., Saleri, M., Bertacchini, L., Venturelli, M., Troosters, T., & Vitacca, M. (2021). Muscle strength and physical performance in patients without previous disabilities recovering from COVID-19 pneumonia. American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, 100(2), 105-109.
  • Polero, P., Rebollo-Seco, C., Adsuar, J. C., Pérez-Gómez, J., Rojo-Ramos, J., Manzano-Redondo, F., Garcia-Gordillo, M. Á., & Carlos-Vivas, J. (2021). Physical activity recommendations during COVID-19: Narrative review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(1), 65. [CrossRef]
  • Prince, S. A., Saunders, T. J., Gresty, K., & Reid, R. D. (2014). A comparison of the effectiveness of physical activity and sedentary behaviour interventions in reducing sedentary time in adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled trials. Obesity Reviews, 15(11), 905–919. [CrossRef]
  • Rahiminezhad, E., Zakeri, M. A., & Dehghan, M. (2022). Muscle strength/ intensive care unit acquired weakness in COVID-19 and non- COVID-19 patients. Nursing in Critical Care, 1–10. [CrossRef]
  • Sutherland, T. N., Wunsch, H., Pinto, R., Newcomb, C., Brensinger, C., Gaskins, L., & Neuman, M. D. (2021). Association of the 2016 US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention opioid prescribing guideline with changes in opioid dispensing after surgery. JAMA Network Open, 4(6), e2111826-e2111826.
  • Tanrıverdi, A., Savci, S., Kahraman, B. O., & Ozpelit, E. (2022). Extrapulmonary features of post-COVID-19 patients: Muscle function, physical activity, mood, and sleep quality. Irish Journal of Medical Science, 191(3), 969–975. [CrossRef]
  • World Health Organization. (2021). https://www.who.int/activities/ highlighting-priorities-for-ear-and-hearing-care.

Details

Primary Language Turkish
Subjects Sports Science and Exercise (Other)
Journal Section Research Articles
Authors

Gökhan ATASEVER 0000-0003-3222-9486

Fatih KIYICI 0000-0003-1982-3894

Derya AKSAKAL This is me 0000-0002-5455-0724

Cihan KIVANÇ This is me 0009-0005-8250-3780

Publication Date December 28, 2023
Published in Issue Year 2023 Volume: 25 Issue: 4

Cite

APA ATASEVER, G., KIYICI, F., AKSAKAL, D., KIVANÇ, C. (2023). Düzenli Spor Yapan Bireylerde Kas, Yağ, Vücut Sıvısı ve Protein Değerlerinin Koronavirüs Hastalıkları 2019 Pandemi Sürecindeki Değişimleri. Research in Sport Education and Sciences, 25(4), 93-98. https://doi.org/10.5152/JPESS.2023.23072

Content of this journal is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial 4.0 International License

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