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Amerika’da Aşırı Sağ Şiddet ve Terörizm

Year 2021, Volume 8, Issue 2, 459 - 487, 30.07.2021
https://doi.org/10.30626/tesamakademi.959949

Abstract

Amerika’da aşırı sağ şiddetin uzun bir geçmişi bulunmaktadır. İç savaşın ardından Ku Klux Klan Örgütü’nün Afrikalı Amerikalılara ve “işbirlikçi” beyazlara yönelik sistematik ve örgütlü şiddet uygulamaları aşırı sağ şiddetin gelişiminde önemli rol oynamıştır. 1960’lardan sonra neo-Nazilerin, Hıristiyan Kimlik doktrinine bağlı grupların ve hükümet karşıtlarının aşırı sağ sahnesine girmesi, aşırı sağda ideolojik ve örgütsel çeşitliliğe yol açmıştır. Amerika’daki aşırı sağ şiddet ve teröre ilişkin veriler, sağ kanat aşırılıkçı saldırı veya saldırı planlarının ABD’deki tüm terörist olayların çoğunluğunu oluşturduğunu, 2013’ten bu yana büyük ölçüde artmış olduğunu ve ölümcül saldırıların büyük bölümünün -11 Eylül terör eylemleri dışında- sağ kanat saldırılardan kaynaklandığını göstermektedir. 2020 başkanlık seçimlerinin ardından yaşanan Kongre binasını işgal girişimleri, aşırı sağ şiddetin boyutlarını ortaya koymuştur. Aşırı sağ şiddet ve terör eylemlerindeki düzenli artışı gösteren veriler ve son yıllarda artan kutuplaşmanın yanı sıra, COVID 19 salgınının yol açtığı ekonomik ve sosyal problemler ışığında Amerika’da aşırı sağ şiddet ve terörünün yükselişini sürdüreceği düşünülmektedir.

