Research Article
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An Investigation of the Relationship Between Speed-Based Verbal Reasoning Subtest of Anadolu-Sak Intelligence Scale and Perceptual Speed Tests

Year 2020, Volume 10, Issue 2, 129 - 142, 11.01.2021
https://doi.org/10.46893/talent.844308

Abstract

This research has two interrelated aims. The first aim of the research is to present the relationship between the Speed Based Verbal Reasoning (SBVR) subtest, which calculates reasoning speed by adjusting the Anadolu-Sak Intelligence Scale (ASIS) Verbal Reasoning (VR) subtest, and the CAS 2 intelligence scale and RIAS-2 intelligence scale speed subtests. The second aim of the research is to examine the reliability of the SBVR subtest, the item-total correlations and its relationship to the ASIS index scores. The research employed a correlational survey model and the study sample consisted of 211 students aged 6 to 7. The reliability of the SBVR subtest was found to be high (α =.84). However, we found that there is a small level relationship between SBVR and speed variables (rHDSAM-SPS =-.16, rHDSAM-PNM =.18, rHDSAM-ND =.21 and rHDSAM-SNT =.20), a moderate level (r =.35) relationship with the memory capacity index, and a moderate level (r=.31) and significant relationship with the nonverbal potential index. The research demonstrates the discrepancy between the reasoning speed and the perceptual speed.

