Review
PDF EndNote BibTex RIS Cite

KADINLAŞAN GÖÇ OLGUSUNDA AĞBAĞLARIN VE SOSYAL SERMAYENİN SOSYAL UYUM ÜZERİNDEKİ ETKİSİ

Year 2022, Volume 3, Issue 2, 304 - 325, 31.12.2022

Abstract

Toplumsal, siyasal, ekonomik, kültürel özellikler ve etkiler barındıran göç; hem göç veren hem de göç alan toplumların dinamiklerinde değişime neden olmaktadır. Göç süreci sonrasında ortaya çıkan sosyal, politik, mekânsal ve ekonomik yapılar hem göçmenleri hem de ev sahibi ülkenin insanlarını etkilemektedir. Kadın ve erkek açısından göç nedenleri, göç etme süreci ve göç edilen ülke politikaları, göçmenlerin entegrasyonunu ve sosyal uyumunu etkilemektedir. Göç eden nüfusun yaklaşık yarısı kadınlardan oluşmakta ve kadınlar vasıflı ya da vasıfsız nitelikte, mülteci, göçmen gibi farklı statülerle göç sürecine katılmaktadırlar. Kadının göç sürecinde ve göç sonrasında yaşadığı dezavantajlı durumlarla mücadele edebilmesinde ağbağ (network) kuramı ve sosyal sermaye kavramlarının, kadının göç ettiği yeni topluma uyum gösterebilmesinde ve toplumsal bütünleşmenin sağlanmasında oynadığı roller olumlu ve olumsuz yönleriyle bu makalede ele alınmaktadır. Kadın göçmenlerin toplum içinde güçlendirilmesini amaçlayan programların hayata geçirilmesi önerilmektedir.

