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Türkiye'nin Yunanistan'a Yönelik Dış Politikası: Avrupalılaşmadan Anti-Avrupalılaşmaya

Year 2021, Volume 8, Issue 2, 299 - 319, 30.07.2021
https://doi.org/10.30626/tesamakademi.961923

Abstract

Bu çalışmanın amacı, Türkiye'nin Yunanistan'a yönelik dış politikasını incelemektir. İlk olarak, 1999-2007 döneminde, geleneksel Türk dış politikasında güvenlik yönelimli bir politika ve söylemden diyalog ve diplomasi odaklı bir politika ve söyleme doğru bir kayma olduğu tartışılmaktadır. İkinci olarak, 2007 sonrası dönemde Avrupa Birliği’nin (AB) Türkiye’nin birliğe tam üyeliği ile ilgili artan isteksizliğinin Türk toplumunda AB’ye yönelik şüphe ve güvensizliği daha da artırdığı ve Türkiye’nin siyasetinde ve Yunanistan’a yönelik dış politikasında Avrupalılaşma sürecini zayıflattığı vurgulanmaktadır. Üçüncü olarak Yunanistan'a yönelik Türk dış politikasındaki değişimin yönünün ve boyutunun, Türkiye-AB ilişkilerinin kalitesi ve hızından doğrudan etkilendiği tartışılmaktadır. Bu olguları incelemek için çalışmada şu sorulara cevap aranmaktadır: 1999'dan sonra Türkiye'nin Yunanistan politikasında neler değişti? ve bu politika değişikliklerinde AB’nin rolü nedir? Çalışmada Börzel ve Risse’nin üç aşamalı Avrupalılaşma kuramı ile anti-Avrupalılaşma ve karşı davranış kavramlarından faydalanılmaktadır. Böylelikle Avrupalılaşma, anti-Avrupalılaşma ve Türkiye’nin Yunanistan politikası literatürüne katkı sunulması amaçlanmaktır.

