Research Article
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The Dynamics of Human Society Evolution: An Energetics Approach

Year 2022, Volume 2, Issue 1, 27 - 42, 30.06.2022
https://doi.org/10.14744/seatific.2022.0003

Abstract

Human society is an open system that evolves by coupling with various known and unknown (energy) fluxes. How do these dynamics unfold precisely? Energetics may provide further insights. We expand on Navier-Stokes’ approach to study non-equilibrium dynamics in a field that evolves over time. Based on social fi eld th eory, an induction of th e cl assical fie ld theories, we define social force, social energy, and the Hamiltonian of an individual in society. The equations for the evolution of an individual and society are sketched out based on the time-dependent Hamiltonian that includes power dynamics. We demonstrate in this paper that Lotka-Volterra-type equations can be derived from the Hamiltonian equation in the social field.

References

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  • Anderson, P. W. (1972). More Is Different: Broken symmetry and the nature of the hierarchical structure of science . Science, 177(4047), 393396.
  • Annila, A., & Salthe, S. (2010). Physical foundations of evolutionary theory. Journal of Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics, 35, 301–321.
  • Ayres, R. U., & Nair, I. (1984). Thermodynamics and economics. Physics Today, 37(11), 62.
  • Ball, P. (2012). Why society is a complex matter: Meeting twenty-first century challenges with a new kind of science. Springer Science & Business Media.
  • Ball, P. (2013). Celebrate the unknowns. Nature, 496, 419.
  • Barten, A. P. (1967). Evidence on the Slutsky conditions for demand equations. The Review of Economic and Statistics, 7784.
  • Beer, F. P., Jr., E. R., Cornwell, P. J., & Self, B. (2015). Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics. McGraw-Hill Education.
  • Bejan, A. (2016). The Physics of Life: The Evolution of Everything. New York: St. Martin's Press.
  • Bejan, A., & Errera, M. R. (2017). Wealth inequality: The physics basis. Journal of Applied Physics, 121(12), 124903.
  • Bejan, A., & Zane, J. P. (2013). Design in Nature: How the Constructal Law Governs Evolution in Biology, Physics, Technology, and Social Organizations. Anchor.
  • Bejan, A., Gunes, U., Errera, M. R., & Sahin, B. (2018). Social organization: The thermodynamic basis. International Journal of Energy Research, 42(12), 37703779.
  • Biology Education Research Group at University of Maryland College Park, M. (2011). http://umdberg.pbworks.com/w/page/45451187/Object%20egotism
  • Bohr, N. (1913). On the Constitution of Atoms and Molecules, Part I. Philosophical Magazine, 26(151), 1–24.
  • Bourdieu, P. (1986). The Forms of Capital. In Handbook of Theory and Research for the Sociology of Education (pp. 241–58). Westport, CT: Greenwood.
  • Buchanan, M. (2007). The Social Atom. New York: Bloomsbury USA.
  • C. Truesdell, R. T. (1960). The classical field theories. Springer.
  • Chaisson, E. J. (2004). Complexity: An energetics agenda: Energy as the motor of evolution. Complexity, 9(3), 1421.
  • Charbonnier, G. (1969). Conversations with Claude Lévi-Strauss. London: Jonathan Cape.
  • Deltete, R. J. (1983). The Energetics Controversy in Late Nineteenth Century Germany: Helm, Ostwald and Their Critics. Yale University.
  • Dobija, M. (2004). Theories of Chemistry and Physics Applied to Developing an Economic Theory of Intellectual Capital. 124.
  • Fligstein, N., & McAdam, D. (2012). A theory of fields. Oxford University Press.
  • Fox, R. F. (1988). Energy and the Evolution of Life. W H Freeman & Co.
  • Fox, R. F. (2015). Statistical Thermodynamic Foundation for the Origin and Evolution of Life. www.fefox.com.
  • Garrett, T. J. (2014). Long‐run evolution of the global economy: 1. Physical basis. Earth's Future, 2(3), 127151.
  • Geertz, C. (1973). The impact of the concept of culture on the concept of man. In The Interpretation of Cultures. Basic Books, Inc.