References

  • Alawiyah, T., & Held, M. L. (2015). Social capital: Promoting health and well-being among Indonesian women. Affilia: Journal of Women and Social Work. 30(3), 352-362.
  • Alvarez-Perez, P., & Harris, V. W. (2022). Personal social networks as a superdiversity dimension: A qualitative approach with second-generation Americans. Current Sociology, 70(2), 227-257.
  • Ayyıldız, A. A. ve Karataş, K.(2022). Göçmen ve Mültecilerin Sosyal Uyum Süreçlerinin Göçmenler Tarafından Kurulmuş Sivil Toplum Örgütü Yöneticilerinin Gözünden Değerlendirilmesi. Toplum ve Sosyal Hizmet, 33(3), 913-936.
  • Ayyıldız, A. A.(2022). Pierre Bourdieu’nun sosyolojisi ışığında sosyal çalışmayı anlamak. İstanbul Aydın Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 14(3), 261-284.
  • Başak, S., & Öztaş, N. (2010). Güven Ağbağları, Sosyal Sermaye ve Toplumsal Cinsiyet. Gazi Üniversitesi iktisadi ve idari Bilimler Fakültesi dergisi, 12(1), 27-56.
  • Baycan, T., & Öner, Ö. (2022). The dark side of social capital: a contextual perspective. The Annals of Regional Science, 1-20. doi.org/10.1007/s00168-022-01112-2
  • Bilecen, B., & Lubbers, M. J. (2021). The networked character of migration and transnationalism. Global Networks, 21(4), 837-852.
  • Buz, S (2009) Göç ve Kentleşme Sürecinde Kadınların" Görünürlüğü". Sosyal Politika Çalışmaları Dergisi, 17(17):40-50.
  • Buz, S. (2007). Göçte kadınlar: Feminist yaklaşım çerçevesinde bir çalışma. Toplum ve Sosyal Hizmet, 18(2), 37-50.
  • Buz, S. ve Ayyıldız, A. A. (2019). Sosyal hizmette toplum merkezleri. Toplum ve Sosyal Hizmet, 30(1), 187-212.
  • Cattell, V. (2001). Poor people, poor places, and poor health: the mediating role of social networks and social capital. Social Science & Medicine, 52(10), 1501-1516).
  • Chan, J., To, H. P., & Chan, E. (2006). Reconsidering social cohesion: Developing a definition and analytical framework for empirical research. Social Indicators Research, 75(2), 273-302.
  • Chuatico, G., Haan, M., & Finlay, L. (2022). Forms of Capital in the Economic Integration of Immigrants in Canada. Journal of International Migration and Integration, 1-24. doi.org/10.1007/s12134-022-00965-y
  • Cloete, P., Kotze, F., & Groenewald, C. (2009). Concept paper on social cohesion/inclusion in local integrated development plans. Final draft.www.presidentsaward.co.za
  • Curran, S. R., Garip, F., Chung, C. Y., Tangchonlatip, K. (2005). Gendered migrant social capital: Evidence from Thailand. Social Forces, 84(1), 225-255.
  • Curran, S. R., ve Rivero-Fuentes, E. (2003). Engendering migrant networks: The case of Mexican migration. Demography, 40(2), 289-307.
  • Çağlayan, S. (2011). Göç kuramları, göç ve göçmen ilişkisi. Sosyal ve Beşeri Bilimler Araştırmaları Dergisi, (17):67-91.
  • Daly, M., ve Silver, H. (2008). Social exclusion and social capital: A comparison and critique. Theory and Society, 37(6), 537-566.
  • Du Plooy, D. R., Lyons, A., & Kashima, E. S. (2020). Social capital and the well-being of migrants to Australia: Exploring the role of generalised trust and social network resources. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 79, 1-12.
  • Du, H., Li, X., Lin, D. (2015). Individualism and sociocultural adaptation: Discrimination and social capital as moderators among rural‐to‐urban migrants in China. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 18(2), 176-181.
  • Erel, U. (2010). Migrating cultural capital: Bourdieu in migration studies. Sociology, 44(4), 642-660.
  • Forrest, R., ve Kearns, A. (2001). Social cohesion, social capital and the neighbourhood. Urban studies, 38(12), 2125-2143.
  • Franck,A.K ve Speher,A(2010) Women’s economic Migration in the Context of Globalization.WIDE Annual Conference 2010.Bucharest, Romania. Erişim Adresi: www.wide-network.org). Gerşil, G. (2015). Küresel Boyutta Yoksulluk ve Kadın Yoksulluğu. Journal of Management & Economics, 22(1):159-181.
  • Gök, M. (2016). Family as a significant source of social capital: Structural restrictions and discussions Sosyal sermayenin önemli bir kaynağı olarak aile: Yapısal sınırlamalar ve tartışmalar. Journal of Human Sciences, 13(1), 881-899.
  • Granberry, P. J. (2014). More social than capital: Social capital accumulation through social network exchange among legal and unauthorized Mexican migrants. The Social Science Journal, 51(4), 590-597.