References

  • Aksu, F. (2004). Confidence building, negotiation and economic cooperation efforts in Turkish-Greek relations (1990-2004). Turkish Review of Balkan Studies, Annual 2004, 31-109.
  • Alpan, B. (2016). From AKP’s ‘Conservative Democracy’ to ‘Advanced Democracy’: Shifts and challenges in the Debate on Europe. South European Society and Politics, 21(1), 15–28.
  • Aras, B. (2004). Turkey and the greater middle east. Istanbul: Tasam Press.
  • Aydın, M. and Acıkmeşe, S. A. (2007). Europeanization through EU conditionality: Understanding new era in Turkish foreign policy. Journal of Southern Europe and the Balkans, 9(3), 263-274.
  • Aydın-Düzgit, S. (2016). De-Europeanisation through discourse: A critical discourse analysis of AKP’s election speeches. South European Society and Politics, 21(1), 45–58.
  • Belge, M. (2004). Observations on civil society. In T. Belge (Ed.), Voices for the Future: Civic Dialogue Between Turks and Greeks, (pp. 27-32). Istanbul: Bilgi University Press.
  • Bilge, A.S. (2000). Büyük düş, Türk-Yunan siyasi ilişkileri [Megali Idea: Turkish-Greek Political Relations]. Ankara: 21. Yüzyıl Yayınları.
  • Bilgic, T. and Karatzas, P. (2004). The contraction in Greece-Turkey triangle: Rapprochements at the edges. Econturk.
  • Bilgin, P. and Bilgiç, A. (2011). Turkey’s new foreign policy towards Eurasia. Eurasian Geography and Economics, 52(2), 173–195.
  • Bilgin, P. (2005). Turkey’s changing security discourses: The challenge of globalisation. European Journal of Political Research, 44(1), 174-201.
  • Börzel, T. A. and Risse, T. (2003). Conceptualising the domestic impact of Europe. In K. Featherstone and C.M. Radaelli (Eds.) The Politics of Europeanization. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Cebeci, M. (2016). De-Europeanisation or counter-conduct? Turkey’s democratisation and the EU, South European Society and Politics, 21(1), 119-132, DOI: 10.1080/13608746.2016.1153996.
  • Copeland, P. (2016). Europeanization and De-Europeanization in UK Employment Policy: Changing governments and shifting agendas. Public Administration, 94(4), 1124–1139. Doi: 10.1111/padm.2016.94.issue-4
  • Çelik, A. and Rumelili, B. (2006). Necessary but not sufficient: The role of the EU in resolving Turkey’s Kurdish question and the Greek-Turkish conflicts. European Foreign Affairs Review, 11, 203-222.
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  • European Commission. (2003). Turkey – 2003 Progress Report, Commission Staff Working Paper, Brussels, 8 October, available online at: http://ec.europa.eu/enlargement/archives/pdf/key_documents/2003/rr_tk_final_en.pdf.
  • European Commission. (2004). Turkey – 2004 Progress Report, Commission Staff Working Paper, Brussels, 10 October, available online at: http://ec.europa.eu/enlargement/archives/pdf/key_documents/2004/rr_tr_2004_en.pdf.
  • European Commission. (2005). Turkey – 2005 Progress Report, Commission Staff Working Paper, Brussels, 12 October, available online at: http://ec.europa.eu/enlargement/archives/pdf/key_documents/2005/package/sec_1426_fin al_progress_report_tr_en.pdf.
  • European Commission. (2010). Turkey – 2003 Progress Report, Commission Staff Working Paper, Brussels, 9 October, available online at: http://ec.europa.eu/enlargement/pdf/key_documents/2010/package/tr_rapport_2010_en.p df.
  • European Commission. (2011). Turkey – 2011 Progress Report, Commission Staff Working Paper, Brussels, 12 October, available online at: http://ec.europa.eu/enlargement/pdf/key_documents/2011/package/tr_rapport_2011_en.p df.
  • Evin, A.O. (2005). Changing Greek perspectives on Turkey: An assessment of the post earthquake rapprochement. In A. Carkoglu and B. Rubin (Eds.) Greek-Turkish Relations in an Era of Detente, London: Routledge.
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  • Güney, A. and P. Karatekelioglu. (2005). Turkey’s EU candidacy and civil-military relations: Challenges and prospects. Armed Forces and Society, 39, 439–62.
  • Helsinki Summit Presidency Conclusion (1999). European Union, Helsinki: European Parliament. https://www.europarl.europa.eu/summits/hel1_en.htm
  • Hellenic Republic, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, available online at: https://www.mfa.gr/en/current-affairs/top-story/statement-by-the-minister-of-foreign-affairs-nikos-dendias-following-his-meeting-with-the-foreign-minister-of-turkey-mevlut-cavusoglu-athens-31052021.html
  • Hergüner, B. (2012). Local administrative reforms in Turkey and the Philippines with regard to Agenda 21: Profiling contexts, parallelisms, and contrasts, International Journal of Business and Social Science, 3(19), 107-115.
  • Hergüner, B. (2020). An analysis of the EU’s soft power and the EU – Turkey relations through metaphors. İstanbul Ticaret Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi Yıl:19 Temmuz 2020 (Özel Ek) Prof. Dr. Sabri ORMAN Özel Sayısı, 501-514.