  • Georgescu-Roegen, N. (1971). The Entropy Law and the Economic Process. Harvard University Press.
  • Gladyshev, G. (2017). Hierarchical Thermodynamics: Foundation of Extended Darwinism. Imperial Journal of Interdisciplinary Research, 3(2), 15761588.
  • Glucina, M. D., & Mayumi, K. (2010). Connecting thermodynamics and economics -Well-lit roads and burned bridges. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1129.
  • Haase, R. (1969). Thermodynamics of Irreversible Processes. Addision-Wesley Publishing Company.
  • Haken, H. (1987). Synergetics: An Approach to Self-Organization. In Self Organizing System: The Emergence of Order. (pp. 417434). Plenum Press.
  • Hall, C., Lindenberger, D., Kümmel, R., Kroeger, T., & Eichhorn, W. (2001). The Need to Reintegrate the Natural Sciences with Economics. BioScience, 51(8), 663-673.
  • Hayek, F. A. (1945). The use of knowledge in society. The American economic review, 35(4), 519530.
  • Helbing, D. (1993). Boltzmann-like and Boltzmann-Fokker-Planck Equations as a Foundation of Behavioral Models. Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, 196(4), 546573.
  • Hertz, H. (1899). The Principles of Mechanics presented in a new form. London: Macmillan and Co., Ltd.
  • Jaynes, E. T. (1991). How should we use entropy in economics? Cambridge CB2 1TP, England: St. John's College.
  • Kondepudi, D., Kay, B., & Dixon, J. (2015). End-directed evolution and the emergence of energy-seeking behavior in a complex system. Physical Review E, 91, Article 050902(R).
  • Laughlin, R. (2005). A Different Universe. New York: Basic Books.
  • Lazarsfeld, P. F. (1958). Evidence and Inference in Social Research. Daedalus, 87(4), 99130.
  • Leggett, A. J. (2018). Reflections on the past, present and future of condensed matter physics. Science Bulletin, 63, 1019–1022.
  • Longfellow, H. W. (1892). A Psalm of Life. New York: E. P. Dutton & Company.
  • Lotka, A. J. (1910). Contribution to the theory of periodic reactions. The Journal of Physical Chemistry, 14(3), 271274.
  • Lotka, A. J. (1922). Contribution to the energetics of evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 8(6), 147–151.
  • Machta, J. (1999). Entropy, information, and computation. American Journal of Physics, 67(12), 10741077.
  • Martin, J. L. (2003). What Is Field Theory? American Journal of Sociology, 109(1), 149.
  • McCauley, J., Roehner, B., Stanley, E., & Schinckus, C. (2016). Editorial: The 20th anniversary of econophysics: Where we are andwhere we are going. International Review of Financial Analysis, 47, 267–269.
  • Mey, H. (1972). Field-theory: a study of its application in the social sciences. Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd.
  • Mirowski, P. (1990). More Heat than Light: Economics as Social Physics, Physics as Nature's Economics. Cambridge University Press.
  • Mitchell, P. (1962). Coupling of phosphorylation to electron and hydrogen transfer by a chemi-osmotic type of mechanism. Nature, 191(4784), 144148.
  • Morowitz, H., & Smith, E. (2007). Energy flow and the organization of life. Complexity, 13(1), 5159.
  • Muller, E. A. (1998). Human societies: a curious application of thermodynamics. Chemical Engineering Education, 32, 230233.
  • N.Kluttz, D., & Fligstein, N. (2016). Varieties of sociological field theory. In Handbook of contemporary sociological theory (pp. 185204). Springer.
  • Needham, J. (1942). Evolution and Thermodynamics: A Paradox with Social Significance. Science & Society, 6(4), 352375.
  • Neumann, J. V. (1945). A Model of General Economic Equilibrium. The Review of Economic Studies, 13(1), 19.
  • Nitzan, J., & Bichler, S. (2009). Capital as Power: A Study of Order and Creorder . Routledge.
  • Northrop, F. S. (1947). The logic of the sciences and the humanities. Oxford, Macmillan.
  • Odum, H. T. (1971). Environment, Power, and Society. Willey-Interscience.
  • Odum, H. T., & Odum, E. C. (1976). Energy Basis for Man and Nature. McGraw-Hill Book Company.
