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EFFECT OF MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS ON BRAIN STRUCTURES

Year 2021, Volume 3, Issue 2, 70 - 78, 31.08.2021

Abstract

In this review, it is aimed to summarize the scientific findings made in recent years about Multiple Sclerosis (MS), whose etiology isn’t known exactly, and the anatomy of the brain structures affected by it. MS is a chronic and neurodegenerative disease of the Central Nervous System, which starts suddenly and insidiously, accompanied by various degrees of inflammation, demyelination and axonal damage. MS is more common between the ages of 20 and 40, and in women. It is stated that the prevalence of MS varies according to ethnic groups and geographical regions. Symptoms of MS vary according to the area of involvement. Some areas where the lesions are generally involved are the optic nerve, periventricular and periaqueductal region, floor of the 4th ventricle, posterior end of the lateral ventricle, centrum semiovale and corpus callosum. In this review the effects of MS in the n. opticus, ventriculus lateralis and corpus callosum will be presented from an anatomical point of view.

References

  • Aboitiz, F., Scheibel, A.B., Fisher, R.S., & Zaidel, E. (1992). Fiber composition of the human corpus callosum. Brain Research, 11;598(1-2),143-153. doi:10.1016/0006-8993(92)90178-c.
  • Arıncı, K., & Elhan, A. (2016). Anatomi (6. Baskı) Ankara: Günes Tıp kitabevleri.
  • Arifoğlu, Y. (2019). Her Yönüyle Anatomi (2. Baskı) İstanbul: İstanbul Tıp kitabevleri.
  • Bakshi, R., Thompson, A.J., Rocca, M.A., Pelletier, D., Dousset, V., Barkhof, F., Inglese, M., Guttmann, C.R.G., Horsfield, M.A., & Filippi, M. (2008). MRI in multiple sclerosis: current status and future prospects. Lancet Neurol, 7,615–25. doi:10.1016/S1474-4422(08)70137-6.
  • Barkhof, F. (2002). The clinico-radiological paradox in multiple sclerosis revisited. Curr Opin Neurol, 15(3),239-245. doi: 10.1097/00019052-200206000-00003.
  • Ceccarelli, A., Bakshi, R., & Neema, M. (2012). MRI in multiple sclerosis: a review of the current literature. Curr Opin Neurol, 25(4), 402-409. doi: 10.1097/WCO.0b013e328354f63f.
  • Chiaravalloti, N.D. & DeLuca, J. (2008). Cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis. Lancet Neurol, 7(12), 1139–51. doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(08)70259-X.
  • Coo, H., & Aronson, K.J., (2004). A systematic review of several potential non-genetic risk factors for multiple sclerosis. Neuroepidemiology, 23(1-2),1–12. doi: 10.1159/000073969.
  • Coombs, B.D., Best, A., Brown, M.S., Miller, D.E., Corboy, J., Baier, M., & Simon, J.H. (2004). Multiple sclerosis pathology in the normal and abnormal appearing white matter of the corpus callosum by diffusion tensor imaging. Mult Scler Journal Aug;10(4), 392-7. doi:10.1191/1352458504ms1053oa.
  • Dyment, D.A., Ebers, G.C., & Sadovnick, A.D. (2004). Genetics of multiple sclerosis. Lancet Neurol, Feb;3(2), 104-10.
  • Eraksoy, M., & Akman Demir, G. (2015). Merkezi Sinir Sisteminin Miyelin Hastalıkları. In: Nöroloji (2. Baskı) (Öge, A.E., Baykan, B., & Zarko Bahar, S. eds.). İstanbul: Nobel Tıp Kitabevleri.