References

  • Bademci, V. (2011). Kuder-Richardson 20, Cronbach’ın alfası, Hoyt’un varyans analizi, genellenirlik kuramı ve ölçüm güvenirliği üzerine bir çalışma. Dicle Üniversitesi Ziya Gökalp Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 17, 173-193.
  • Ball, K. K., and Vance, D. E. (2008). Everyday life applications and rehabilition of processing speed deficits: Aging as a model for clinical populations. In J. DeLuca and J. H. Kalmar (Eds.), Information processing speed in clinical populations (pp. 243-258). Taylor and Francis.
  • Büyüköztürk, Ş., Kılıç Çakmak, E., Akgün, Ö.E., Karadeniz, Ş. ve Demirel F. (2016). Bilimsel araştırma yöntemleri (20. Baskı). Pegem Akademi.
  • Çakmur, H. (2012). Araştırmalarda ölçme-güvenilirlik-geçerlilik. TAF Preventive Medicine Bulletin, 11(3), 339-344.
  • Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd edition). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  • Crocker, L., and Algina, J. (2006). Introduction to classical and modern test theory. Wadsworth.
  • Dehn, M. J. (2014). Essentials of processing assessment (2nd edition). John Wiley and Sons.
  • Deluca, J., and Chiaravalloti, N. D. (2004). Memory and learning in adults. In G. Goldstein, S. R. Beers and M. Hersen (Eds.), Comprehensive handbook of psychological assessment: Intellectual and neuropsychological assessment (Vol:1, pp. 217 -236). John Wiley and Sons.
  • Diedenhofen, B., and Musch, J. (2015). Cocor: A comprehensive solution for the statistical comparison of correlations. PLoS ONE, 10(4), 1-12.
  • Ekstrom, R. B., French, J. W., Harman, H. H. and Dermen, D. (1976). Manual for Kit of Factor-Referenced Cognitive Tests. Educational Testing Service.
  • Erkuş, A. (2012). Psikolojide ölçme ve ölçek geliştirme. Pegem Akademi Yayınları.
  • Flanagan, D. P., and Alfonso, V. C. (2017). Essentials of WISC-V assessment. John Wiley & Sons.
  • Floyd, R. G., McGrew, K. S., and Evans, J. J. (2008). The relative contributions of the Cattell-Horn-Carroll cognitive abilities in explaining writing achievement during childhood and adolescence. Psychology in the Schools, 45(2), 132-144.
  • Ford, D. Y. (2004). Intelligence testing and cultural diversity: Concerns, cautions and considerations. University of Connecticut.
  • Fry, A. F., and Hale, S. (2000). Relationships among processing speed, working memory, and fluid intelligence in children. Biological Psychology, 54(1-3), 1-34.
  • Gardner, M.F. (1993). Test of auditory reasoning and processing skills (manuel). Academic Therapy Publication.
  • George, D., and Mallery, P. (2010). SPSS for Windows step by step: A simple guide and reference, 17.0 update (10th Edition). Pearson.
  • Goldhammer, F., and Entink, R. H. K. (2011). Speed of reasoning and its relation to reasoning ability. Intelligence, 39(2-3), 108-119.
  • Kail, R. V. (2008). Speed of processing in childhood and adolescence: Nature, consequences, and implications for understanding atypical development. In J. DeLuca and J. H. Kalmar (Eds.), Information processing speed in clinical populations (pp. 101-123). Taylor and Francis.
  • Kail, R., and Salthouse, T. A. (1994). Processing speed as a mental capacity. Acta Psychologica, 86(2-3), 199–225.
  • Karakoç, A. ve Dönmez, P. (2014). Ölçek geliştirme çalışmalarında temel ilkeler. Tıp Eğitimi Dünyası. 40(13), 39-49.
  • Koğar, H. (2018). Examining invariant item ordering using mokken scale analysis for polytomously scored items. Journal of Measurement and Evaluation in Education and Psychology, 9(4), 312-325.
  • Kyllonen, P. C., and Zu, J. (2016). Use of response time for measuring cognitive ability. Journal of Intelligence, 4(4), 14-42.
  • Moll, K., Göbel, S. M., Gooch, D., Landerl, K., and Snowling, M. J. (2016). Cognitive risk factors for specific learning disorder: Processing speed, temporal processing, and working memory. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 49(3), 272-281.
  • Naglieri, J. A., Das, J. P., and Goldstein, S. (2014). Cognitive assessment system second edition interpretive and technical manual. Pro-ed Inc.
  • Pallant, J. (2005). SPSS survival guide: A step by step guide to data analysis using SPSS for Windows (3rd edition). Open University Press.
  • Reynolds, C. R., and Kamphaus, R. W. (2015). Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales- 2nd edition. Psychological Assessment Resources.
  • Sak, U., Ayas, B., Bal-Sezerel, B., Tokmak, F., Özdemir, N. N., Demirel-Gürbüz, Ş. ve Öpengin, E. (2016). Anadolu-Sak zekâ ölçeği: ASİS uygulayıcı kitabı. Anadolu Üniversitesi ÜYEP Merkezi.
  • Salthouse, T. A. (2000). Aging and measures of processing speed. Biological Psychology, 54(1- 3), 35–54.
  • Schrank, F. A., McGrew, K. S., and Mather, N. (2014). Woodcock-Johnson IV tests of cognitive abilities. Riverside.
  • Schneider, W. J., and McGrew, K. S. (2018). The Cattell-Horn-Carroll theory of cognitive abilities. In D. P. Flanagan and E. M. McDonough (Eds.), Contemporary intellectual assessment: Theories, tests, and issues (4th edition, pp.73-163). Guilford Press.
  • Schubert, A.-L., Hagemann, D., Voss, A., Schankin, A., and Bergmann, K. (2015). Decomposing the relationship between mental speed and mental abilities. Intelligence, 51, 28–46.
  • Özdamar, K. (2004). Paket programlar ile istatistiksel veri analizi. Kaan Kitabevi.
  • Tulsky, D. S., and O'Brien, A. R. (2008). The history of processing speed and its relationship to intelligence. In J. DeLuca and J. H. Kalmar (Eds.), Information processing speed in clinical populations (pp. 1-28). Taylor and Francis.
  • Vukovic, R. K., and Siegel, L. S. (2010). Academic and cognitive characteristics of persistent mathematics difficulty from first through fourth grade. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 25(1), 25-38.
  • Wechsler, D. (1991). Wechsler intelligence scale for children manual (3rd edition). The Psychological Corporation.
  • Wechsler, D. (2014). Wechsler intelligence scale for children (5th edition, WISC-VCDN). Pearson.
  • Wilhelm, O., and Schulze, R. (2002). The relation of speeded and unspeeded reasoning with mental speed. Intelligence, 30(6), 537-554.