  • Ostwald, W. (1976). Studies in Energetics: II. Fundamental of General Energetics. In R. B. Lindsay, Application of Energy Nineteenth Century (pp. 339). Dowden, Hutchingson and Ross, Inc.
  • Pennisi, E. (2005). How Did Cooperative Behavior Evolve? Science, 309(5731), 93.
  • Polanyi, M. (1959). The Study of Man. Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd.
  • Poudel, R. C. (2016). Energetic Foundation of Statistical Economics. (BPE | HumanChemistry101) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pjRdC1vfpgQ
  • Poudel, R. C., & McGowan, J. G. (2019, July). The Dynamics of Human Society Evolution. Physics and Society, American Physical Society, 48(3), Article 104291861.
  • Poudel, R., & McGowan, J. (2016). Social Energetics: A Unifying Paradigm? (BPE | HumanChemistry101) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K7YsV7-UB14
  • Poudel, R., Wood, D., & Mcgowan, J. G. (2015). A Quest For Development Metrology. Amherst, MA: Energy for Capabilities Development. umass.academia.edu/e4cdp
  • Poudel, R., Zheng, K., Wood, D., & McGowan, J. (2014). Atomic Analogy of Poverty. Amherst, MA: Energy for Capabilities Development. umass.academia.edu/e4cdp
  • Prigogine, I. (1962). Introduction to Non-equilibrium Thermodynamics. Wiley Interscience.
  • Prigogine, I., Nicolis, G., & Babloyantz, A. (1972). Thermodynamics of evolution. Physics Today, 25(11), 23.
  • Putnam, R. D. (2001). Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community. Touchstone Books by Simon & Schuster.
  • Rich, D. (1980). Potential models in human geography. Institute of British Geographers.
  • Richmond, P., Mimkes, J., & Hutzler, S. (2013). Econophysics and physical economics. Oxford University Press.
  • Roddier, F. (2017). The Thermodynamics of Evolution: An essay of thermo-bio-sociology. Editions Parole.
  • Russell, B. (1948). Power: A New Social Analysis. George Allen & Unwin Ltd.
  • Schrodinger, E. (1944). What Is Life? Cambridge University Press.
  • Schumacher, E. F. (1978). A Guide for the Perplexed. Sphere Books Ltd.
  • Snow, C. P. (1961). The Two Cultures and the Scientific Revolution. Cambridge University Press.
  • Soddy, F. (1921). Cartesian Economics: The Bearing of Physical Science upon State Stewardship. Frederick Sody.
  • Soodak, H., & Iberall, A. (1978). Homeokinetics: A Physical Science for Complex Systems. Science, 201(4357), 579582.
  • Spolsky, J. (2002, November 11). The Law of Leaky Abstractions. (JOEL ON SOFTWARE) https://www.joelonsoftware.com/2002/11/11/the-law-of-leaky-abstractions/
  • Swenson, R. (2012). Comment and reply on Annila and Salthe’s “Physical foundations of evolutionary theory”:Confusing the 2nd law and 4th law,and other issues. Journal of Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics, 37(2), 115118.
  • Tesla, N. (1900, June ). The Problem of Increasing Human Energy. Century Illustrated Magazine, 175211.
  • Thornton, J. C. (2017). Why is there life? Cosmos and History: The Journal of Natural and Social Philosophy, 13(3), 853.
  • Tinbergen, J. (1962). Shaping the World Economy; Suggestions for an International Economic Policy. Twentieth Century Fund, .
  • Turner, J. H. (2012). Theoretical Sociology: 1830 to the Present. SAGE Publications, Inc.
  • Weber, B. H., Depew, D. J., Dyke, C., Salthe, S. N., Schneider, E. D., Ulanowicz, R. E., & Wicken, J. S. (1989). Evolution in thermodynamic perspective: an ecological approach. Biology and Philosophy, 4(4), 373405.
  • Weidlich, W. (2002). Sociodynamics - A Systematic Approach to Mathematical Modelling in the Social Sciences. Nonlinear Phenomena in Complex Systems, 479487.
  • Wright, Q. (1942). A Study of War, Vols 1-2. University of Chicago Press.
  • XiuSan, X. (2010). On the fundamental equation of nonequilibrium statistical physics—Nonequilibrium entropy evolution equation and the formula for entropy production rate. SCIENCE CHINA:Physics, Mechanics & Astronomy, 53(12), 2194–2215.