References

  • ADL. (2018). New hate and old: The changing face of American white supremacy. Erişim tarihi: 30.04.2021, https://www.adl.org/new-hate-and-old
  • ADL. (2020). The militia movement. Erişim tarihi: 10.04.2021, https://www.adl.org/resources/backrounders/the-militia-movement-2020
  • Barkun, M. (1997). Religion and the racist right: The origins of the Christian Identity Movement. The University of North Carolina Press.
  • Beutel, J. A., Johnson, D. (2021). The Three Percenters: A look inside an anti-government militia. Washington: New Lines Institute for Strategy and Policy.
  • Bjorgo, T., Ravndal J. A. (2019). Extreme right violence and terrorism: Concepts, patterns and responses. The Hague: International Centre for Counter-Terrorism.
  • Cass, M. (2000). The ideology of the extreme right. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
  • Churchill, R. H. (2009). To shake their guns in the tyrant’s face: Libertarian political violence and the origins of the militia movement. University of Michigan Press.
  • Crothers, L. (2003). Rage on the right: The American militia movement from Ruby Ridge to homeland security. Maryland: Rowman and Littlefield.
  • Farivar, M. (2021). Researchers: More than a dozen extremist groups took part in capitol riots. Voice of America. Erişim tarihi: 11.04.2021, https://www.voanews.com/2020-usa-votes/researchers-more-dozen-extremist-groups-took-part-capitol-riots
  • Freilich, J.D., Chermak, M., Gruenewald, J., Parkin, W.S., Klein, B.R. (2018). Patterns of fatal extreme right crime in the United States. Perspectives on Terrorism, 12(6), 38-51.
  • Jones, S. G., Doxsee, C., Harrington, N. (2020). The escelating terrorism problem in the United States. Washington: Center for Strategic and International Studies.
  • Kaplan, J. (1997). Radical religion in America. Millenarian movements from the far right to the children of Noah. New York: Syracuse University Press.
  • Kitts, M. (2021). Proud Boys, nationalism, and religion. Journal of Religion and Violence, 9(1), 12-32.
  • Kutner, S. (2020). Swiping right: The allure of hyper masculinity and cryptofascism for men who join the Proud Boys. The Hague: International Centre for Counter-Terrorism.
  • Martin, G. (2017). Terörizm: Kavramlar ve kuramlar (İ. Çapçıoğlu, B. Metin Çev.). Ankara: Adres Yayınları.
  • Michael, G. (2003). Confronting right-wing extremism and terrorism in the USA. Routledge.
  • Michael, G. (2012). Lone wolf terror and the rise of leaderless resistance. Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press.
  • Mondon, A., Winter, A. (2020). Reactionary democracy: How racism and the populist far right become mainstream. London: Verso.
  • Mulloy D. (2004). American extremism: History, politics and the militia movement. Routledge.
  • Perliger, A. (2012). Challenges from the sidelines. Understanding America’s violent far-right. Washington: The Combating Terrorism Center at West Point.
  • Perliger, A. (2020). American zealots: Inside right-wing domestic terrorism. New York: Columbia University Press.
  • Ravndal, J.A., Bjorgo, T. (2018). Investigating terrorism from the extreme right. A review of past and present research. Perspectives on Terrorism, 12(6), 5-22.
  • Schlatter, E. A. (2009). Aryan cowboys: White supremacists and the search for a new frontier. 1970-2000. Austin: University of Texas Press.
  • Schmid, A. P., Jongman, A.J. (2017). Political terrorism: A new guide to actors, authors, concepts, databases, theories and literature. Routledge.
  • Southern Poverty Law Center. (2015). Age of the wolf. A study of the rise of lone wolf and leaderless resistance terrorism. Erişim tarihi: 10.04.2021, https://www.splcenter.org/sites/default/files/downloads/publication/lone_wolf_special_report.pdf
  • START. (2017). Islamist and far-right homicides in the United States. Erişim tarihi: 23.04.2021, https://www.start.umd.edu/pubs/START_ECDB_IslamistFarRightHomicidesUS_Infographic_Feb.2017.pdf
  • START. (2019). Global Terrorism Database codebook: Inclusion criteria and variables. Erişim tarihi: 23.04.2021, https://www.start.umd.edu/gtd/downloads/codebook.pdf
  • Sweeney, M. M., Perliger, A. (2018). Explaning the spontaneous nature of far right violence in the United States. Perspectives on Terrorism, 12(6), 52-71.
  • U.S. Department of Homeland Security. (2020). Homeland threat assessment. Erişim tarihi: 12.04.2021, https://www.dhs.gov/sites/default/files/publications/2020_10_06_homeland-threat-assessment.pdf
  • Weinberg, L. (2013). Violence by the far right: The American experience. In M. Taylor, D. Holbrook, P.M. Currie (Eds.) Extreme right wing political violence and terrorism. (ss. 15-30). Bloomsbury Publishing.

The Right Extremist Violence and Terrorism in the USA

Year 2021, Volume 8, Issue 2, 459 - 487, 30.07.2021
https://doi.org/10.30626/tesamakademi.959949

Abstract

The right extremist violence goes back a long way in the history of the USA. Following the Civil War the systematic and organized violent acts perpetrated against African Americans and “collaborative” whites committed by the Ku Klux Klan Organization played an important role in the development of right extremist violence. An ideological and organizational diversification was observed when the Neo-Nazis, groups that hinged upon the Christian Identity doctrine and anti-government groups entered the stage of right extremism after the 1960s. According to data on the right extremist violence and terrorism in the USA, right-wing extremist attacks or plans of attack, which constitute the majority of all terrorist incidents, has increased substantially since 2013 and most of the deadly attacks – apart from the 9/11 terrorist attacks – were originated in the attacks of right-wing. It is considered that right extremist violence and terrorism will continue to grow in the light of economic and social problems resulting from the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, in addition to the data that indicate a steady increase in right extremist violence and terrorism, and increasing polarization in recent years.