  • Haug, S. (2008). Migration networks and migration decision-making. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 34(4), 585-605.
  • Hellermann, C. (2006). Migrating alone: tackling social capital? Women from Eastern Europe in Portugal. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 29(6), 1135-1152.
  • Hommerich, C., & Tiefenbach, T. (2018). Analyzing the relationship between social capital and subjective well-being: The mediating role of social affiliation. Journal of Happiness Studies, 19(4), 1091-1114.
  • IOM, Göç ve Entegrasyon. Erişim adresi:www.turkey.iom.int/tr/göç-ve-entegrasyon
  • IOM, World Migration Report Facts And Figures, 2015.
  • IOM,(2020).UN world migration report 2020. Erişim Adresi: https://publications.iom.int/system/files/pdf/wmr_2020.pdf.
  • Julkunen, I., Ruch, G., & Nurmi, A. (2022). Social work in a superdiverse society: a conceptual exploration of cooperation in professional practice. European Journal of Social Work, 1-14. DOI: 10.1080/13691457.2022.2066634
  • Kadushin, C., 2004. Introduction to Social Network Theory. Boston, MA. http://melander335.wdfiles.com/local--files/reading-history/kadushin.pdf
  • Katz, N., Lazer, D., Arrow, H., & Contractor, N. (2005). "The network perspective on small groups." Theories of small groups: Interdisciplinary perspectives (2005): 277-312. https://nosh.northwestern.edu/journals/2004Katz-1.pdf
  • Kawar, M. (2004). Gender and migration: Why are women more vulnerable. Femmes et mouvement: genre, migrations et nouvelle division international du travail, 71-87. Erişim Adresi: http://www.antigone.gr/files/en/library/selected-publications-on-migration-and-asylum/international/070603.pdf)
  • Kindler, M. (2021). Networking in contexts: qualitative social network analysis' insights into migration processes. Global Networks, 21(3), 513-528.
  • Klarenbeek, L. M. (2019). Relational integration: a response to Willem Schinkel. Comparative Migration Studies, 7(1), 1-8.
  • Klarenbeek, L. M. (2021). Reconceptualising ‘integration as a two-way process’. Migration studies, 9(3), 902-921.
  • Koser Akcapar, S. (2010). Re‐thinking migrants’ networks and social capital: A case study of Iranians in Turkey. International migration, 48(2), 161-196.
  • Kurşunlugil, İ. (2012). Göç Çalışmalarına Tersinden Bakmak: İstanbul'daki Avrupa Vatandaşlarının Göç Süreçleri ve Göçmenlik Halleri. Spectrum: Journal of Global Studies, 4.23-45.
  • Kwok, J. (2003). Social welfare, social capital and social work: personal reflection of a Hong Kong social worker. International Social Work, 51(5), 699-704.)
  • Lin, N. (2017). Building a network theory of social capital. Connections.22(1):28-51.
  • Liu, D., Ainsworth, S. E., & Baumeister, R. F. (2016). A meta-analysis of social networking online and social capital. Review of General Psychology, 20(4), 369-391.
  • Martikainen, T ve Baumann, M. (2010). South Asian Religions and Civic Engagement in the Nordic Countries and Switzerland. Finnish Journal of Ethnicity and Migration, 5(2): 3.
  • McKenzie, D ve Rapoport, H (2007). Network effects and the dynamics of migration and inequality: theory and evidence from Mexico. Journal of Development Economics, 84(1), 1-24.
  • Mishra, S. (2018). Feminization of poverty and dimension of women’s agencies. Asian Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, 6(2), 93-100.
  • Modi, R (2012). Generational Differences in Immigrant Adolescent Civic and Political Engagement Attitudes. Erişim Adresi:pdfs.semanticscholar.org).
  • Murgas, F., Petrovic, F., & Tirpakova, A. (2022). Social Capital as a Predictor of Quality of Life: The Czech Experience. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19(10), 6185.
  • Nawyn, S. J. (2010). Gender and migration: Integrating feminist theory into migration studies. Sociology Compass, 4(9), 749-765.
  • Nawyn, S. J., Gjokaj, L., Agbényiga, D. L., Grace, B. (2012). Linguistic isolation, social capital, and immigrant belonging. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 41(3), 255-282.
  • Nguyen, H. T., Le, M. K., Nguyen, T. T. D., Dao, V. P. L., & Nguyen, N. T. (2022). Social capital and migration: A case study of rural Vietnam. The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics and Business, 9(1), 63-71.