  • Jordan, A. (2003). The Europeanisation of national government and policy: A departmental perspective. British Journal of Political Science, 33(2), 261–282. doi:10.1017/S0007123403000115.
  • Kalkan, E. (2015). Europeanisation of national politics and change in foreign policy: Transformation of Turkish foreign policy in the EU accession process (Unpublished PhD. Dissertation, University of Kent at Brussels.
  • Kalkan, E. (2016). Understanding of the causes of the changes in Turkey’s foreign policy during the Ak Party government, Ankara: Hakim Yayıncılık.
  • Kalkan, E. (2017). Türkiye’nin Avrupa Birliği surecinde demokratikleşme çabaları. In B. Hergüner, and E. Kalkan (Ed.) Farklı boyutlarıyla Avrupa Birliği–Türkiye ilişkileri: Türkiye’nin dönüşümünde Avrupa Birliği’nin rolü (pp. 23-44). Ankara: Siyasal.
  • Kalkan, E. (2020). The longstanding dispute between Turkey and Greece: The aegean issue. Uluslararası İktisadi ve İdari İncelemeler Dergisi, 28, 167-174.
  • Keyman, F. and Öniş, Z. (2007). Turkish politics in a changing World: Global dynamics and domestic transformations. Istanbul: Bilgi University Press.
  • Kirişci, K., and A. Carkoglu. (2003). Perceptions of Greeks and Greek-Turkish rapprochement by the Turkish public. In A. Carkoglu and B. Rubin (Eds.) Greek-Turkish relations in an era of détente. London: Frank Cass.
  • MacMillan, C. (2013). Discourse, identity and the question of turkish accession to the EU: Through the looking glass. Basingstoke: Ashgate Publishing.
  • Malmvig, H. (2014). Free us from power: Governmentality, counter-conduct, and simulation in European democracy and reform promotion in the Arab world, International Political Sociology, 8(3), 293–310.
  • Müftüler‐Baç, M. and Gürsoy, Y. (2010). Is there a Europeanization of Turkish foreign policy? An addendum to the literature on EU candidates. Turkish Studies, 11(3), 405-427.
  • Oğuzlu, T. H. (2004). The impact of democratization in the context of the EU accession process on Turkish foreign policy. Mediterranean Politics 9(1), 94–113.
  • Öniş, Z. (2002). Domestic politics, international norms and challenges to the state: Turkey–EU relations in the post-Helsinki era. “The Annual Meeting of the Middle East Studies Association,” Washington D.C., November 23–26.
  • Özel, S. (2004). Turkish-Greek dialogue of the business community. In T. Belge (Ed.) Voices for the future: Civic dialogue between Turks and Greeks. İstanbul: Bilge University Pres.
  • Parliament, European. (1997). Luxembourg Summit Presidency Conclusion. Luxembourg: https://www.europarl.europa.eu/summits/lux1_en.htm.
  • Raagmaa, G., Kalvet, T. and Kasesalu, R. (2014). Europeanisation and De-Europeanisation of Estonian regional policy. European Planning Studies, 22(4), 775–795. doi:10.1080/09654313.2013.772754
  • Republic of Turkey, ministry of foreign affairs, available online at: https://cse.google.com/cse?cx=008394624914148611446%3A92ukkxs1mo0&q=turkey%20Greece%20relations
  • Rumelili, B. (2003). Liminality and perpetuation of conflicts: Turkish-Greek relations in the context of community-building by the EU. European Journal of International Relations, 9(2), 213-248.
  • Rumelili, B. (2007). Transforming conflicts on EU borders. The case of Greek-Turkish relations. Journal of Common Market Studies, 45(1), 105-126.
  • Rumelili, B. and Todd, J. (2017). Paradoxes of identity-change: Integrating macro, Meso and Micro research on identity in conflict processes. Politics, 38(1), 3–17.
  • Schimmelfennig, F. and Sedelmeier, U. (2005). Introduction: Conceptualizing the Europeanisation of central and Eastern Europe. In F. Schimmelfennig and U. Sedelmeier (Eds.) The Europeanisation of central and Eastern Europe (pp. 1–28). Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
  • Suvarierol, S. (2003). The Cyprus obstacle on Turkey’s road to membership in the European Union. Turkish Studies, 4(1), 55-78.
  • The justice and development party’s archives, available at: http://www.akparti. org.tr/site/haberler/arsiv/basin-odasi.
  • Tocci, N. (2005). Europeanisation in Turkey: Trigger or anchor for reform? South European Society and Politics, 10(1), 73–83.
  • Tsarouhas, D. and Yazgan, N. (2018). Trade, non-state actors and conflict: Evidence from Greece and Turkey, Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 31(3), 291–313, https://doi.org/10.1080/09557571.2018.1501346.
  • Waever, O. (2000). The EU as a security actor–reflections from a pessimistic constructivist on post-sovereign security orders’. In M. Kelstrup and M. Williams (Eds.) International relations theory and the politics of European integration – power, security and community (pp. 250–294). Routledge, London.
  • Yilmaz, B. (2007). Europeanisation of Turkish foreign policy: Cyprus case. Wroclaw, Poland: University of Wroclaw.