  • Evangelou, N., Konz, D., Esiri, M.M., Smith, S., Palace, J., & Matthews, P.M. (2000). Regional axonal loss in the corpus callosum correlates with cerebral white matter lesion volume and distribution in multiple sclerosis. Brain, 123,1845-1849. doi:10.1093/brain/123.9.1845.
  • Fox, N.C., Jenkins, R., Leary, S.M., Stevenson, V.L., Losseff, N.A., Crum, W.R., Harvey, R.J., Rossor, M.N., Miller, D.H., & Thompson, A.J. (2000). Progressive cerebral atrophy in MS: a serial study using registered, volumetric MRI. Neurology, 54(4), 807–12. doi:10.1212/wnl.54.4.807.
  • Gövsa Gökmen, F. (2003). Sistematik Anatomi. İzmir: Güven Kitabevi.
  • Haberland, C. (2007). Demyelinating Diseases. In: Clinical Neuropathology Text and Color Atlas (first ed.) (Percy, C. eds.) New York: Demos Medical Publishing.
  • Harder, L., Bobholz, J.A., & MacAllister, W.S. (2018). Multiple Sclerosis. In: Neuropsychological Conditions Across the Lifespan (Donders, J., & Hunter, S.J. eds.) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 228–243. doi:10.1017/9781316996751.013.
  • Kantarcı, O., & Wingerchuk, D. (2006). Epidemiology and natural history of multiple sclerosis: new insights. Curr Opin Neurol, 19(3),248–254. doi:10.1097/01.wco.0000227033.47458.82.
  • Kidd, P.M. (2001). Multiple sclerosis, an autoimmune inflammatory disease: prospects for its integrative management. Altern Med Rev, 6(6), 540-566.
  • Leray, E., Moreau, T., Fromont, A., & Edan, G. (2016). Epidemiology of multiple sclerosis. Revue Neurologique, 172, 3-13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neurol.2015.10.006.
  • Lin, X., Blumhardt, L.D., & Constantinescu, C.S. (2003). The relationship of brain and cervical cord volume to disability in clinical subtypes of multiple sclerosis: a three-dimensional MRI study. Acta Neurol Scand, 108, 401-406. doi: 10.1046/j.1600-0404.2003.00160.x.
  • Lublin, F.D., & Reingold, S.C. (1996). Defining the clinical course of multiple sclerosis: results of an international survey. Neurology, 46, 907–911.
  • Marrie, R.A. (2004). Environmental risk factors in multiple sclerosis aetiology. Lancet Neurol, 3(12), 709–718. doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(04)00933-0.
  • Mesaros, S., Rocca, M.A., Riccitelli, G., Pagani E, Rovaris M, Caputo D, Ghezzi A, Capra R, Bertolotto A, Comi G & Filippi M. (2009). Corpus callosum damage and cognitive dysfunction in benign MS. Hum Brain Mapp, 30(8), 2656-2666. doi:10.1002/hbm.20692.
  • Miller, J.R. (2000). Demyelinating diseases, multiple sclerosis. In: Merritt's Neurology. (10th ed.) (Merritt’s, H.H., & Rowland, P. eds.) Lippincott Williams- Wilkins Publishers.
  • Ozturk, A., Smith, S.A., Gordon-Lipkin, E.M., Harrison, D.M., Shiee, N., Pham, D.L., Caffo, B.S., Calabresi, P.A., & Reich, D.S. (2010). MRI of the corpus callosum in multiple sclerosis: association with disabiltiy. Multiple Sclerosis 16(2), 166-177. doi:10.1177/1352458509353649.
  • Pozzilli, C., Bastianello, S., Bozzao, A., Pierallini, A., Giubilei, F., Argentino, C., & Bozzao, L. (1994). No differences in corpus callosum size by sex and aging. A quantitative study usingmagnetic resonance imaging. J Neuroimaging, 4(4), 218-21. doi:10.1111/jon199444218.
