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Türkiye-Rusya İlişkilerini Yeniden Düşünmek: Uçak Krizinin Bir Analizi

Year 2021, Volume 8, Issue 2, 429 - 457, 30.07.2021
https://doi.org/10.30626/tesamakademi.949060

Abstract

Türkiye ile Rusya arasındaki ilişki her zaman çatışma, işbirliği ve rekabet ile karakterize edilmiştir. Vladimir Putin'in Rusya'da yükselişi ve 2000'li yıllarda Türkiye'de Adalet ve Kalkınma Partisi'nin iktidara gelmesi, iki ülke arasında işbirliğinin artmasına ve ilişkilerde olumlu bir değişime işaret etti. Bu makale, ilişkilerini sarsan Kasım 2015 uçak krizinin, Suriye üzerindeki jeopolitik farklılıklarına yoğunlaştığını ortaya koyuyor. Türk hava sahasını ihlal eden askeri jetlerin vurulmasını izleyen reaktivist Rus yaptırımları, Rusya'nın Türkiye'ye karşı ekonomik ve askeri avantajını keşfetmeyi sağladı. Cumhurbaşkanı Erdoğan'ın, düşen uçağın ardından Putin'e gönderdiği mektup, ilişkileri onarmaya yarayan bir dizi yakınlaşma başlattı. Buna rağmen, Türkiye, Orta Doğu politikasında stratejik bir güç ve dengeleyici unsur olarak kendini ispatlamak için esnek kalmalı, bu krizden güçlü bir ders çıkarmalı ve ihracat yollarını ve enerji ihtiyaçlarını Rusya'dan ziyade diğer ülkelerden de karşılamalı.