Year 2022, Volume 2, Issue 1, 27 - 42, 30.06.2022
https://doi.org/10.14744/seatific.2022.0003

Abstract

References

  • Adams, R. N. (1988). The eighth day: social evolution as the self-organization of energy. University of Texas Press.
  • Anderson, P. W. (1972). More Is Different: Broken symmetry and the nature of the hierarchical structure of science . Science, 177(4047), 393396.
  • Annila, A., & Salthe, S. (2010). Physical foundations of evolutionary theory. Journal of Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics, 35, 301–321.
  • Ayres, R. U., & Nair, I. (1984). Thermodynamics and economics. Physics Today, 37(11), 62.
  • Ball, P. (2012). Why society is a complex matter: Meeting twenty-first century challenges with a new kind of science. Springer Science & Business Media.
  • Ball, P. (2013). Celebrate the unknowns. Nature, 496, 419.
  • Barten, A. P. (1967). Evidence on the Slutsky conditions for demand equations. The Review of Economic and Statistics, 7784.
  • Beer, F. P., Jr., E. R., Cornwell, P. J., & Self, B. (2015). Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics. McGraw-Hill Education.
  • Bejan, A. (2016). The Physics of Life: The Evolution of Everything. New York: St. Martin's Press.
  • Bejan, A., & Errera, M. R. (2017). Wealth inequality: The physics basis. Journal of Applied Physics, 121(12), 124903.
  • Bejan, A., & Zane, J. P. (2013). Design in Nature: How the Constructal Law Governs Evolution in Biology, Physics, Technology, and Social Organizations. Anchor.
  • Bejan, A., Gunes, U., Errera, M. R., & Sahin, B. (2018). Social organization: The thermodynamic basis. International Journal of Energy Research, 42(12), 37703779.
  • Biology Education Research Group at University of Maryland College Park, M. (2011). http://umdberg.pbworks.com/w/page/45451187/Object%20egotism
  • Bohr, N. (1913). On the Constitution of Atoms and Molecules, Part I. Philosophical Magazine, 26(151), 1–24.
  • Bourdieu, P. (1986). The Forms of Capital. In Handbook of Theory and Research for the Sociology of Education (pp. 241–58). Westport, CT: Greenwood.
  • Buchanan, M. (2007). The Social Atom. New York: Bloomsbury USA.
  • C. Truesdell, R. T. (1960). The classical field theories. Springer.
  • Chaisson, E. J. (2004). Complexity: An energetics agenda: Energy as the motor of evolution. Complexity, 9(3), 1421.
  • Charbonnier, G. (1969). Conversations with Claude Lévi-Strauss. London: Jonathan Cape.
  • Deltete, R. J. (1983). The Energetics Controversy in Late Nineteenth Century Germany: Helm, Ostwald and Their Critics. Yale University.
  • Dobija, M. (2004). Theories of Chemistry and Physics Applied to Developing an Economic Theory of Intellectual Capital. 124.
  • Fligstein, N., & McAdam, D. (2012). A theory of fields. Oxford University Press.
  • Fox, R. F. (1988). Energy and the Evolution of Life. W H Freeman & Co.
  • Fox, R. F. (2015). Statistical Thermodynamic Foundation for the Origin and Evolution of Life. www.fefox.com.
  • Garrett, T. J. (2014). Long‐run evolution of the global economy: 1. Physical basis. Earth's Future, 2(3), 127151.
  • Geertz, C. (1973). The impact of the concept of culture on the concept of man. In The Interpretation of Cultures. Basic Books, Inc.
  • Georgescu-Roegen, N. (1971). The Entropy Law and the Economic Process. Harvard University Press.
  • Gladyshev, G. (2017). Hierarchical Thermodynamics: Foundation of Extended Darwinism. Imperial Journal of Interdisciplinary Research, 3(2), 15761588.
  • Glucina, M. D., & Mayumi, K. (2010). Connecting thermodynamics and economics -Well-lit roads and burned bridges. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1129.
  • Haase, R. (1969). Thermodynamics of Irreversible Processes. Addision-Wesley Publishing Company.
  • Haken, H. (1987). Synergetics: An Approach to Self-Organization. In Self Organizing System: The Emergence of Order. (pp. 417434). Plenum Press.