  • Olliff, L., Baak, M., Baddeley, M., Lino Lejukole, J., Munyonge, E., Saidi, I., & Treuren, G. J. (2022). “We will start building from that”: Social capital, social networks and African migrants’ job‐seeking experiences in Australia. Australian Journal of Social Issues. DOI: 10.1002/ajs4.205
  • Özcan, E. D. (2017). Çağdaş Göç Teorileri Üzerine Bir Değerlendirme. İş ve Hayat Dergisi Ekonomi Hukuk ve Sosyal Politika, 2(4), 183-215).
  • Palloni, A., Massey, D. S., Ceballos, M., Espinosa, K., & Spittel, M. (2001). Social capital and international migration: A test using information on family networks. American Journal of Sociology, 106(5), 1262-1298.
  • Paz Alencar, A. & Tsagkroni, V. (2019). Prospects of refugee integration in the Netherlands: Social capital, information practices and digital media. Media and Communication, 7(2 ), 184-194.
  • Piper, N. (2006). Gendering the politics of migration 1. International Migration Review, 40(1), 133-164.
  • Prieto, L., Sagafi-nejad, T., Janamanchi, B. (2013). A Bourdieusian perspective on acculturation: Mexican immigrants in the United States. Administrative Sciences, 3(4): 290-305.
  • Ryan, L. (2011). Migrants' social networks and weak ties: accessing resources and constructing relationships post-migration. The Sociological Review, 59(4), 707-724.
  • Saggar, S., Sommerville, W., Ford, R., & Sobolewska, M. (2012). The Impact of Migration on Social Cohesion and Integration. UK Border Agency. Erişim Adresi:https://www.research.manchester.ac.uk/portal/files/56718536/FULL_TEXT.PDF
  • Schiefer, D., & Van der Noll, J. (2017). The essentials of social cohesion: A literature review. Social Indicators Research, 132(2), 579-603.
  • Spoonley, P., Peace, R., Butcher, A., & O’Neill, D. (2005). Social cohesion: A policy and indicator framework for assessing immigrant and host outcomes. Social policy journal of New Zealand, 24(1), 85-110.
  • Şeker, D ve Uçan,G (2016). Göç sürecinde kadın. Celal Bayar Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 14(1):190-214.
  • Tacoli, C., & Mabala, R. (2010). Exploring mobility and migration in the context of rural—urban linkages: why gender and generation matter. Environment and Urbanization, 22(2), 389-395.
  • Thieme, S., & Siegmann, K. A. (2010). Coping on women’s backs: social capital-vulnerability links through a gender lens. Current Sociology, 58(5), 715-737.
  • Toma, S., Vause, S. (2014). Gender differences in the role of migrant networks: Comparing Congolese and Senegalese migration flows. International Migration Review, 48(4), 972-997.
  • Tzanakis, M. (2013). Social capital in Bourdieu’s, Coleman’s and Putnam’s theory: empirical evidence and emergent measurement issues. Educate~, 13(2), 2-23.
  • Wickramasinghe, A. A. I. N., & Wimalaratana, W. (2016). International migration and migration theories. Social Affairs, 1(5), 13-32.
  • Williamson, S. H. (2017). Globalization as a racial project: Implications for human trafficking. Journal of International Women's Studies, 18(2), 74-88.
  • Wong, S. (2010). Exploring'unseen'social capital in community participation: everyday lives of poor mainland Chinese migrants in Hong Kong (p. 220). Amsterdam University Press
  • Xulu-Gama, N. (2022). Migrant Women’s Experiences in the City: A Relational Comparison. In Migration in Southern Africa (pp. 125-137). Springer, Cham. Erişim Adresi:https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007/978-3-030-92114-9.pdf
  • Yakushko, O., & Morgan-Consoli, M. L. (2014). Gendered stories of adaptation and resistance: A feminist multiple case study of immigrant women. International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling, 36(1), 70-83.
  • Yaman, A. (2016). Suriyeli sosyal sermayenin inşası ve yeniden üretim sürecinin sivil toplum ve ekonomik hayat alanlarında incelenmesi. Göç Araştırmaları Dergisi, (3), 94-127.
  • Yilmaz, A. (2019). Göç ve Kadın:“ göçün feminizasyonu” ve kadın göçmenlerin durumu. Manisa Celal Bayar Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 17(1), 383-400.
  • Zetter,R., Griffiths,D., Sigona,N ve diğerleri (2006) Immigration social cohession and social capital.What are the links?. Joseph Rowntree Foundation Publication. Erişim:www.Jfr.org.uk/bookshop)
  • Zihnioğlu, Ö., ve Dalkıran, M. (2022). From social capital to social cohesion: Syrian refugees in Turkey and the role of NGOs as intermediaries. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 1-18.