Turkish Foreign Policy Toward Greece: From Europeanization to De-Europeanization

Year 2021, Volume 8, Issue 2, 299 - 319, 30.07.2021
https://doi.org/10.30626/tesamakademi.961923

Abstract

This paper aims to examine Turkey’s foreign policy toward Greece in the post-1999 era. It argues that the direction and changes in Turkish foreign policy toward Greece are impacted by the Turkey-EU relations. To examine these arguments, this study raises the following questions: What are the changes in Turkey’s Greece policy after 1999? and what role has the EU played in these policy changes? This research utilizes Börzel and Risse’s three-step Europeanisation framework and the de-Europeanisation and counter-conduct concepts to evaluate the Europeanisation and de-Europeanisation of Turkey’s Greece policy. By doing so, it contributes to the Europeanisation and the growing de-Europeanisation literature in general and the literature on Turkish foreign policy towards Greece in specific.

References

  • Aksu, F. (2004). Confidence building, negotiation and economic cooperation efforts in Turkish-Greek relations (1990-2004). Turkish Review of Balkan Studies, Annual 2004, 31-109.
  • Alpan, B. (2016). From AKP’s ‘Conservative Democracy’ to ‘Advanced Democracy’: Shifts and challenges in the Debate on Europe. South European Society and Politics, 21(1), 15–28.
  • Aras, B. (2004). Turkey and the greater middle east. Istanbul: Tasam Press.
  • Aydın, M. and Acıkmeşe, S. A. (2007). Europeanization through EU conditionality: Understanding new era in Turkish foreign policy. Journal of Southern Europe and the Balkans, 9(3), 263-274.
  • Aydın-Düzgit, S. (2016). De-Europeanisation through discourse: A critical discourse analysis of AKP’s election speeches. South European Society and Politics, 21(1), 45–58.
  • Belge, M. (2004). Observations on civil society. In T. Belge (Ed.), Voices for the Future: Civic Dialogue Between Turks and Greeks, (pp. 27-32). Istanbul: Bilgi University Press.
  • Bilge, A.S. (2000). Büyük düş, Türk-Yunan siyasi ilişkileri [Megali Idea: Turkish-Greek Political Relations]. Ankara: 21. Yüzyıl Yayınları.
  • Bilgic, T. and Karatzas, P. (2004). The contraction in Greece-Turkey triangle: Rapprochements at the edges. Econturk.
  • Bilgin, P. and Bilgiç, A. (2011). Turkey’s new foreign policy towards Eurasia. Eurasian Geography and Economics, 52(2), 173–195.
  • Bilgin, P. (2005). Turkey’s changing security discourses: The challenge of globalisation. European Journal of Political Research, 44(1), 174-201.
  • Börzel, T. A. and Risse, T. (2003). Conceptualising the domestic impact of Europe. In K. Featherstone and C.M. Radaelli (Eds.) The Politics of Europeanization. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Cebeci, M. (2016). De-Europeanisation or counter-conduct? Turkey’s democratisation and the EU, South European Society and Politics, 21(1), 119-132, DOI: 10.1080/13608746.2016.1153996.
  • Copeland, P. (2016). Europeanization and De-Europeanization in UK Employment Policy: Changing governments and shifting agendas. Public Administration, 94(4), 1124–1139. Doi: 10.1111/padm.2016.94.issue-4
  • Çelik, A. and Rumelili, B. (2006). Necessary but not sufficient: The role of the EU in resolving Turkey’s Kurdish question and the Greek-Turkish conflicts. European Foreign Affairs Review, 11, 203-222.
  • Europe Briefing N64Istanbul/Athens/Brussels, 19 July 2011, pp.13
  • European Commission. (2003). Turkey – 2003 Progress Report, Commission Staff Working Paper, Brussels, 8 October, available online at: http://ec.europa.eu/enlargement/archives/pdf/key_documents/2003/rr_tk_final_en.pdf.
  • European Commission. (2004). Turkey – 2004 Progress Report, Commission Staff Working Paper, Brussels, 10 October, available online at: http://ec.europa.eu/enlargement/archives/pdf/key_documents/2004/rr_tr_2004_en.pdf.