  • Ramagopalan, S.V., Dobson, R., Meier, U.C., & Giovannoni, G. (2010). Multiple sclerosis: risk factors, prodromes, and potential casual pathway. Lancet Neurol, 9(7), 727-39. doi:10.1016/S1474-4422(10)70094-6.
  • Reich, D.S., Lucchinetti, C.F., & Calabresi, P.A., (2018). Multiple Sclerosis. N Engl J Med, 11;378(2), 169-180. doi: 10.1056/NEJMra1401483.
  • Riccitelli, G., Rocca, M.A., Pagani, E., Rodegher, M.E., Rossi, P., Falini, A., Comi, G., & Filippi, M. (2011). Cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis is associated to different patterns of gray matter atrophy according to clinical phenotype. Hum Brain Mapp, 32(10), 1535-1543. doi:10.1002/hbm.21125.
  • Rohkamm, R. (2004). Color Atlas of Neurology (2nd ed) Stuttgart: Thieme.
  • Sheremata, W., & Tornes, L. (2013). Multiple Sclerosis and the spinal cord. Neurol Clin, 31, 55–77. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ncl.2012.09.007.
  • Simon, J.H., Jacobs, L.D., Campion, M.K., Rudick, R.A., Cookfair, D.L., Herndon, R.M., Richert, J.R., Salazar, A.M., Fischer, J.S., Goodkin, D.E., Simonian, N., Lajaunie, M., Miller, D.E., Wende, K., Martens-Davidson, A., Kinkel, R.P., Munschauer, F.E. 3rd., & Brownscheidle, C.M. (1999). A longitudinal study of brain atrophy in relapsing multiple sclerosis. The Multiple Sclerosis Collaborative Research Group (MSCRG). Neurology, 53(1), 139–48. doi:10.1212/wnl.53.1.139.
  • Sünter, G., Kılınç, Ö., Berk, A., Akçabey, S., Saldüz, E., Öztürkçü, H., Günal, D.İ., & Agan, K. (2019). Restless Legs Syndrome/Willis-Ekbom Disease in Multiple Sclerosis Patients with Spinal Cord Lesions. Arch Neuropsychiatry. https://doi.org/10.29399/npa.23351.
  • Tench, C.R., Morgan, P.S., Jaspan, T., Auer, D.P., & Constantinescu, C.S. (2005). Spinal cord imaging in multiple sclerosis. J Neuroimaging, 15(4),94S–102S. doi:10.1177/1051228405283292.
  • Trapp, B.D., Peterson, J., Ransohoff, R.M., Rudick, R., Mörk, S., & Bö, L. (1998). Axonal transection in the lesions of multiple sclerosis. N Engl J Med, 338(5), 278-285. doi:10.1056/nejm199801293380502.
  • Ünal, A., Mavioğlu, H., Altunrende, B., Kale İçen, N., & Ergün, U. (2018). Multipl sklerozda tanı ve ayırıcı tanı. In: Multiple skleroz tanı ve tedavi kılavuzu (2018) (Efendi, H., & Yandım Kuşcu, D. eds.) İstanbul: Galenos yayınevi.
  • GBD 2016 Multiple Sclerosis Collaborators (Wallin, M.T., Culpepper, W.J., Nichols, E., Bhutta, Z.A., Gebrehiwot, T.T., Hay, S.I., Khalil, I.A., Krohn, K.J., Liang, X., Naghavi, M., Mokdad, A.H., Nixon, M.R., Reiner, R.C., Sartorius, B., Smith, M., Topor-Madry, R., Werdecker, A., Vos, T., Feigin, V.L., & Murray, C.J.L.) (2019). Global, regional and national burden of multiple sclerosis 1990-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016. Lancet Neurol, 18, 269–85. doi:10.1016/S1474-4422(18) 30443-5.
  • Yaldızlı, Ö., Penner, I.K., Frontzek, K., Naegelin, Y., Amann, M., Papadopoulou, A., Sprenger, T., Kuhle, J., Calabrese, P., Radü, E.W., Kappos, L., & Gass, A. (2014). The relationship between total and regional corpus callosum atrophy, cognitive impairment and fatigue in multiple sclerosis patients. Multiple Sclerosis Journal, 20(3), 356-364. doi:10.1177/1352458513496880.