The Effects of Networks and Social Capital on Social Cohesion from The Perspective of Feminization of Migration

Year 2022, Volume 3, Issue 2, 304 - 325, 31.12.2022

Abstract

The concept of migration which has social, political, economic and cultural aspects and effects causes great transformations in societal dynamics in both sending and receiving countries. Social, political, spatial and economic structures which occurs after the migration process both affects the immigrants and the people of the host country. The reasons behind the migration from both male and female perspectives, the course of migration and the politics of the receiving country affects the integration and social cohesion dynamics of the migrants. Nearly half of the population of migrants consists of women and they participate the migration process as qualified or unqualified attributes and can be in different statuses such as being a refugee or an immigrant. In this article the network theory and social capital concepts is discussed for their roles in coping mechanisms of women under disadvantaged situations and their positive and negative effects in adaptation of women into the new society and their roles in women’s achievement of social cohesion. Implementation of the programs aiming to strengthen the position of migrant women in society is suggested.

References

  • Alawiyah, T., & Held, M. L. (2015). Social capital: Promoting health and well-being among Indonesian women. Affilia: Journal of Women and Social Work. 30(3), 352-362.
  • Alvarez-Perez, P., & Harris, V. W. (2022). Personal social networks as a superdiversity dimension: A qualitative approach with second-generation Americans. Current Sociology, 70(2), 227-257.
  • Ayyıldız, A. A. ve Karataş, K.(2022). Göçmen ve Mültecilerin Sosyal Uyum Süreçlerinin Göçmenler Tarafından Kurulmuş Sivil Toplum Örgütü Yöneticilerinin Gözünden Değerlendirilmesi. Toplum ve Sosyal Hizmet, 33(3), 913-936.
  • Ayyıldız, A. A.(2022). Pierre Bourdieu’nun sosyolojisi ışığında sosyal çalışmayı anlamak. İstanbul Aydın Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 14(3), 261-284.
  • Başak, S., & Öztaş, N. (2010). Güven Ağbağları, Sosyal Sermaye ve Toplumsal Cinsiyet. Gazi Üniversitesi iktisadi ve idari Bilimler Fakültesi dergisi, 12(1), 27-56.
  • Baycan, T., & Öner, Ö. (2022). The dark side of social capital: a contextual perspective. The Annals of Regional Science, 1-20. doi.org/10.1007/s00168-022-01112-2
  • Bilecen, B., & Lubbers, M. J. (2021). The networked character of migration and transnationalism. Global Networks, 21(4), 837-852.
  • Buz, S (2009) Göç ve Kentleşme Sürecinde Kadınların" Görünürlüğü". Sosyal Politika Çalışmaları Dergisi, 17(17):40-50.
  • Buz, S. (2007). Göçte kadınlar: Feminist yaklaşım çerçevesinde bir çalışma. Toplum ve Sosyal Hizmet, 18(2), 37-50.
  • Buz, S. ve Ayyıldız, A. A. (2019). Sosyal hizmette toplum merkezleri. Toplum ve Sosyal Hizmet, 30(1), 187-212.
  • Cattell, V. (2001). Poor people, poor places, and poor health: the mediating role of social networks and social capital. Social Science & Medicine, 52(10), 1501-1516).
  • Chan, J., To, H. P., & Chan, E. (2006). Reconsidering social cohesion: Developing a definition and analytical framework for empirical research. Social Indicators Research, 75(2), 273-302.
  • Chuatico, G., Haan, M., & Finlay, L. (2022). Forms of Capital in the Economic Integration of Immigrants in Canada. Journal of International Migration and Integration, 1-24. doi.org/10.1007/s12134-022-00965-y
  • Cloete, P., Kotze, F., & Groenewald, C. (2009). Concept paper on social cohesion/inclusion in local integrated development plans. Final draft.www.presidentsaward.co.za