References

  • ADL. (2018). New hate and old: The changing face of American white supremacy. Erişim tarihi: 30.04.2021, https://www.adl.org/new-hate-and-old
  • ADL. (2020). The militia movement. Erişim tarihi: 10.04.2021, https://www.adl.org/resources/backrounders/the-militia-movement-2020
  • Barkun, M. (1997). Religion and the racist right: The origins of the Christian Identity Movement. The University of North Carolina Press.
  • Beutel, J. A., Johnson, D. (2021). The Three Percenters: A look inside an anti-government militia. Washington: New Lines Institute for Strategy and Policy.
  • Bjorgo, T., Ravndal J. A. (2019). Extreme right violence and terrorism: Concepts, patterns and responses. The Hague: International Centre for Counter-Terrorism.
  • Cass, M. (2000). The ideology of the extreme right. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
  • Churchill, R. H. (2009). To shake their guns in the tyrant’s face: Libertarian political violence and the origins of the militia movement. University of Michigan Press.
  • Crothers, L. (2003). Rage on the right: The American militia movement from Ruby Ridge to homeland security. Maryland: Rowman and Littlefield.
  • Farivar, M. (2021). Researchers: More than a dozen extremist groups took part in capitol riots. Voice of America. Erişim tarihi: 11.04.2021, https://www.voanews.com/2020-usa-votes/researchers-more-dozen-extremist-groups-took-part-capitol-riots
  • Freilich, J.D., Chermak, M., Gruenewald, J., Parkin, W.S., Klein, B.R. (2018). Patterns of fatal extreme right crime in the United States. Perspectives on Terrorism, 12(6), 38-51.
  • Jones, S. G., Doxsee, C., Harrington, N. (2020). The escelating terrorism problem in the United States. Washington: Center for Strategic and International Studies.
  • Kaplan, J. (1997). Radical religion in America. Millenarian movements from the far right to the children of Noah. New York: Syracuse University Press.
  • Kitts, M. (2021). Proud Boys, nationalism, and religion. Journal of Religion and Violence, 9(1), 12-32.
  • Kutner, S. (2020). Swiping right: The allure of hyper masculinity and cryptofascism for men who join the Proud Boys. The Hague: International Centre for Counter-Terrorism.
  • Martin, G. (2017). Terörizm: Kavramlar ve kuramlar (İ. Çapçıoğlu, B. Metin Çev.). Ankara: Adres Yayınları.
  • Michael, G. (2003). Confronting right-wing extremism and terrorism in the USA. Routledge.
  • Michael, G. (2012). Lone wolf terror and the rise of leaderless resistance. Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press.
  • Mondon, A., Winter, A. (2020). Reactionary democracy: How racism and the populist far right become mainstream. London: Verso.
  • Mulloy D. (2004). American extremism: History, politics and the militia movement. Routledge.
  • Perliger, A. (2012). Challenges from the sidelines. Understanding America’s violent far-right. Washington: The Combating Terrorism Center at West Point.
  • Perliger, A. (2020). American zealots: Inside right-wing domestic terrorism. New York: Columbia University Press.
  • Ravndal, J.A., Bjorgo, T. (2018). Investigating terrorism from the extreme right. A review of past and present research. Perspectives on Terrorism, 12(6), 5-22.
  • Schlatter, E. A. (2009). Aryan cowboys: White supremacists and the search for a new frontier. 1970-2000. Austin: University of Texas Press.
  • Schmid, A. P., Jongman, A.J. (2017). Political terrorism: A new guide to actors, authors, concepts, databases, theories and literature. Routledge.
  • Southern Poverty Law Center. (2015). Age of the wolf. A study of the rise of lone wolf and leaderless resistance terrorism. Erişim tarihi: 10.04.2021, https://www.splcenter.org/sites/default/files/downloads/publication/lone_wolf_special_report.pdf
  • START. (2017). Islamist and far-right homicides in the United States. Erişim tarihi: 23.04.2021, https://www.start.umd.edu/pubs/START_ECDB_IslamistFarRightHomicidesUS_Infographic_Feb.2017.pdf
  • START. (2019). Global Terrorism Database codebook: Inclusion criteria and variables. Erişim tarihi: 23.04.2021, https://www.start.umd.edu/gtd/downloads/codebook.pdf
  • Sweeney, M. M., Perliger, A. (2018). Explaning the spontaneous nature of far right violence in the United States. Perspectives on Terrorism, 12(6), 52-71.
  • U.S. Department of Homeland Security. (2020). Homeland threat assessment. Erişim tarihi: 12.04.2021, https://www.dhs.gov/sites/default/files/publications/2020_10_06_homeland-threat-assessment.pdf
  • Weinberg, L. (2013). Violence by the far right: The American experience. In M. Taylor, D. Holbrook, P.M. Currie (Eds.) Extreme right wing political violence and terrorism. (ss. 15-30). Bloomsbury Publishing.