References

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  • Erşen, E. (2017b). The Turkish Russian dialogue in Syria: Prospects and challenges. AL SHARQ FORUM, 5–10.
  • Fuelling, C. (2017). To the brink : Turkish and Cuban missiles during the height of the Cold War. International Social Science Review, 93(1).
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  • Hurriyet. (2015a). Russia’s Lavrov cancels Turkish trip after jet downing’. https://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/russias-lavrov-cancels-turkey-trip-after-jet-downing-91604
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  • Hurriyet. (2016). Story of secret diplomacy that ended the Russia-Turkey jet crisis. https://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/opinion/murat-yetkin/story-of-secret-diplomacy-that-ended-russia-turkey-jet-crisis-102629
  • Hurriyet. (2017, May 22). Turkey Russia sign deal to remove trade barriers. https://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/turkey-russia-sign-deal-to-remove-trade-barriers-113402
  • Hürriyet. (2015, November 28). Turkey “saddened” about Russian jet’s downing. https://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/turkey-saddened-about-russian-jets-downing-erdogan-says-91807
  • ICG. (2020). Getting from ceasefire to peace in Nagorno-Karabakh. November, 1–5. https://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/Getting from Ceasefire to Peace in Nagorno-Karabakh _ Crisis Group.pdf
  • Isachenko, D. (2020). Turkey–Russia partnership in the war over Nagorno-Karabakh: Militarized peacebuilding with implicaitons for conflict transformation. The Centre for Applied Turkey Studies, 53, 1–4.
  • Jagar, J. (2016). Turkey’s operation euphrates shield: An exemplar of joint combined arms maneuver. Small Wars Journal. https://smallwarsjournal.com/jrnl/recent
  • Jovanovic, M. (2020). Moscow-Ankara-Tehran: A Tripartitite tactical alliance in the Syrian crisis. Central Asia and the Caucasus, 21(1), 563–563. https://doi.org/10.4337/9781785368998.00040
  • Kakışım, C. (2019). Racism in Russia and its effects on the caucasian. Turkish Journal of TESAM Academy, 6(1), 97–121.
  • Köni, H. (2015). Jeopolitik oyunlar: Ermenistan, Türkiye ve büyük güçler. TESAM Akademi Dergisi, 2(1), 245–253.
  • MailOnline. (2015, November 24). Russian Pilots Shot Dead after Turkey Shot Plane Down Near Syria. Mail Online. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-3331558/Turkey-shoots-fighter-jet-Syrian-border-Local-media-footage-flaming-plane-crashing-trees.html
  • Mammadov, R. (2020). Turkey makes strides in diversifying its natural gas imports. Eurasia Daily Monitor. https://jamestown.org/program/turkey-makes-strides-in-diversifying-its-natural-gas-imports/
  • Mearsheimer, J. (2001). The tragedy of great power politics (Vol. 1). Norton and Company.
  • Moon, A. (1963). A look at airspace sovereignty. Journal of Air Law and Commerce, 29, 330–335.
  • Morkva, S. K. and V. (2007). An anatomy of Turkish–Russian relations. Southeast European and Black Sea Studies, 7(4), 533–553.
  • Odontan, G. (2012). Sovereignty and jurisdiction in airspace and outer space: Legal criteria for spatial delimitation. Routledge.
  • Öniş Ziya, and Yilmaz, Ş. (2015). Turkey and Russia in a global shifting order: Cooperation, conflict and asymmetric interdependence in a turbulent region. Third World Quarterly, 37(1), 4–6.
  • Orhan, M. (2014). Transborder violence: The PKK in Turkey, Syria and Iraq. Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict, 7(1), 30–48.
  • Özel, Soi. (2016). The crisis in Turkish-Russian relations. Center for American Progress, 2–8. https://cdn.americanprogress.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/06105046/TurkishEssay-Ozel.pdf
  • Özel, Soli and Uçar, G. (2019). The economics of Turkey-Russia relations. Centre for Economics and Foreign Policy Studies, 10(July).
  • Ozertem, H. S. (2017). Turkey and Russia: A fragile friendship. Turkish Policy Quarterly, 5(4), 121–134.
  • Pirinççi, F. (2018). Suri̇ye’ye komşu ülkeleri̇n suri̇yeli̇ mülteci̇lere yöneli̇k poli̇ti̇kalari. TESAM Akademi Dergisi, 5(2), 39–60.
  • Rüma, İ. and Çelikpala, M. (2019). Russian and Turkish foreign policy activism in the Syrian theater. Uluslararasi Iliskiler, 16(62), 65–84. https://doi.org/10.33458/uidergisi.588930
  • Şimşek, N., Şimşek, H. A. and Zhanaltay, Z. (2017). Analysis of bilateral trade relations between Turkey and Russia Federation. Bilig, 83(83), 1–26.
  • Şuhnaz, Y. (2012). Turkey’s quest for NATO membership: Institutionalization of the Turkish–American alliance. Southeast European and Black Sea Studies, 12(4), 481–495.
  • Therme, C. (2018). Russia, Iran and Turkey: Between shared historical experiences and contextual understanding. Hérodote, 169, 27–39.
  • Thomas, J. Z. and C. (2020). Turkey : Background and U .S relations. Congressional Research Service, 53. https://crsreports.congress.gov
  • Uslu, A. and Akay, B. (2019). Assessing the effect of international relations on tourism demand in the context of Turkey-Russia aircraft crisis. Journal of Tourism and Services, 10(18), 63–78. https://doi.org/10.29036/jots.v10i18.84
  • Yılmaz, M. E. (2018). The rise of ethnic nationalism, intra-state conflicts and conflict resolution. Turkish Journal of TESAM Academy, 5(1), 11–33. http://dergipark.gov.tr/doi/10.30626/tesamakademi.393051
  • Ziya, Ö. (2012). Turkey and the Arab: Between ethics and self interest. Insight Turkey, 14(3), 46–50.

Reimagining Turkey-Russia Relations: An Analysis Of The Plane Crisis

Year 2021, Volume 8, Issue 2, 429 - 457, 30.07.2021
https://doi.org/10.30626/tesamakademi.949060

Abstract

Turkey and Russia's relationship has often been characterized by conflict, cooperation, and competition. The rise of Vladimir Putin in Russia and the coming into power of the Justice and Development Party in Turkey in the 2000s signaled a positive shift in relations as cooperation increased. The paper reveals that the November 2015 plane crisis, which rocked their tie, was intensified by differences in their geopolitical outlook over Syria. The reactivist Russian sanctions that followed the shooting of their military jet that violated Turkish airspace indicated how Russia could exploit its economic and military comparative advantage over Turkey. President Erdoğan's letter to Putin over the downed plane opened up a rapprochement that has served to mend bilateral relations. Despite the normalization of relations, Turkey must draw a vital lesson from this crisis and diversify its export routes and energy needs from Russia if it must remain resilient to assert itself as a strategic regional power and balancer in Middle East politics.