  • Hall, C., Lindenberger, D., Kümmel, R., Kroeger, T., & Eichhorn, W. (2001). The Need to Reintegrate the Natural Sciences with Economics. BioScience, 51(8), 663-673.
  • Hayek, F. A. (1945). The use of knowledge in society. The American economic review, 35(4), 519530.
  • Helbing, D. (1993). Boltzmann-like and Boltzmann-Fokker-Planck Equations as a Foundation of Behavioral Models. Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, 196(4), 546573.
  • Hertz, H. (1899). The Principles of Mechanics presented in a new form. London: Macmillan and Co., Ltd.
  • Jaynes, E. T. (1991). How should we use entropy in economics? Cambridge CB2 1TP, England: St. John's College.
  • Kondepudi, D., Kay, B., & Dixon, J. (2015). End-directed evolution and the emergence of energy-seeking behavior in a complex system. Physical Review E, 91, Article 050902(R).
  • Laughlin, R. (2005). A Different Universe. New York: Basic Books.
  • Lazarsfeld, P. F. (1958). Evidence and Inference in Social Research. Daedalus, 87(4), 99130.
  • Leggett, A. J. (2018). Reflections on the past, present and future of condensed matter physics. Science Bulletin, 63, 1019–1022.
  • Longfellow, H. W. (1892). A Psalm of Life. New York: E. P. Dutton & Company.
  • Lotka, A. J. (1910). Contribution to the theory of periodic reactions. The Journal of Physical Chemistry, 14(3), 271274.
  • Lotka, A. J. (1922). Contribution to the energetics of evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 8(6), 147–151.
  • Machta, J. (1999). Entropy, information, and computation. American Journal of Physics, 67(12), 10741077.
  • Martin, J. L. (2003). What Is Field Theory? American Journal of Sociology, 109(1), 149.
  • McCauley, J., Roehner, B., Stanley, E., & Schinckus, C. (2016). Editorial: The 20th anniversary of econophysics: Where we are andwhere we are going. International Review of Financial Analysis, 47, 267–269.
  • Mey, H. (1972). Field-theory: a study of its application in the social sciences. Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd.
  • Mirowski, P. (1990). More Heat than Light: Economics as Social Physics, Physics as Nature's Economics. Cambridge University Press.
  • Mitchell, P. (1962). Coupling of phosphorylation to electron and hydrogen transfer by a chemi-osmotic type of mechanism. Nature, 191(4784), 144148.
  • Morowitz, H., & Smith, E. (2007). Energy flow and the organization of life. Complexity, 13(1), 5159.
  • Muller, E. A. (1998). Human societies: a curious application of thermodynamics. Chemical Engineering Education, 32, 230233.
  • N.Kluttz, D., & Fligstein, N. (2016). Varieties of sociological field theory. In Handbook of contemporary sociological theory (pp. 185204). Springer.
  • Needham, J. (1942). Evolution and Thermodynamics: A Paradox with Social Significance. Science & Society, 6(4), 352375.
  • Neumann, J. V. (1945). A Model of General Economic Equilibrium. The Review of Economic Studies, 13(1), 19.
  • Nitzan, J., & Bichler, S. (2009). Capital as Power: A Study of Order and Creorder . Routledge.
  • Northrop, F. S. (1947). The logic of the sciences and the humanities. Oxford, Macmillan.
  • Odum, H. T. (1971). Environment, Power, and Society. Willey-Interscience.
  • Odum, H. T., & Odum, E. C. (1976). Energy Basis for Man and Nature. McGraw-Hill Book Company.
  • Ostwald, W. (1976). Studies in Energetics: II. Fundamental of General Energetics. In R. B. Lindsay, Application of Energy Nineteenth Century (pp. 339). Dowden, Hutchingson and Ross, Inc.
  • Pennisi, E. (2005). How Did Cooperative Behavior Evolve? Science, 309(5731), 93.
  • Polanyi, M. (1959). The Study of Man. Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd.
  • Poudel, R. C. (2016). Energetic Foundation of Statistical Economics. (BPE | HumanChemistry101) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pjRdC1vfpgQ