Year 2020, Volume 10, Issue 2, 129 - 142, 11.01.2021
https://doi.org/10.46893/talent.844308

Abstract

Bu çalışma birbiri ile bağlantılı iki amaca hizmet etmektedir. Araştırmanın ilk amacı, Anadolu-Sak Zekâ Ölçeği (ASİS) Sözel Analojik Muhakeme (SAM) alt testi puanlama yönteminin değiştirilmesiyle oluşturulan ve muhakeme hızını ölçen HDSAM alt testi ile CAS 2 zekâ ölçeği ve RIAS-2 zekâ ölçeğinin algı hızını ölçen alt testleri arasındaki ilişkiyi ortaya koymaktır. Araştırmanın ikinci amacı, HDSAM alt testinin güvenirliğini, madde-toplam korelasyonunu ve ASİS endeks puanlarıyla olan ilişkisini incelemektir. Araştırma ilişkisel tarama modeliyle desenlenmiş ve araştırmanın örneklemini 6 ile 7 yaş arasındaki 211 öğrenci oluşturmuştur. Araştırma bulgularına göre HDSAM alt testinin güvenirliğinin yüksek (α=.84) olduğu görülmüştür. Diğer taraftan HDSAM ile hız değişkenleri arasında küçük (rHDSAM-SPS=-.16, rHDSAM-PNM=.18, rHDSAM-ND=.21 ve rHDSAM-SNT=.20), bellek kapasitesi endeksi ile orta (r=.35), görsel potansiyel endeksi ile orta (r=.31) düzeyde anlamlı ilişki olduğu bulunmuştur. Sonuç olarak araştırma, muhakeme hızıyla algı hızının farklılaştığını literatürdeki korelasyon araştırmaları çerçevesinde desteklemektedir.