Year 2021, Volume 3, Issue 2, 70 - 78, 31.08.2021

Abstract

References

  • Aboitiz, F., Scheibel, A.B., Fisher, R.S., & Zaidel, E. (1992). Fiber composition of the human corpus callosum. Brain Research, 11;598(1-2),143-153. doi:10.1016/0006-8993(92)90178-c.
  • Arıncı, K., & Elhan, A. (2016). Anatomi (6. Baskı) Ankara: Günes Tıp kitabevleri.
  • Arifoğlu, Y. (2019). Her Yönüyle Anatomi (2. Baskı) İstanbul: İstanbul Tıp kitabevleri.
  • Bakshi, R., Thompson, A.J., Rocca, M.A., Pelletier, D., Dousset, V., Barkhof, F., Inglese, M., Guttmann, C.R.G., Horsfield, M.A., & Filippi, M. (2008). MRI in multiple sclerosis: current status and future prospects. Lancet Neurol, 7,615–25. doi:10.1016/S1474-4422(08)70137-6.
  • Barkhof, F. (2002). The clinico-radiological paradox in multiple sclerosis revisited. Curr Opin Neurol, 15(3),239-245. doi: 10.1097/00019052-200206000-00003.
  • Ceccarelli, A., Bakshi, R., & Neema, M. (2012). MRI in multiple sclerosis: a review of the current literature. Curr Opin Neurol, 25(4), 402-409. doi: 10.1097/WCO.0b013e328354f63f.
  • Chiaravalloti, N.D. & DeLuca, J. (2008). Cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis. Lancet Neurol, 7(12), 1139–51. doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(08)70259-X.
  • Coo, H., & Aronson, K.J., (2004). A systematic review of several potential non-genetic risk factors for multiple sclerosis. Neuroepidemiology, 23(1-2),1–12. doi: 10.1159/000073969.
  • Coombs, B.D., Best, A., Brown, M.S., Miller, D.E., Corboy, J., Baier, M., & Simon, J.H. (2004). Multiple sclerosis pathology in the normal and abnormal appearing white matter of the corpus callosum by diffusion tensor imaging. Mult Scler Journal Aug;10(4), 392-7. doi:10.1191/1352458504ms1053oa.
  • Dyment, D.A., Ebers, G.C., & Sadovnick, A.D. (2004). Genetics of multiple sclerosis. Lancet Neurol, Feb;3(2), 104-10.
  • Eraksoy, M., & Akman Demir, G. (2015). Merkezi Sinir Sisteminin Miyelin Hastalıkları. In: Nöroloji (2. Baskı) (Öge, A.E., Baykan, B., & Zarko Bahar, S. eds.). İstanbul: Nobel Tıp Kitabevleri.
  • Evangelou, N., Konz, D., Esiri, M.M., Smith, S., Palace, J., & Matthews, P.M. (2000). Regional axonal loss in the corpus callosum correlates with cerebral white matter lesion volume and distribution in multiple sclerosis. Brain, 123,1845-1849. doi:10.1093/brain/123.9.1845.
  • Fox, N.C., Jenkins, R., Leary, S.M., Stevenson, V.L., Losseff, N.A., Crum, W.R., Harvey, R.J., Rossor, M.N., Miller, D.H., & Thompson, A.J. (2000). Progressive cerebral atrophy in MS: a serial study using registered, volumetric MRI. Neurology, 54(4), 807–12. doi:10.1212/wnl.54.4.807.
  • Gövsa Gökmen, F. (2003). Sistematik Anatomi. İzmir: Güven Kitabevi.
  • Haberland, C. (2007). Demyelinating Diseases. In: Clinical Neuropathology Text and Color Atlas (first ed.) (Percy, C. eds.) New York: Demos Medical Publishing.
  • Harder, L., Bobholz, J.A., & MacAllister, W.S. (2018). Multiple Sclerosis. In: Neuropsychological Conditions Across the Lifespan (Donders, J., & Hunter, S.J. eds.) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 228–243. doi:10.1017/9781316996751.013.