  • Curran, S. R., Garip, F., Chung, C. Y., Tangchonlatip, K. (2005). Gendered migrant social capital: Evidence from Thailand. Social Forces, 84(1), 225-255.
  • Curran, S. R., ve Rivero-Fuentes, E. (2003). Engendering migrant networks: The case of Mexican migration. Demography, 40(2), 289-307.
  • Çağlayan, S. (2011). Göç kuramları, göç ve göçmen ilişkisi. Sosyal ve Beşeri Bilimler Araştırmaları Dergisi, (17):67-91.
  • Daly, M., ve Silver, H. (2008). Social exclusion and social capital: A comparison and critique. Theory and Society, 37(6), 537-566.
  • Du Plooy, D. R., Lyons, A., & Kashima, E. S. (2020). Social capital and the well-being of migrants to Australia: Exploring the role of generalised trust and social network resources. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 79, 1-12.
  • Du, H., Li, X., Lin, D. (2015). Individualism and sociocultural adaptation: Discrimination and social capital as moderators among rural‐to‐urban migrants in China. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 18(2), 176-181.
  • Erel, U. (2010). Migrating cultural capital: Bourdieu in migration studies. Sociology, 44(4), 642-660.
  • Forrest, R., ve Kearns, A. (2001). Social cohesion, social capital and the neighbourhood. Urban studies, 38(12), 2125-2143.
  • Franck,A.K ve Speher,A(2010) Women’s economic Migration in the Context of Globalization.WIDE Annual Conference 2010.Bucharest, Romania. Erişim Adresi: www.wide-network.org). Gerşil, G. (2015). Küresel Boyutta Yoksulluk ve Kadın Yoksulluğu. Journal of Management & Economics, 22(1):159-181.
  • Gök, M. (2016). Family as a significant source of social capital: Structural restrictions and discussions Sosyal sermayenin önemli bir kaynağı olarak aile: Yapısal sınırlamalar ve tartışmalar. Journal of Human Sciences, 13(1), 881-899.
  • Granberry, P. J. (2014). More social than capital: Social capital accumulation through social network exchange among legal and unauthorized Mexican migrants. The Social Science Journal, 51(4), 590-597.
  • Haug, S. (2008). Migration networks and migration decision-making. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 34(4), 585-605.
  • Hellermann, C. (2006). Migrating alone: tackling social capital? Women from Eastern Europe in Portugal. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 29(6), 1135-1152.
  • Hommerich, C., & Tiefenbach, T. (2018). Analyzing the relationship between social capital and subjective well-being: The mediating role of social affiliation. Journal of Happiness Studies, 19(4), 1091-1114.
  • IOM, Göç ve Entegrasyon. Erişim adresi:www.turkey.iom.int/tr/göç-ve-entegrasyon
  • IOM, World Migration Report Facts And Figures, 2015.
  • IOM,(2020).UN world migration report 2020. Erişim Adresi: https://publications.iom.int/system/files/pdf/wmr_2020.pdf.
  • Julkunen, I., Ruch, G., & Nurmi, A. (2022). Social work in a superdiverse society: a conceptual exploration of cooperation in professional practice. European Journal of Social Work, 1-14. DOI: 10.1080/13691457.2022.2066634
  • Kadushin, C., 2004. Introduction to Social Network Theory. Boston, MA. http://melander335.wdfiles.com/local--files/reading-history/kadushin.pdf
  • Katz, N., Lazer, D., Arrow, H., & Contractor, N. (2005). "The network perspective on small groups." Theories of small groups: Interdisciplinary perspectives (2005): 277-312. https://nosh.northwestern.edu/journals/2004Katz-1.pdf
  • Kawar, M. (2004). Gender and migration: Why are women more vulnerable. Femmes et mouvement: genre, migrations et nouvelle division international du travail, 71-87. Erişim Adresi: http://www.antigone.gr/files/en/library/selected-publications-on-migration-and-asylum/international/070603.pdf)
  • Kindler, M. (2021). Networking in contexts: qualitative social network analysis' insights into migration processes. Global Networks, 21(3), 513-528.