Details

Primary Language Turkish
Subjects International Relations
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Nigar Neşe KEMİKSİZ This is me (Primary Author)
ANKA Enstitüsü
0000-0003-2622-3977
Türkiye

Publication Date July 30, 2021
Published in Issue Year 2021, Volume 8, Issue 2

Cite

Bibtex @research article { tesamakademi959949, journal = {TESAM Akademi Dergisi}, issn = {2148-2462}, eissn = {2458-9217}, address = {}, publisher = {TESAM Ekonomik Siyasal ve Stratejik Araştırmalar Merkezi Derneği}, year = {2021}, volume = {8}, pages = {459 - 487}, doi = {10.30626/tesamakademi.959949}, title = {Amerika’da Aşırı Sağ Şiddet ve Terörizm}, key = {cite}, author = {Kemiksiz, Nigar Neşe} }
APA Kemiksiz, N. N. (2021). Amerika’da Aşırı Sağ Şiddet ve Terörizm . TESAM Akademi Dergisi , 8 (2) , 459-487 . DOI: 10.30626/tesamakademi.959949
MLA Kemiksiz, N. N. "Amerika’da Aşırı Sağ Şiddet ve Terörizm" . TESAM Akademi Dergisi 8 (2021 ): 459-487 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/tesamakademi/issue/64331/959949>
Chicago Kemiksiz, N. N. "Amerika’da Aşırı Sağ Şiddet ve Terörizm". TESAM Akademi Dergisi 8 (2021 ): 459-487
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Amerika’da Aşırı Sağ Şiddet ve Terörizm AU - Nigar Neşe Kemiksiz Y1 - 2021 PY - 2021 N1 - doi: 10.30626/tesamakademi.959949 DO - 10.30626/tesamakademi.959949 T2 - TESAM Akademi Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 459 EP - 487 VL - 8 IS - 2 SN - 2148-2462-2458-9217 M3 - doi: 10.30626/tesamakademi.959949 UR - https://doi.org/10.30626/tesamakademi.959949 Y2 - 2021 ER -
EndNote %0 Journal of TESAM Akademy Amerika’da Aşırı Sağ Şiddet ve Terörizm %A Nigar Neşe Kemiksiz %T Amerika’da Aşırı Sağ Şiddet ve Terörizm %D 2021 %J TESAM Akademi Dergisi %P 2148-2462-2458-9217 %V 8 %N 2 %R doi: 10.30626/tesamakademi.959949 %U 10.30626/tesamakademi.959949
ISNAD Kemiksiz, Nigar Neşe . "Amerika’da Aşırı Sağ Şiddet ve Terörizm". TESAM Akademi Dergisi 8 / 2 (July 2021): 459-487 . https://doi.org/10.30626/tesamakademi.959949
AMA Kemiksiz N. N. Amerika’da Aşırı Sağ Şiddet ve Terörizm. TESAM Akademi Dergisi. 2021; 8(2): 459-487.
Vancouver Kemiksiz N. N. Amerika’da Aşırı Sağ Şiddet ve Terörizm. TESAM Akademi Dergisi. 2021; 8(2): 459-487.
IEEE N. N. Kemiksiz , "Amerika’da Aşırı Sağ Şiddet ve Terörizm", TESAM Akademi Dergisi, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 459-487, Jul. 2021, doi:10.30626/tesamakademi.959949