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Physiology of smell and smell tests: Review

Year 2016, Volume 7, Issue 2, 48 - 53, 29.10.2016
https://doi.org/10.18663/tjcl.54874

Abstract

 Physiology of smell and smell tests were discussed in this article. Smell is a sense that derives from sustained release of chemical molecules into the air. Smell has an essential role in recognition of nutrients, protection from harmful effects of chemicals, regulation of eating and nervous system function. Smell disorders conductive, sensorineural or mixed type is. To evaluate the function of smell is not so easy. This assessment is done by many parameters. These tests were divided into psychophysical tests and electrophysiological testing. Psychophysical tests used for the clinical evaluation of smell loss, electrophysiological tests are used primarily for research purposes. Olfactory disorders, are not assessed by objective tests as well as other sensory disturbances; and it is often neglected by clinicians. Therefore, the section that concerns this issue, ENT, neurology and family physician during the examination, aimed to increase awareness of the sensory systems, such as smell.

 

 

 

Key words: Smell, olfactory system, physiology of smell, smell tests

 

References

  • Kandemir S. Multipl Sklerozlu hastalarda koku duyusunun değerlendirilmesi. Kırıkkale Üniversitesi, Tıp Fakültesi, Kulak Burun Boğaz Anabilim dalı, Uzmanlık tezi, Kırıkkale, 2015.
  • Deems D, Doty R, Hummel T, Kratskin I. Olfactory function and disorders. Head and Neck Surgery-Otolaryngology, Second Edition, edited by Byron J.Bailey. Lippincott-Raven Publisher, Philadelphia 1998; 25: 317-31.
  • Incesulu A. Koku ve tat. In: Koç C (Ed.) Kulak Burun Boğaz Hastalıkları ve Baş Boyun Cerrahisi. Güneş Kitabevi, Ankara, 2004; 463-77.
  • Leopold D. Physiology of Olfaction. In Cummings CW, Fredrickson JM, Harker LA, Crause CJ, Richardson MA, Schuller DE. Otolaryngology Head & Neck Surgery 3 th Edition. Mosby-Year Book, Inc.1998; 2: 770-99.
  • Lledo P, Gheusi G, Vincent J. Information processing in the mammalian olfactory system. Physiol Rev 2005; 85: 281-317.
  • SweazeY RD. Olfaction and taste. Fundomental Neuroscience. Churchill Livingstone Inc. 1997; 321-7.
  • Wrobel BB, Leopold DA. Clinical assessment of patients with smell and taste disorders. Otolaryngol Clin North Am 2004; 37:1127-42.
  • Leopold D. Otolaryngology Head & Neck Surgery.Volume Two. Third Edition. Ed. Charles W.Cummings. Mosby year book, Inc. 1993: 770-98.
  • Ileri F. Burun ve Paranazal sinüs hastalıklarında öykü ve muayene. Çelik O (Editör). Kulak burun boğaz hastalıkları ve baş boyun cerrahisinde. İstanbul: Turgut Yayıncılık; 2002.s. 339-56.
  • Ballenger JJ. (Çeviri: İnallı S) Burun ve paranazal sinüslerin klinik anatomi ve fizyolojisi. Editör: Ballenger JJ. Snow JB. Otolaringoloji Bas ve Boyun Cerrahisi. Nobel Tıp Kitapevleri, 2000: 3-18.
  • Ovale K W, Nahırney P C. Netter Temel Histoloji. Güneş Tıp Kitapevi 2009; 333-6.
  • Shepherd G. The olfactory system. Neurobiology (3rd ed) New York Oxford University press 1994; 252-66.
  • Leopold DA. Koku fizyolojisi. Cummings Otolaringoloji Baş Boyun Cerrahisi, Cummings CW (ed), (Ceviri: Koc C), Dördüncü Baskı, Ankara, Guneş Tıp Kitabevleri. 2007: 865-97.
  • Hadley K, Orlandi RR, Fong KJ. Basic anatomy physiology of olfaction and taste. Otolaryngol Clin N Am 2004; 37: 1115-26.
  • Nathan RA, Eccles R, Howarth PH, Steinsvag SK, Togias A. Objective monitoring of nasal patency and nasal physiology in rhinitis. J Allergy Clin İmmunol 2005;115: 442-59.