  • European Commission. (2005). Turkey – 2005 Progress Report, Commission Staff Working Paper, Brussels, 12 October, available online at: http://ec.europa.eu/enlargement/archives/pdf/key_documents/2005/package/sec_1426_fin al_progress_report_tr_en.pdf.
  • European Commission. (2010). Turkey – 2003 Progress Report, Commission Staff Working Paper, Brussels, 9 October, available online at: http://ec.europa.eu/enlargement/pdf/key_documents/2010/package/tr_rapport_2010_en.p df.
  • European Commission. (2011). Turkey – 2011 Progress Report, Commission Staff Working Paper, Brussels, 12 October, available online at: http://ec.europa.eu/enlargement/pdf/key_documents/2011/package/tr_rapport_2011_en.p df.
  • Evin, A.O. (2005). Changing Greek perspectives on Turkey: An assessment of the post earthquake rapprochement. In A. Carkoglu and B. Rubin (Eds.) Greek-Turkish Relations in an Era of Detente, London: Routledge.
  • Foucault, M. (2007). Security, territory, population – lectures at the Collège de France 1977-1978, Picador, New York.
  • FEUTURE Online Paper No. 26 (2020). Turkish public opinion and the EU membership: Between support and mistrust, available at http://www.feuture.uni-koeln.de/sites/feuture/user_upload/Online_Paper_No_26_final.pdf)
  • FEUTURE Online Paper No. 12 (2017). Turkish public opinion and the EU membership: Between support and mistrust, available at https://feuture.uni-koeln.de/sites/feuture/pdf/D2.3_FEUTURE_Online_Paper_No._12.pdf
  • Güney, A. and P. Karatekelioglu. (2005). Turkey’s EU candidacy and civil-military relations: Challenges and prospects. Armed Forces and Society, 39, 439–62.
  • Helsinki Summit Presidency Conclusion (1999). European Union, Helsinki: European Parliament. https://www.europarl.europa.eu/summits/hel1_en.htm
  • Hellenic Republic, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, available online at: https://www.mfa.gr/en/current-affairs/top-story/statement-by-the-minister-of-foreign-affairs-nikos-dendias-following-his-meeting-with-the-foreign-minister-of-turkey-mevlut-cavusoglu-athens-31052021.html
  • Hergüner, B. (2012). Local administrative reforms in Turkey and the Philippines with regard to Agenda 21: Profiling contexts, parallelisms, and contrasts, International Journal of Business and Social Science, 3(19), 107-115.
  • Hergüner, B. (2020). An analysis of the EU’s soft power and the EU – Turkey relations through metaphors. İstanbul Ticaret Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi Yıl:19 Temmuz 2020 (Özel Ek) Prof. Dr. Sabri ORMAN Özel Sayısı, 501-514.
  • Jordan, A. (2003). The Europeanisation of national government and policy: A departmental perspective. British Journal of Political Science, 33(2), 261–282. doi:10.1017/S0007123403000115.
  • Kalkan, E. (2015). Europeanisation of national politics and change in foreign policy: Transformation of Turkish foreign policy in the EU accession process (Unpublished PhD. Dissertation, University of Kent at Brussels.
  • Kalkan, E. (2016). Understanding of the causes of the changes in Turkey’s foreign policy during the Ak Party government, Ankara: Hakim Yayıncılık.
  • Kalkan, E. (2017). Türkiye’nin Avrupa Birliği surecinde demokratikleşme çabaları. In B. Hergüner, and E. Kalkan (Ed.) Farklı boyutlarıyla Avrupa Birliği–Türkiye ilişkileri: Türkiye’nin dönüşümünde Avrupa Birliği’nin rolü (pp. 23-44). Ankara: Siyasal.
  • Kalkan, E. (2020). The longstanding dispute between Turkey and Greece: The aegean issue. Uluslararası İktisadi ve İdari İncelemeler Dergisi, 28, 167-174.
  • Keyman, F. and Öniş, Z. (2007). Turkish politics in a changing World: Global dynamics and domestic transformations. Istanbul: Bilgi University Press.
  • Kirişci, K., and A. Carkoglu. (2003). Perceptions of Greeks and Greek-Turkish rapprochement by the Turkish public. In A. Carkoglu and B. Rubin (Eds.) Greek-Turkish relations in an era of détente. London: Frank Cass.