  • Kantarcı, O., & Wingerchuk, D. (2006). Epidemiology and natural history of multiple sclerosis: new insights. Curr Opin Neurol, 19(3),248–254. doi:10.1097/01.wco.0000227033.47458.82.
  • Kidd, P.M. (2001). Multiple sclerosis, an autoimmune inflammatory disease: prospects for its integrative management. Altern Med Rev, 6(6), 540-566.
  • Leray, E., Moreau, T., Fromont, A., & Edan, G. (2016). Epidemiology of multiple sclerosis. Revue Neurologique, 172, 3-13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neurol.2015.10.006.
  • Lin, X., Blumhardt, L.D., & Constantinescu, C.S. (2003). The relationship of brain and cervical cord volume to disability in clinical subtypes of multiple sclerosis: a three-dimensional MRI study. Acta Neurol Scand, 108, 401-406. doi: 10.1046/j.1600-0404.2003.00160.x.
  • Lublin, F.D., & Reingold, S.C. (1996). Defining the clinical course of multiple sclerosis: results of an international survey. Neurology, 46, 907–911.
  • Marrie, R.A. (2004). Environmental risk factors in multiple sclerosis aetiology. Lancet Neurol, 3(12), 709–718. doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(04)00933-0.
  • Mesaros, S., Rocca, M.A., Riccitelli, G., Pagani E, Rovaris M, Caputo D, Ghezzi A, Capra R, Bertolotto A, Comi G & Filippi M. (2009). Corpus callosum damage and cognitive dysfunction in benign MS. Hum Brain Mapp, 30(8), 2656-2666. doi:10.1002/hbm.20692.
  • Miller, J.R. (2000). Demyelinating diseases, multiple sclerosis. In: Merritt's Neurology. (10th ed.) (Merritt’s, H.H., & Rowland, P. eds.) Lippincott Williams- Wilkins Publishers.
  • Ozturk, A., Smith, S.A., Gordon-Lipkin, E.M., Harrison, D.M., Shiee, N., Pham, D.L., Caffo, B.S., Calabresi, P.A., & Reich, D.S. (2010). MRI of the corpus callosum in multiple sclerosis: association with disabiltiy. Multiple Sclerosis 16(2), 166-177. doi:10.1177/1352458509353649.
  • Pozzilli, C., Bastianello, S., Bozzao, A., Pierallini, A., Giubilei, F., Argentino, C., & Bozzao, L. (1994). No differences in corpus callosum size by sex and aging. A quantitative study usingmagnetic resonance imaging. J Neuroimaging, 4(4), 218-21. doi:10.1111/jon199444218.
  • Ramagopalan, S.V., Dobson, R., Meier, U.C., & Giovannoni, G. (2010). Multiple sclerosis: risk factors, prodromes, and potential casual pathway. Lancet Neurol, 9(7), 727-39. doi:10.1016/S1474-4422(10)70094-6.
  • Reich, D.S., Lucchinetti, C.F., & Calabresi, P.A., (2018). Multiple Sclerosis. N Engl J Med, 11;378(2), 169-180. doi: 10.1056/NEJMra1401483.
  • Riccitelli, G., Rocca, M.A., Pagani, E., Rodegher, M.E., Rossi, P., Falini, A., Comi, G., & Filippi, M. (2011). Cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis is associated to different patterns of gray matter atrophy according to clinical phenotype. Hum Brain Mapp, 32(10), 1535-1543. doi:10.1002/hbm.21125.
  • Rohkamm, R. (2004). Color Atlas of Neurology (2nd ed) Stuttgart: Thieme.
  • Sheremata, W., & Tornes, L. (2013). Multiple Sclerosis and the spinal cord. Neurol Clin, 31, 55–77. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ncl.2012.09.007.