  • Probst R, Grevers G, Iro H. Basic Physiology and Immunology of the Nose. In: Basic Otolaryngology. Stutgart. New York. Thime; 2006; 10-3.
  • Drake L A. Scott Brown’s Otolaryngology, 6.th.ed. Oxford, Buttervorth Heinemann; 1997.p.1/6/1-16.
  • Karasalihoğlu AR. Kulak burun boğaz hastalıkları ve baş boyun cerrahisi. 3. baskı. Ankara: Güneş Kitabevi, 2002: 97-114.
  • Guyton AC. Olfactory physiology. Text Book of Medical Physıology. Guyton AC, Hall CE (ed). 10’s edn. W.B. Saunders company. 2001: 616-9.
  • Pallanch JF, Mccaffrey TM, Kern EB. Evaluation of Nasal Breathing Function with Objective Airway Testing In: Cummings CW (Ed). Otolaryngol Head Neck Surgery, 3rd edition. Missouri: Mosby – Year Book Inc.; 1988. p.799-832.
  • Small DM, Gerber JC, Mak YE. Differential neural responses evoked by orthonasal compared with retronasal odorant perception in humans. Neuron 2005; 47: 593-605.
  • Briner HR, Simmen D. Smell diskettes as screening test of olfaction. Rhinology 1999; 37: 145-8.
  • Kobayashi M, Reiter ER, Dinardo LJ, Costanzo RM. A new clinical olfactory function test: cross-cultural influence. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2007; 133: 331-6.
  • Doty RL, Shaman P, Kimmelman CP, Dann MS. University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test: a rapid quantitative olfactory function test for the clinic. Laryngoscope 1984; 94: 176-8.
  • Cameron EL. Measures of human olfactory perception during pregnancy. Chem Senses 2007; 32: 775-82.
  • Doty RL, Marcus A, Lee WW, Development of the 12-item Cross-Cultural Smell Identification Test (CC-SIT). Laryngoscope 1996; 106: 353-6.
  • Saito S, Ayabe-Kanamura S, Takashima Y, Gotow N, Naıto N, Nozawa T, et al. Development of a smell identification test using a novel stick-type odor presentation kit. Chem Senses 2006; 31: 379-91.
  • Kobayashi M, Nishida K, Nakamura S, OishiM, Shıozaki T, Majima Y, et al. Suitability of the odor stick identification test for the Japanese in patients suffering from olfactory disturbance. Acta Otolaryngol Suppl 2004; 553: 74-9.
  • Kobal G, Hummel T, Sekınger B, Barz S, Roscher S, Wolf S, "Sniffin' sticks": screening of olfactory performance. Rhinology 1996; 34: 222-6.
  • Hummel T, Sekinger B, Wolf SR, Pauli E, Kobal G. 'Sniffin' sticks': olfactory performance assessed by the combined testing of odor identification, odor discrimination and olfactory threshold. Chem Senses 1997; 22: 39-52.
  • Eıbensteın, A, Fioretti Ab, Lena C, Rosati N, Amabile G, Fusetti M, Modern psychophysical tests to assess olfactory function. Neurol Sci 2005; 26: 147-55.
  • Hummel T, Knecht M, Kobal G, Electro-olfactogram in man. Soc Neurosci Abstr 1996; 22: 653.
  • Doty Rl, Deems DA. Olfactory function and dysfunction. Head and Neck Surgery-Otolaryngology, Bailey BJ, Calhoun KH, Healy GB, Pillsbury HC, Johnson JT, Jaclkler RK, Tardy EM eds. Lippincot Williams&Wilkins, Philadelphia, 2001; 247-60.
  • Leopold DA, Hummel T, Schwob JE, Hong SC, Knecht M, Kobal G, Anterior distribution of human olfactory epithelium. Laryngoscope 2000; 110: 417-21.
  • Zusho H. Olfactometry in Japan. Rhinology 1983; 21: 281-5.
  • Furukawa M, Kamide M, Miwa T, Umeda R. Significance of intravenous olfaction test using thiamine propyldisulfide (Alinamin) in olfactometry. Auris Nasus Larynx 1988; 15: 25-31.
  • Kern RC. Chronic sinusitis and anosmia: pathologic changes in the olfactory mucosa. Laryngoscope 2000; 110: 1071-7.