  • MacMillan, C. (2013). Discourse, identity and the question of turkish accession to the EU: Through the looking glass. Basingstoke: Ashgate Publishing.
  • Malmvig, H. (2014). Free us from power: Governmentality, counter-conduct, and simulation in European democracy and reform promotion in the Arab world, International Political Sociology, 8(3), 293–310.
  • Müftüler‐Baç, M. and Gürsoy, Y. (2010). Is there a Europeanization of Turkish foreign policy? An addendum to the literature on EU candidates. Turkish Studies, 11(3), 405-427.
  • Oğuzlu, T. H. (2004). The impact of democratization in the context of the EU accession process on Turkish foreign policy. Mediterranean Politics 9(1), 94–113.
  • Öniş, Z. (2002). Domestic politics, international norms and challenges to the state: Turkey–EU relations in the post-Helsinki era. “The Annual Meeting of the Middle East Studies Association,” Washington D.C., November 23–26.
  • Özel, S. (2004). Turkish-Greek dialogue of the business community. In T. Belge (Ed.) Voices for the future: Civic dialogue between Turks and Greeks. İstanbul: Bilge University Pres.
  • Parliament, European. (1997). Luxembourg Summit Presidency Conclusion. Luxembourg: https://www.europarl.europa.eu/summits/lux1_en.htm.
  • Raagmaa, G., Kalvet, T. and Kasesalu, R. (2014). Europeanisation and De-Europeanisation of Estonian regional policy. European Planning Studies, 22(4), 775–795. doi:10.1080/09654313.2013.772754
  • Republic of Turkey, ministry of foreign affairs, available online at: https://cse.google.com/cse?cx=008394624914148611446%3A92ukkxs1mo0&q=turkey%20Greece%20relations
  • Rumelili, B. (2003). Liminality and perpetuation of conflicts: Turkish-Greek relations in the context of community-building by the EU. European Journal of International Relations, 9(2), 213-248.
  • Rumelili, B. (2007). Transforming conflicts on EU borders. The case of Greek-Turkish relations. Journal of Common Market Studies, 45(1), 105-126.
  • Rumelili, B. and Todd, J. (2017). Paradoxes of identity-change: Integrating macro, Meso and Micro research on identity in conflict processes. Politics, 38(1), 3–17.
  • Schimmelfennig, F. and Sedelmeier, U. (2005). Introduction: Conceptualizing the Europeanisation of central and Eastern Europe. In F. Schimmelfennig and U. Sedelmeier (Eds.) The Europeanisation of central and Eastern Europe (pp. 1–28). Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
  • Suvarierol, S. (2003). The Cyprus obstacle on Turkey’s road to membership in the European Union. Turkish Studies, 4(1), 55-78.
  • The justice and development party’s archives, available at: http://www.akparti. org.tr/site/haberler/arsiv/basin-odasi.
  • Tocci, N. (2005). Europeanisation in Turkey: Trigger or anchor for reform? South European Society and Politics, 10(1), 73–83.
  • Tsarouhas, D. and Yazgan, N. (2018). Trade, non-state actors and conflict: Evidence from Greece and Turkey, Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 31(3), 291–313, https://doi.org/10.1080/09557571.2018.1501346.
  • Waever, O. (2000). The EU as a security actor–reflections from a pessimistic constructivist on post-sovereign security orders’. In M. Kelstrup and M. Williams (Eds.) International relations theory and the politics of European integration – power, security and community (pp. 250–294). Routledge, London.
  • Yilmaz, B. (2007). Europeanisation of Turkish foreign policy: Cyprus case. Wroclaw, Poland: University of Wroclaw.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects International Relations
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Erol KALKAN This is me
KARADENİZ TEKNİK ÜNİVERSİTESİ, İKTİSADİ VE İDARİ BİLİMLER FAKÜLTESİ, ULUSLARARASI İLİŞKİLER BÖLÜMÜ, ULUSLARARASI İLİŞKİLER PR.
0000-0003-2846-4088
Türkiye