  • Poudel, R. C., & McGowan, J. G. (2019, July). The Dynamics of Human Society Evolution. Physics and Society, American Physical Society, 48(3), Article 104291861.
  • Poudel, R., & McGowan, J. (2016). Social Energetics: A Unifying Paradigm? (BPE | HumanChemistry101) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K7YsV7-UB14
  • Poudel, R., Wood, D., & Mcgowan, J. G. (2015). A Quest For Development Metrology. Amherst, MA: Energy for Capabilities Development. umass.academia.edu/e4cdp
  • Poudel, R., Zheng, K., Wood, D., & McGowan, J. (2014). Atomic Analogy of Poverty. Amherst, MA: Energy for Capabilities Development. umass.academia.edu/e4cdp
  • Prigogine, I. (1962). Introduction to Non-equilibrium Thermodynamics. Wiley Interscience.
  • Prigogine, I., Nicolis, G., & Babloyantz, A. (1972). Thermodynamics of evolution. Physics Today, 25(11), 23.
  • Putnam, R. D. (2001). Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community. Touchstone Books by Simon & Schuster.
  • Rich, D. (1980). Potential models in human geography. Institute of British Geographers.
  • Richmond, P., Mimkes, J., & Hutzler, S. (2013). Econophysics and physical economics. Oxford University Press.
  • Roddier, F. (2017). The Thermodynamics of Evolution: An essay of thermo-bio-sociology. Editions Parole.
  • Russell, B. (1948). Power: A New Social Analysis. George Allen & Unwin Ltd.
  • Schrodinger, E. (1944). What Is Life? Cambridge University Press.
  • Schumacher, E. F. (1978). A Guide for the Perplexed. Sphere Books Ltd.
  • Snow, C. P. (1961). The Two Cultures and the Scientific Revolution. Cambridge University Press.
  • Soddy, F. (1921). Cartesian Economics: The Bearing of Physical Science upon State Stewardship. Frederick Sody.
  • Soodak, H., & Iberall, A. (1978). Homeokinetics: A Physical Science for Complex Systems. Science, 201(4357), 579582.
  • Spolsky, J. (2002, November 11). The Law of Leaky Abstractions. (JOEL ON SOFTWARE) https://www.joelonsoftware.com/2002/11/11/the-law-of-leaky-abstractions/
  • Swenson, R. (2012). Comment and reply on Annila and Salthe’s “Physical foundations of evolutionary theory”:Confusing the 2nd law and 4th law,and other issues. Journal of Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics, 37(2), 115118.
  • Tesla, N. (1900, June ). The Problem of Increasing Human Energy. Century Illustrated Magazine, 175211.
  • Thornton, J. C. (2017). Why is there life? Cosmos and History: The Journal of Natural and Social Philosophy, 13(3), 853.
  • Tinbergen, J. (1962). Shaping the World Economy; Suggestions for an International Economic Policy. Twentieth Century Fund, .
  • Turner, J. H. (2012). Theoretical Sociology: 1830 to the Present. SAGE Publications, Inc.
  • Weber, B. H., Depew, D. J., Dyke, C., Salthe, S. N., Schneider, E. D., Ulanowicz, R. E., & Wicken, J. S. (1989). Evolution in thermodynamic perspective: an ecological approach. Biology and Philosophy, 4(4), 373405.
  • Weidlich, W. (2002). Sociodynamics - A Systematic Approach to Mathematical Modelling in the Social Sciences. Nonlinear Phenomena in Complex Systems, 479487.
  • Wright, Q. (1942). A Study of War, Vols 1-2. University of Chicago Press.
  • XiuSan, X. (2010). On the fundamental equation of nonequilibrium statistical physics—Nonequilibrium entropy evolution equation and the formula for entropy production rate. SCIENCE CHINA:Physics, Mechanics & Astronomy, 53(12), 2194–2215.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Thermodynamics
Journal Section Research Articles
Authors

Ram Chandra POUDEL> (Primary Author)
Appalachian State University
United States


Jon G. MCGOWAN>
University of Massachusetts
United States

Publication Date June 30, 2022
Application Date May 20, 2022
Acceptance Date June 29, 2022
Published in Issue Year 2022, Volume 2, Issue 1

Cite

APA Poudel, R. C. & Mcgowan, J. G. (2022). The Dynamics of Human Society Evolution: An Energetics Approach . Seatific Journal , 2 (1) , 27-42 . DOI: 10.14744/seatific.2022.0003

Seatific Journal