Koku fizyolojisi ve koku testleri: Derleme

Year 2016, Volume 7, Issue 2, 48 - 53, 29.10.2016
https://doi.org/10.18663/tjcl.54874

Abstract

 

Bu derleme yazısında, koku fizyolojisi ve koku testleri ele alınmıştır. Koku, maddelerin havaya sürekli yaymış oldukları uçucu, kimyasalmoleküllerdir. Koku duyusunun besin maddelerinin tanınmasında, zararlı kimyasal maddelerin etkilerinden kaçınmada, istekli yemek yemede ve sinir sistemi fonksiyonlarının düzenlenmesinde rolü vardır. Koku bozuklukları iletimsel, sensörinöral ya da mikst tipte olmaktadır. Koku fonksiyonunu değerlendirmek çok kolay değildir. Bu değerlendirme birçok parametre ile yapılmaktadır. Uygulanan testler psikofizik testler ve elektrofizyolojik testler olarak ikiye ayrılır. Psikofizik testler koku kaybının klinik değerlendirmesi için kullanılırken, elektrofizyolojik testler öncelikli olarak araştırma amaçlı kullanılmaktadır. Koku duyusu bozuklukları, genellikle diğer duyu bozuklukları gibi objektif testler ile değerlendirilmemekte; ve klinisyenler tarafından da ihmal edilmektedir. Bu nedenle bu konunun ilgilendirdiği bölümler olan KBB, Nöroloji ve Aile Hekimlerinin muayenesi sırasında koku gibi duyusal sisteme farkındalık arttırılması amaçlanmıştır.

 

 

 

Anahtar kelimeler: Koku, olfaktör sistem, koku fizyolojisi, koku testleri

 