References

  • Bademci, V. (2011). Kuder-Richardson 20, Cronbach’ın alfası, Hoyt’un varyans analizi, genellenirlik kuramı ve ölçüm güvenirliği üzerine bir çalışma. Dicle Üniversitesi Ziya Gökalp Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 17, 173-193.
  • Ball, K. K., and Vance, D. E. (2008). Everyday life applications and rehabilition of processing speed deficits: Aging as a model for clinical populations. In J. DeLuca and J. H. Kalmar (Eds.), Information processing speed in clinical populations (pp. 243-258). Taylor and Francis.
  • Büyüköztürk, Ş., Kılıç Çakmak, E., Akgün, Ö.E., Karadeniz, Ş. ve Demirel F. (2016). Bilimsel araştırma yöntemleri (20. Baskı). Pegem Akademi.
  • Çakmur, H. (2012). Araştırmalarda ölçme-güvenilirlik-geçerlilik. TAF Preventive Medicine Bulletin, 11(3), 339-344.
  • Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd edition). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  • Crocker, L., and Algina, J. (2006). Introduction to classical and modern test theory. Wadsworth.
  • Dehn, M. J. (2014). Essentials of processing assessment (2nd edition). John Wiley and Sons.
  • Deluca, J., and Chiaravalloti, N. D. (2004). Memory and learning in adults. In G. Goldstein, S. R. Beers and M. Hersen (Eds.), Comprehensive handbook of psychological assessment: Intellectual and neuropsychological assessment (Vol:1, pp. 217 -236). John Wiley and Sons.
  • Diedenhofen, B., and Musch, J. (2015). Cocor: A comprehensive solution for the statistical comparison of correlations. PLoS ONE, 10(4), 1-12.
  • Ekstrom, R. B., French, J. W., Harman, H. H. and Dermen, D. (1976). Manual for Kit of Factor-Referenced Cognitive Tests. Educational Testing Service.
  • Erkuş, A. (2012). Psikolojide ölçme ve ölçek geliştirme. Pegem Akademi Yayınları.
  • Flanagan, D. P., and Alfonso, V. C. (2017). Essentials of WISC-V assessment. John Wiley & Sons.
  • Floyd, R. G., McGrew, K. S., and Evans, J. J. (2008). The relative contributions of the Cattell-Horn-Carroll cognitive abilities in explaining writing achievement during childhood and adolescence. Psychology in the Schools, 45(2), 132-144.
  • Ford, D. Y. (2004). Intelligence testing and cultural diversity: Concerns, cautions and considerations. University of Connecticut.
  • Fry, A. F., and Hale, S. (2000). Relationships among processing speed, working memory, and fluid intelligence in children. Biological Psychology, 54(1-3), 1-34.
  • Gardner, M.F. (1993). Test of auditory reasoning and processing skills (manuel). Academic Therapy Publication.
  • George, D., and Mallery, P. (2010). SPSS for Windows step by step: A simple guide and reference, 17.0 update (10th Edition). Pearson.
  • Goldhammer, F., and Entink, R. H. K. (2011). Speed of reasoning and its relation to reasoning ability. Intelligence, 39(2-3), 108-119.
  • Kail, R. V. (2008). Speed of processing in childhood and adolescence: Nature, consequences, and implications for understanding atypical development. In J. DeLuca and J. H. Kalmar (Eds.), Information processing speed in clinical populations (pp. 101-123). Taylor and Francis.
  • Kail, R., and Salthouse, T. A. (1994). Processing speed as a mental capacity. Acta Psychologica, 86(2-3), 199–225.
  • Karakoç, A. ve Dönmez, P. (2014). Ölçek geliştirme çalışmalarında temel ilkeler. Tıp Eğitimi Dünyası. 40(13), 39-49.
  • Koğar, H. (2018). Examining invariant item ordering using mokken scale analysis for polytomously scored items. Journal of Measurement and Evaluation in Education and Psychology, 9(4), 312-325.
  • Kyllonen, P. C., and Zu, J. (2016). Use of response time for measuring cognitive ability. Journal of Intelligence, 4(4), 14-42.
  • Moll, K., Göbel, S. M., Gooch, D., Landerl, K., and Snowling, M. J. (2016). Cognitive risk factors for specific learning disorder: Processing speed, temporal processing, and working memory. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 49(3), 272-281.
  • Naglieri, J. A., Das, J. P., and Goldstein, S. (2014). Cognitive assessment system second edition interpretive and technical manual. Pro-ed Inc.
  • Pallant, J. (2005). SPSS survival guide: A step by step guide to data analysis using SPSS for Windows (3rd edition). Open University Press.
  • Reynolds, C. R., and Kamphaus, R. W. (2015). Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales- 2nd edition. Psychological Assessment Resources.
  • Sak, U., Ayas, B., Bal-Sezerel, B., Tokmak, F., Özdemir, N. N., Demirel-Gürbüz, Ş. ve Öpengin, E. (2016). Anadolu-Sak zekâ ölçeği: ASİS uygulayıcı kitabı. Anadolu Üniversitesi ÜYEP Merkezi.
  • Salthouse, T. A. (2000). Aging and measures of processing speed. Biological Psychology, 54(1- 3), 35–54.
  • Schrank, F. A., McGrew, K. S., and Mather, N. (2014). Woodcock-Johnson IV tests of cognitive abilities. Riverside.
  • Schneider, W. J., and McGrew, K. S. (2018). The Cattell-Horn-Carroll theory of cognitive abilities. In D. P. Flanagan and E. M. McDonough (Eds.), Contemporary intellectual assessment: Theories, tests, and issues (4th edition, pp.73-163). Guilford Press.
  • Schubert, A.-L., Hagemann, D., Voss, A., Schankin, A., and Bergmann, K. (2015). Decomposing the relationship between mental speed and mental abilities. Intelligence, 51, 28–46.
  • Özdamar, K. (2004). Paket programlar ile istatistiksel veri analizi. Kaan Kitabevi.
  • Tulsky, D. S., and O'Brien, A. R. (2008). The history of processing speed and its relationship to intelligence. In J. DeLuca and J. H. Kalmar (Eds.), Information processing speed in clinical populations (pp. 1-28). Taylor and Francis.
  • Vukovic, R. K., and Siegel, L. S. (2010). Academic and cognitive characteristics of persistent mathematics difficulty from first through fourth grade. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 25(1), 25-38.
  • Wechsler, D. (1991). Wechsler intelligence scale for children manual (3rd edition). The Psychological Corporation.
  • Wechsler, D. (2014). Wechsler intelligence scale for children (5th edition, WISC-VCDN). Pearson.
  • Wilhelm, O., and Schulze, R. (2002). The relation of speeded and unspeeded reasoning with mental speed. Intelligence, 30(6), 537-554.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Education, Special
Journal Section Research Articles
Authors

Saadet KILIÇARSLAN> (Primary Author)
ANADOLU ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0003-0307-6740
Türkiye


Bilge BAL SEZEREL>
ANADOLU ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0001-7262-3563
Türkiye


Uğur SAK>
ANADOLU ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0001-6312-5239
Türkiye

Publication Date January 11, 2021
Application Date December 21, 2020
Acceptance Date January 7, 2021
Published in Issue Year 2020, Volume 10, Issue 2

Cite

APA Kılıçarslan, S. , Bal Sezerel, B. & Sak, U. (2021). An Investigation of the Relationship Between Speed-Based Verbal Reasoning Subtest of Anadolu-Sak Intelligence Scale and Perceptual Speed Tests . Talent , 10 (2) , 129-142 . DOI: 10.46893/talent.844308