References

  • Abilov, S. (2018). Osce minsk group: Proposals and failure, the view from Azerbaijan. Insight Turkey, 20(1), 143–163. https://doi.org/10.25253/99.2018201.09
  • Aktürk, Ş. (2019). Relations between Russia and Turkey before, during, and after the failed coup of 2016. Insight Turkey, 21(4), 97–113. https://doi.org/10.25253/99.2019214.06
  • Aljazeera. (2015, November 25). Analysis: Downing of Russian get hardly a surprise. http://www.aljazeera.com/news/2015/11/analysis-turkey-downing-russian-jet-151124163107795.html
  • Aviation. (2015). Russian public’s opinion of Turkey hits rock bottom after Su-24 incident. https://www.ruaviation.com/news/2015/12/4/4183/
  • Aviationist. (2013, June 13). Finland’s airspace violated by Russian bombers. https://theaviationist.com/2013/06/13/finland-tu-22/
  • Balcer, A. (2015). Between appeasement and rivalry: Turkey and Russia and their neighborhoods. https://www.files.ethz.ch/isn/190999/gte_c_22.pdf
  • Bayram, S. E. and S. (2018). Turkish foreign and economic policy between 1950 and 1975. Journal of International Social Research, 11(61), 264–272. https://doi.org/10.17719/jisr.2018.2917
  • BBC. (2015). Turkey’s downing of Russian warplane: What we know’,. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-34912581
  • Bilgin, P. (2007). Only strong states can survive in Turkey’s geography: The uses of geopolitical truths in Turkey. Political Geography, 27(7), 740–756.
  • Birinci, M. (2021). Firm signs deal to produce Sputnik V vaccine in Turkey. Anadolu Agency. https://www.aa.com.tr/en/world/firm-signs-deal-to-produce-sputnik-v-vaccine-in-turkey/2122770
  • Çelikpala, E. B. and M. (2020). Turkey and Russia: Historical patterns and contemporary trends in bilateral relations. The Oxford Handbook of Turkish Politics, July, 1–20. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780190064891.013.12
  • Çelikpala, M. (2019). Viewing present as history : The state and future of Turkey-Russia relations. Centre for Economics and Foreign Policy Studies, 6(April).
  • Demir, S. (2016). Turkey’s foreign policy and security perspectives in the 21st century. Brown Walker Press.
  • Denise, M. B. (2008). Proclaiming the truman doctrine: The cold war call to arms. A&M University Press.
  • Digest, R. T. (2020). Turkey lost almost 5 million Russian tourists for 11 months of 2020. https://russtd.com/turkey-lost-almost-5-million-russian-tourists-for-11-months-of-2020.html
  • Ellyat, H. (2015). Russian and Turkish ministers to meet over downed jet. http://www.cnbc.com/2015/11/25/turkey-shot-down-russian-jet-in-syrian-airspace-source.html
  • Erşen, E. (2017a). Evaluating the fighter jet crisis in Turkish-Russian relations. Insight Turkey, 19(4), 85–193. https://doi.org/10.25253/99.2017194.06
  • Erşen, E. (2017b). The Turkish Russian dialogue in Syria: Prospects and challenges. AL SHARQ FORUM, 5–10.
  • Fuelling, C. (2017). To the brink : Turkish and Cuban missiles during the height of the Cold War. International Social Science Review, 93(1).
  • Gotkowska, J. (2013). Sweden’s reaction to a simulated Russian attack’. https://www.osw.waw.pl/en/publikacje/analyses/2013-04-24/swedens-reaction-to-a-simulated-russian-attack,
  • Guardian. (2015a, November 24). Is Putin right to label Turkey accomplices of terrorists? https://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/nov/24/vladimir-putin-turkey-isis-terrorists-warplane-analysis
  • Guardian. (2015b, November 24). Putin condemns Turkey after the Russian warplane downed near the Syria border. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/nov/24/turkey-shoots-down-jet-near-border-with-syria
  • Guardian. (2016, March 14). Russia’s military action in Syria-timeline. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/mar/14/russias-military-action-in-syria-timeline
  • HAARETZ. (2015). Russia levels economic sanctions against Turkey following down war plane. http://www.haaretz.com/world-news/1.688881
  • Haddad, B. (2015). Disrupting the chessboard: Perspectives of Russian intervention in Syria.
  • Hazar, N. (2009). The Future of Turkish- Russin Relations: A Strategic Prespective. Turkish Policy Quaterly, 8(1), 77–87.
  • Hurriyet. (2015a). Russia’s Lavrov cancels Turkish trip after jet downing’. https://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/russias-lavrov-cancels-turkey-trip-after-jet-downing-91604
  • Hurriyet. (2015b, December 7). Turkish economy risk losing 9 billion dollars over russia crisis. https://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/turkish-economy-risks-losing-9-billion-over-russia-crisis-deputy-pm-92187
  • Hurriyet. (2016). Story of secret diplomacy that ended the Russia-Turkey jet crisis. https://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/opinion/murat-yetkin/story-of-secret-diplomacy-that-ended-russia-turkey-jet-crisis-102629