Publication Date July 30, 2021
Published in Issue Year 2021, Volume 8, Issue 2

Cite

Bibtex @research article { tesamakademi961923, journal = {TESAM Akademi Dergisi}, issn = {2148-2462}, eissn = {2458-9217}, address = {}, publisher = {TESAM Ekonomik Siyasal ve Stratejik Araştırmalar Merkezi Derneği}, year = {2021}, volume = {8}, pages = {299 - 319}, doi = {10.30626/tesamakademi.961923}, title = {Turkish Foreign Policy Toward Greece: From Europeanization to De-Europeanization}, key = {cite}, author = {Kalkan, Erol} }
APA Kalkan, E. (2021). Turkish Foreign Policy Toward Greece: From Europeanization to De-Europeanization . TESAM Akademi Dergisi , 8 (2) , 299-319 . DOI: 10.30626/tesamakademi.961923
MLA Kalkan, E. "Turkish Foreign Policy Toward Greece: From Europeanization to De-Europeanization" . TESAM Akademi Dergisi 8 (2021 ): 299-319 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/tesamakademi/issue/64331/961923>
Chicago Kalkan, E. "Turkish Foreign Policy Toward Greece: From Europeanization to De-Europeanization". TESAM Akademi Dergisi 8 (2021 ): 299-319
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Turkish Foreign Policy Toward Greece: From Europeanization to De-Europeanization AU - Erol Kalkan Y1 - 2021 PY - 2021 N1 - doi: 10.30626/tesamakademi.961923 DO - 10.30626/tesamakademi.961923 T2 - TESAM Akademi Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 299 EP - 319 VL - 8 IS - 2 SN - 2148-2462-2458-9217 M3 - doi: 10.30626/tesamakademi.961923 UR - https://doi.org/10.30626/tesamakademi.961923 Y2 - 2021 ER -
EndNote %0 Journal of TESAM Akademy Turkish Foreign Policy Toward Greece: From Europeanization to De-Europeanization %A Erol Kalkan %T Turkish Foreign Policy Toward Greece: From Europeanization to De-Europeanization %D 2021 %J TESAM Akademi Dergisi %P 2148-2462-2458-9217 %V 8 %N 2 %R doi: 10.30626/tesamakademi.961923 %U 10.30626/tesamakademi.961923
ISNAD Kalkan, Erol . "Turkish Foreign Policy Toward Greece: From Europeanization to De-Europeanization". TESAM Akademi Dergisi 8 / 2 (July 2021): 299-319 . https://doi.org/10.30626/tesamakademi.961923
AMA Kalkan E. Turkish Foreign Policy Toward Greece: From Europeanization to De-Europeanization. TESAM Akademi Dergisi. 2021; 8(2): 299-319.
Vancouver Kalkan E. Turkish Foreign Policy Toward Greece: From Europeanization to De-Europeanization. TESAM Akademi Dergisi. 2021; 8(2): 299-319.
IEEE E. Kalkan , "Turkish Foreign Policy Toward Greece: From Europeanization to De-Europeanization", TESAM Akademi Dergisi, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 299-319, Jul. 2021, doi:10.30626/tesamakademi.961923