  • Simon, J.H., Jacobs, L.D., Campion, M.K., Rudick, R.A., Cookfair, D.L., Herndon, R.M., Richert, J.R., Salazar, A.M., Fischer, J.S., Goodkin, D.E., Simonian, N., Lajaunie, M., Miller, D.E., Wende, K., Martens-Davidson, A., Kinkel, R.P., Munschauer, F.E. 3rd., & Brownscheidle, C.M. (1999). A longitudinal study of brain atrophy in relapsing multiple sclerosis. The Multiple Sclerosis Collaborative Research Group (MSCRG). Neurology, 53(1), 139–48. doi:10.1212/wnl.53.1.139.
  • Sünter, G., Kılınç, Ö., Berk, A., Akçabey, S., Saldüz, E., Öztürkçü, H., Günal, D.İ., & Agan, K. (2019). Restless Legs Syndrome/Willis-Ekbom Disease in Multiple Sclerosis Patients with Spinal Cord Lesions. Arch Neuropsychiatry. https://doi.org/10.29399/npa.23351.
  • Tench, C.R., Morgan, P.S., Jaspan, T., Auer, D.P., & Constantinescu, C.S. (2005). Spinal cord imaging in multiple sclerosis. J Neuroimaging, 15(4),94S–102S. doi:10.1177/1051228405283292.
  • Trapp, B.D., Peterson, J., Ransohoff, R.M., Rudick, R., Mörk, S., & Bö, L. (1998). Axonal transection in the lesions of multiple sclerosis. N Engl J Med, 338(5), 278-285. doi:10.1056/nejm199801293380502.
  • Ünal, A., Mavioğlu, H., Altunrende, B., Kale İçen, N., & Ergün, U. (2018). Multipl sklerozda tanı ve ayırıcı tanı. In: Multiple skleroz tanı ve tedavi kılavuzu (2018) (Efendi, H., & Yandım Kuşcu, D. eds.) İstanbul: Galenos yayınevi.
  • GBD 2016 Multiple Sclerosis Collaborators (Wallin, M.T., Culpepper, W.J., Nichols, E., Bhutta, Z.A., Gebrehiwot, T.T., Hay, S.I., Khalil, I.A., Krohn, K.J., Liang, X., Naghavi, M., Mokdad, A.H., Nixon, M.R., Reiner, R.C., Sartorius, B., Smith, M., Topor-Madry, R., Werdecker, A., Vos, T., Feigin, V.L., & Murray, C.J.L.) (2019). Global, regional and national burden of multiple sclerosis 1990-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016. Lancet Neurol, 18, 269–85. doi:10.1016/S1474-4422(18) 30443-5.
  • Yaldızlı, Ö., Penner, I.K., Frontzek, K., Naegelin, Y., Amann, M., Papadopoulou, A., Sprenger, T., Kuhle, J., Calabrese, P., Radü, E.W., Kappos, L., & Gass, A. (2014). The relationship between total and regional corpus callosum atrophy, cognitive impairment and fatigue in multiple sclerosis patients. Multiple Sclerosis Journal, 20(3), 356-364. doi:10.1177/1352458513496880.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Medicine
Journal Section Research Articles
Authors

Nihal GÜRLEK ÇELİK> (Primary Author)
KIRŞEHİR AHİ EVRAN ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-1204-2668
Türkiye


Saadet ERDEM>
ABANT İZZET BAYSAL ÜNİVERSİTESİ
Türkiye

Publication Date August 31, 2021
Application Date August 18, 2021
Acceptance Date August 29, 2021
Published in Issue Year 2021, Volume 3, Issue 2

Cite

APA Gürlek Çelik, N. & Erdem, S. (2021). EFFECT OF MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS ON BRAIN STRUCTURES . Sabuncuoglu Serefeddin Health Sciences , 3 (2) , 70-78 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/sshs/issue/64745/984436