  • Hurriyet. (2017, May 22). Turkey Russia sign deal to remove trade barriers. https://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/turkey-russia-sign-deal-to-remove-trade-barriers-113402
  • Hürriyet. (2015, November 28). Turkey “saddened” about Russian jet’s downing. https://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/turkey-saddened-about-russian-jets-downing-erdogan-says-91807
  • ICG. (2020). Getting from ceasefire to peace in Nagorno-Karabakh. November, 1–5. https://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/Getting from Ceasefire to Peace in Nagorno-Karabakh _ Crisis Group.pdf
  • Isachenko, D. (2020). Turkey–Russia partnership in the war over Nagorno-Karabakh: Militarized peacebuilding with implicaitons for conflict transformation. The Centre for Applied Turkey Studies, 53, 1–4.
  • Jagar, J. (2016). Turkey’s operation euphrates shield: An exemplar of joint combined arms maneuver. Small Wars Journal. https://smallwarsjournal.com/jrnl/recent
  • Jovanovic, M. (2020). Moscow-Ankara-Tehran: A Tripartitite tactical alliance in the Syrian crisis. Central Asia and the Caucasus, 21(1), 563–563. https://doi.org/10.4337/9781785368998.00040
  • Kakışım, C. (2019). Racism in Russia and its effects on the caucasian. Turkish Journal of TESAM Academy, 6(1), 97–121.
  • Köni, H. (2015). Jeopolitik oyunlar: Ermenistan, Türkiye ve büyük güçler. TESAM Akademi Dergisi, 2(1), 245–253.
  • MailOnline. (2015, November 24). Russian Pilots Shot Dead after Turkey Shot Plane Down Near Syria. Mail Online. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-3331558/Turkey-shoots-fighter-jet-Syrian-border-Local-media-footage-flaming-plane-crashing-trees.html
  • Mammadov, R. (2020). Turkey makes strides in diversifying its natural gas imports. Eurasia Daily Monitor. https://jamestown.org/program/turkey-makes-strides-in-diversifying-its-natural-gas-imports/
  • Mearsheimer, J. (2001). The tragedy of great power politics (Vol. 1). Norton and Company.
  • Moon, A. (1963). A look at airspace sovereignty. Journal of Air Law and Commerce, 29, 330–335.
  • Morkva, S. K. and V. (2007). An anatomy of Turkish–Russian relations. Southeast European and Black Sea Studies, 7(4), 533–553.
  • Odontan, G. (2012). Sovereignty and jurisdiction in airspace and outer space: Legal criteria for spatial delimitation. Routledge.
  • Öniş Ziya, and Yilmaz, Ş. (2015). Turkey and Russia in a global shifting order: Cooperation, conflict and asymmetric interdependence in a turbulent region. Third World Quarterly, 37(1), 4–6.
  • Orhan, M. (2014). Transborder violence: The PKK in Turkey, Syria and Iraq. Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict, 7(1), 30–48.
  • Özel, Soi. (2016). The crisis in Turkish-Russian relations. Center for American Progress, 2–8. https://cdn.americanprogress.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/06105046/TurkishEssay-Ozel.pdf
  • Özel, Soli and Uçar, G. (2019). The economics of Turkey-Russia relations. Centre for Economics and Foreign Policy Studies, 10(July).
  • Ozertem, H. S. (2017). Turkey and Russia: A fragile friendship. Turkish Policy Quarterly, 5(4), 121–134.
  • Pirinççi, F. (2018). Suri̇ye’ye komşu ülkeleri̇n suri̇yeli̇ mülteci̇lere yöneli̇k poli̇ti̇kalari. TESAM Akademi Dergisi, 5(2), 39–60.
  • Rüma, İ. and Çelikpala, M. (2019). Russian and Turkish foreign policy activism in the Syrian theater. Uluslararasi Iliskiler, 16(62), 65–84. https://doi.org/10.33458/uidergisi.588930
  • Şimşek, N., Şimşek, H. A. and Zhanaltay, Z. (2017). Analysis of bilateral trade relations between Turkey and Russia Federation. Bilig, 83(83), 1–26.
  • Şuhnaz, Y. (2012). Turkey’s quest for NATO membership: Institutionalization of the Turkish–American alliance. Southeast European and Black Sea Studies, 12(4), 481–495.
  • Therme, C. (2018). Russia, Iran and Turkey: Between shared historical experiences and contextual understanding. Hérodote, 169, 27–39.
  • Thomas, J. Z. and C. (2020). Turkey : Background and U .S relations. Congressional Research Service, 53. https://crsreports.congress.gov
  • Uslu, A. and Akay, B. (2019). Assessing the effect of international relations on tourism demand in the context of Turkey-Russia aircraft crisis. Journal of Tourism and Services, 10(18), 63–78. https://doi.org/10.29036/jots.v10i18.84
  • Yılmaz, M. E. (2018). The rise of ethnic nationalism, intra-state conflicts and conflict resolution. Turkish Journal of TESAM Academy, 5(1), 11–33. http://dergipark.gov.tr/doi/10.30626/tesamakademi.393051
  • Ziya, Ö. (2012). Turkey and the Arab: Between ethics and self interest. Insight Turkey, 14(3), 46–50.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Social
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Ndzamangwi Isidore AGHA This is me
BURSA ULUDAG UNIVERSITY, FACULTY OF ECONOMICS AND ADMINISTRATIVE SCIENCES
0000-0003-2563-4790
Türkiye