  • Klarenbeek, L. M. (2019). Relational integration: a response to Willem Schinkel. Comparative Migration Studies, 7(1), 1-8.
  • Klarenbeek, L. M. (2021). Reconceptualising ‘integration as a two-way process’. Migration studies, 9(3), 902-921.
  • Koser Akcapar, S. (2010). Re‐thinking migrants’ networks and social capital: A case study of Iranians in Turkey. International migration, 48(2), 161-196.
  • Kurşunlugil, İ. (2012). Göç Çalışmalarına Tersinden Bakmak: İstanbul'daki Avrupa Vatandaşlarının Göç Süreçleri ve Göçmenlik Halleri. Spectrum: Journal of Global Studies, 4.23-45.
  • Kwok, J. (2003). Social welfare, social capital and social work: personal reflection of a Hong Kong social worker. International Social Work, 51(5), 699-704.)
  • Lin, N. (2017). Building a network theory of social capital. Connections.22(1):28-51.
  • Liu, D., Ainsworth, S. E., & Baumeister, R. F. (2016). A meta-analysis of social networking online and social capital. Review of General Psychology, 20(4), 369-391.
  • Martikainen, T ve Baumann, M. (2010). South Asian Religions and Civic Engagement in the Nordic Countries and Switzerland. Finnish Journal of Ethnicity and Migration, 5(2): 3.
  • McKenzie, D ve Rapoport, H (2007). Network effects and the dynamics of migration and inequality: theory and evidence from Mexico. Journal of Development Economics, 84(1), 1-24.
  • Mishra, S. (2018). Feminization of poverty and dimension of women’s agencies. Asian Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, 6(2), 93-100.
  • Modi, R (2012). Generational Differences in Immigrant Adolescent Civic and Political Engagement Attitudes. Erişim Adresi:pdfs.semanticscholar.org).
  • Murgas, F., Petrovic, F., & Tirpakova, A. (2022). Social Capital as a Predictor of Quality of Life: The Czech Experience. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19(10), 6185.
  • Nawyn, S. J. (2010). Gender and migration: Integrating feminist theory into migration studies. Sociology Compass, 4(9), 749-765.
  • Nawyn, S. J., Gjokaj, L., Agbényiga, D. L., Grace, B. (2012). Linguistic isolation, social capital, and immigrant belonging. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 41(3), 255-282.
  • Nguyen, H. T., Le, M. K., Nguyen, T. T. D., Dao, V. P. L., & Nguyen, N. T. (2022). Social capital and migration: A case study of rural Vietnam. The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics and Business, 9(1), 63-71.
  • Olliff, L., Baak, M., Baddeley, M., Lino Lejukole, J., Munyonge, E., Saidi, I., & Treuren, G. J. (2022). “We will start building from that”: Social capital, social networks and African migrants’ job‐seeking experiences in Australia. Australian Journal of Social Issues. DOI: 10.1002/ajs4.205
  • Özcan, E. D. (2017). Çağdaş Göç Teorileri Üzerine Bir Değerlendirme. İş ve Hayat Dergisi Ekonomi Hukuk ve Sosyal Politika, 2(4), 183-215).
  • Palloni, A., Massey, D. S., Ceballos, M., Espinosa, K., & Spittel, M. (2001). Social capital and international migration: A test using information on family networks. American Journal of Sociology, 106(5), 1262-1298.
  • Paz Alencar, A. & Tsagkroni, V. (2019). Prospects of refugee integration in the Netherlands: Social capital, information practices and digital media. Media and Communication, 7(2 ), 184-194.
  • Piper, N. (2006). Gendering the politics of migration 1. International Migration Review, 40(1), 133-164.
  • Prieto, L., Sagafi-nejad, T., Janamanchi, B. (2013). A Bourdieusian perspective on acculturation: Mexican immigrants in the United States. Administrative Sciences, 3(4): 290-305.
  • Ryan, L. (2011). Migrants' social networks and weak ties: accessing resources and constructing relationships post-migration. The Sociological Review, 59(4), 707-724.