Publication Date July 30, 2021
Published in Issue Year 2021, Volume 8, Issue 2

Cite

Bibtex @research article { tesamakademi949060, journal = {TESAM Akademi Dergisi}, issn = {2148-2462}, eissn = {2458-9217}, address = {}, publisher = {TESAM Ekonomik Siyasal ve Stratejik Araştırmalar Merkezi Derneği}, year = {2021}, volume = {8}, pages = {429 - 457}, doi = {10.30626/tesamakademi.949060}, title = {Reimagining Turkey-Russia Relations: An Analysis Of The Plane Crisis}, key = {cite}, author = {Agha, Ndzamangwi Isidore} }
APA Agha, N. I. (2021). Reimagining Turkey-Russia Relations: An Analysis Of The Plane Crisis . TESAM Akademi Dergisi , 8 (2) , 429-457 . DOI: 10.30626/tesamakademi.949060
MLA Agha, N. I. "Reimagining Turkey-Russia Relations: An Analysis Of The Plane Crisis" . TESAM Akademi Dergisi 8 (2021 ): 429-457 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/tesamakademi/issue/64331/949060>
Chicago Agha, N. I. "Reimagining Turkey-Russia Relations: An Analysis Of The Plane Crisis". TESAM Akademi Dergisi 8 (2021 ): 429-457
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Reimagining Turkey-Russia Relations: An Analysis Of The Plane Crisis AU - Ndzamangwi Isidore Agha Y1 - 2021 PY - 2021 N1 - doi: 10.30626/tesamakademi.949060 DO - 10.30626/tesamakademi.949060 T2 - TESAM Akademi Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 429 EP - 457 VL - 8 IS - 2 SN - 2148-2462-2458-9217 M3 - doi: 10.30626/tesamakademi.949060 UR - https://doi.org/10.30626/tesamakademi.949060 Y2 - 2021 ER -
EndNote %0 Journal of TESAM Akademy Reimagining Turkey-Russia Relations: An Analysis Of The Plane Crisis %A Ndzamangwi Isidore Agha %T Reimagining Turkey-Russia Relations: An Analysis Of The Plane Crisis %D 2021 %J TESAM Akademi Dergisi %P 2148-2462-2458-9217 %V 8 %N 2 %R doi: 10.30626/tesamakademi.949060 %U 10.30626/tesamakademi.949060
ISNAD Agha, Ndzamangwi Isidore . "Reimagining Turkey-Russia Relations: An Analysis Of The Plane Crisis". TESAM Akademi Dergisi 8 / 2 (July 2021): 429-457 . https://doi.org/10.30626/tesamakademi.949060
AMA Agha N. I. Reimagining Turkey-Russia Relations: An Analysis Of The Plane Crisis. TESAM Akademi Dergisi. 2021; 8(2): 429-457.
Vancouver Agha N. I. Reimagining Turkey-Russia Relations: An Analysis Of The Plane Crisis. TESAM Akademi Dergisi. 2021; 8(2): 429-457.
IEEE N. I. Agha , "Reimagining Turkey-Russia Relations: An Analysis Of The Plane Crisis", TESAM Akademi Dergisi, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 429-457, Jul. 2021, doi:10.30626/tesamakademi.949060