  • Saggar, S., Sommerville, W., Ford, R., & Sobolewska, M. (2012). The Impact of Migration on Social Cohesion and Integration. UK Border Agency. Erişim Adresi:https://www.research.manchester.ac.uk/portal/files/56718536/FULL_TEXT.PDF
  • Schiefer, D., & Van der Noll, J. (2017). The essentials of social cohesion: A literature review. Social Indicators Research, 132(2), 579-603.
  • Spoonley, P., Peace, R., Butcher, A., & O’Neill, D. (2005). Social cohesion: A policy and indicator framework for assessing immigrant and host outcomes. Social policy journal of New Zealand, 24(1), 85-110.
  • Şeker, D ve Uçan,G (2016). Göç sürecinde kadın. Celal Bayar Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 14(1):190-214.
  • Tacoli, C., & Mabala, R. (2010). Exploring mobility and migration in the context of rural—urban linkages: why gender and generation matter. Environment and Urbanization, 22(2), 389-395.
  • Thieme, S., & Siegmann, K. A. (2010). Coping on women’s backs: social capital-vulnerability links through a gender lens. Current Sociology, 58(5), 715-737.
  • Toma, S., Vause, S. (2014). Gender differences in the role of migrant networks: Comparing Congolese and Senegalese migration flows. International Migration Review, 48(4), 972-997.
  • Tzanakis, M. (2013). Social capital in Bourdieu’s, Coleman’s and Putnam’s theory: empirical evidence and emergent measurement issues. Educate~, 13(2), 2-23.
  • Wickramasinghe, A. A. I. N., & Wimalaratana, W. (2016). International migration and migration theories. Social Affairs, 1(5), 13-32.
  • Williamson, S. H. (2017). Globalization as a racial project: Implications for human trafficking. Journal of International Women's Studies, 18(2), 74-88.
  • Wong, S. (2010). Exploring'unseen'social capital in community participation: everyday lives of poor mainland Chinese migrants in Hong Kong (p. 220). Amsterdam University Press
  • Xulu-Gama, N. (2022). Migrant Women’s Experiences in the City: A Relational Comparison. In Migration in Southern Africa (pp. 125-137). Springer, Cham. Erişim Adresi:https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007/978-3-030-92114-9.pdf
  • Yakushko, O., & Morgan-Consoli, M. L. (2014). Gendered stories of adaptation and resistance: A feminist multiple case study of immigrant women. International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling, 36(1), 70-83.
  • Yaman, A. (2016). Suriyeli sosyal sermayenin inşası ve yeniden üretim sürecinin sivil toplum ve ekonomik hayat alanlarında incelenmesi. Göç Araştırmaları Dergisi, (3), 94-127.
  • Yilmaz, A. (2019). Göç ve Kadın:“ göçün feminizasyonu” ve kadın göçmenlerin durumu. Manisa Celal Bayar Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 17(1), 383-400.
  • Zetter,R., Griffiths,D., Sigona,N ve diğerleri (2006) Immigration social cohession and social capital.What are the links?. Joseph Rowntree Foundation Publication. Erişim:www.Jfr.org.uk/bookshop)
  • Zihnioğlu, Ö., ve Dalkıran, M. (2022). From social capital to social cohesion: Syrian refugees in Turkey and the role of NGOs as intermediaries. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 1-18.

Details

Primary Language Turkish
Subjects Social Sciences, Interdisciplinary
Journal Section Reviews
Authors

Ali Artam AYYILDIZ> (Primary Author)
HACETTEPE ÜNİVERSİTESİ, İKTİSADİ VE İDARİ BİLİMLER FAKÜLTESİ, SOSYAL HİZMETLER BÖLÜMÜ
0000-0002-3854-4906
Türkiye

Publication Date December 31, 2022
Published in Issue Year 2022, Volume 3, Issue 2

Cite

APA Ayyıldız, A. A. (2022). KADINLAŞAN GÖÇ OLGUSUNDA AĞBAĞLARIN VE SOSYAL SERMAYENİN SOSYAL UYUM ÜZERİNDEKİ ETKİSİ . Sosyal Politika ve Sosyal Hizmet Çalışmaları Dergisi , 3 (2) , 304-325 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/spshcd/issue/74840/1150569