References

  • Kandemir S. Multipl Sklerozlu hastalarda koku duyusunun değerlendirilmesi. Kırıkkale Üniversitesi, Tıp Fakültesi, Kulak Burun Boğaz Anabilim dalı, Uzmanlık tezi, Kırıkkale, 2015.
  • Deems D, Doty R, Hummel T, Kratskin I. Olfactory function and disorders. Head and Neck Surgery-Otolaryngology, Second Edition, edited by Byron J.Bailey. Lippincott-Raven Publisher, Philadelphia 1998; 25: 317-31.
  • Incesulu A. Koku ve tat. In: Koç C (Ed.) Kulak Burun Boğaz Hastalıkları ve Baş Boyun Cerrahisi. Güneş Kitabevi, Ankara, 2004; 463-77.
  • Leopold D. Physiology of Olfaction. In Cummings CW, Fredrickson JM, Harker LA, Crause CJ, Richardson MA, Schuller DE. Otolaryngology Head & Neck Surgery 3 th Edition. Mosby-Year Book, Inc.1998; 2: 770-99.
  • Lledo P, Gheusi G, Vincent J. Information processing in the mammalian olfactory system. Physiol Rev 2005; 85: 281-317.
  • SweazeY RD. Olfaction and taste. Fundomental Neuroscience. Churchill Livingstone Inc. 1997; 321-7.
  • Wrobel BB, Leopold DA. Clinical assessment of patients with smell and taste disorders. Otolaryngol Clin North Am 2004; 37:1127-42.
  • Leopold D. Otolaryngology Head & Neck Surgery.Volume Two. Third Edition. Ed. Charles W.Cummings. Mosby year book, Inc. 1993: 770-98.
  • Ileri F. Burun ve Paranazal sinüs hastalıklarında öykü ve muayene. Çelik O (Editör). Kulak burun boğaz hastalıkları ve baş boyun cerrahisinde. İstanbul: Turgut Yayıncılık; 2002.s. 339-56.
  • Ballenger JJ. (Çeviri: İnallı S) Burun ve paranazal sinüslerin klinik anatomi ve fizyolojisi. Editör: Ballenger JJ. Snow JB. Otolaringoloji Bas ve Boyun Cerrahisi. Nobel Tıp Kitapevleri, 2000: 3-18.
  • Ovale K W, Nahırney P C. Netter Temel Histoloji. Güneş Tıp Kitapevi 2009; 333-6.
  • Shepherd G. The olfactory system. Neurobiology (3rd ed) New York Oxford University press 1994; 252-66.
  • Leopold DA. Koku fizyolojisi. Cummings Otolaringoloji Baş Boyun Cerrahisi, Cummings CW (ed), (Ceviri: Koc C), Dördüncü Baskı, Ankara, Guneş Tıp Kitabevleri. 2007: 865-97.
  • Hadley K, Orlandi RR, Fong KJ. Basic anatomy physiology of olfaction and taste. Otolaryngol Clin N Am 2004; 37: 1115-26.
  • Nathan RA, Eccles R, Howarth PH, Steinsvag SK, Togias A. Objective monitoring of nasal patency and nasal physiology in rhinitis. J Allergy Clin İmmunol 2005;115: 442-59.
  • Probst R, Grevers G, Iro H. Basic Physiology and Immunology of the Nose. In: Basic Otolaryngology. Stutgart. New York. Thime; 2006; 10-3.
  • Drake L A. Scott Brown’s Otolaryngology, 6.th.ed. Oxford, Buttervorth Heinemann; 1997.p.1/6/1-16.
  • Karasalihoğlu AR. Kulak burun boğaz hastalıkları ve baş boyun cerrahisi. 3. baskı. Ankara: Güneş Kitabevi, 2002: 97-114.
  • Guyton AC. Olfactory physiology. Text Book of Medical Physıology. Guyton AC, Hall CE (ed). 10’s edn. W.B. Saunders company. 2001: 616-9.
  • Pallanch JF, Mccaffrey TM, Kern EB. Evaluation of Nasal Breathing Function with Objective Airway Testing In: Cummings CW (Ed). Otolaryngol Head Neck Surgery, 3rd edition. Missouri: Mosby – Year Book Inc.; 1988. p.799-832.
  • Small DM, Gerber JC, Mak YE. Differential neural responses evoked by orthonasal compared with retronasal odorant perception in humans. Neuron 2005; 47: 593-605.
  • Briner HR, Simmen D. Smell diskettes as screening test of olfaction. Rhinology 1999; 37: 145-8.
  • Kobayashi M, Reiter ER, Dinardo LJ, Costanzo RM. A new clinical olfactory function test: cross-cultural influence. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2007; 133: 331-6.
  • Doty RL, Shaman P, Kimmelman CP, Dann MS. University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test: a rapid quantitative olfactory function test for the clinic. Laryngoscope 1984; 94: 176-8.
  • Cameron EL. Measures of human olfactory perception during pregnancy. Chem Senses 2007; 32: 775-82.
  • Doty RL, Marcus A, Lee WW, Development of the 12-item Cross-Cultural Smell Identification Test (CC-SIT). Laryngoscope 1996; 106: 353-6.
  • Saito S, Ayabe-Kanamura S, Takashima Y, Gotow N, Naıto N, Nozawa T, et al. Development of a smell identification test using a novel stick-type odor presentation kit. Chem Senses 2006; 31: 379-91.
  • Kobayashi M, Nishida K, Nakamura S, OishiM, Shıozaki T, Majima Y, et al. Suitability of the odor stick identification test for the Japanese in patients suffering from olfactory disturbance. Acta Otolaryngol Suppl 2004; 553: 74-9.
  • Kobal G, Hummel T, Sekınger B, Barz S, Roscher S, Wolf S, "Sniffin' sticks": screening of olfactory performance. Rhinology 1996; 34: 222-6.
  • Hummel T, Sekinger B, Wolf SR, Pauli E, Kobal G. 'Sniffin' sticks': olfactory performance assessed by the combined testing of odor identification, odor discrimination and olfactory threshold. Chem Senses 1997; 22: 39-52.
  • Eıbensteın, A, Fioretti Ab, Lena C, Rosati N, Amabile G, Fusetti M, Modern psychophysical tests to assess olfactory function. Neurol Sci 2005; 26: 147-55.
  • Hummel T, Knecht M, Kobal G, Electro-olfactogram in man. Soc Neurosci Abstr 1996; 22: 653.
  • Doty Rl, Deems DA. Olfactory function and dysfunction. Head and Neck Surgery-Otolaryngology, Bailey BJ, Calhoun KH, Healy GB, Pillsbury HC, Johnson JT, Jaclkler RK, Tardy EM eds. Lippincot Williams&Wilkins, Philadelphia, 2001; 247-60.
  • Leopold DA, Hummel T, Schwob JE, Hong SC, Knecht M, Kobal G, Anterior distribution of human olfactory epithelium. Laryngoscope 2000; 110: 417-21.
  • Zusho H. Olfactometry in Japan. Rhinology 1983; 21: 281-5.
  • Furukawa M, Kamide M, Miwa T, Umeda R. Significance of intravenous olfaction test using thiamine propyldisulfide (Alinamin) in olfactometry. Auris Nasus Larynx 1988; 15: 25-31.
  • Kern RC. Chronic sinusitis and anosmia: pathologic changes in the olfactory mucosa. Laryngoscope 2000; 110: 1071-7.

Details

Journal Section Revıew Artıcle
Authors

Süheyla KANDEMİR This is me


Nuray BAYAR MULUK
0000-0003-3602-9289

Publication Date October 29, 2016
Published in Issue Year 2016, Volume 7, Issue 2

Cite

Bibtex @ { tjcl261456, journal = {Turkish Journal of Clinics and Laboratory}, issn = {}, eissn = {2149-8296}, address = {}, publisher = {DNT Ortadoğu Yayıncılık A.Ş.}, year = {2016}, volume = {7}, pages = {48 - 53}, doi = {10.18663/tjcl.54874}, title = {Koku fizyolojisi ve koku testleri: Derleme}, key = {cite}, author = {Kandemir, Süheyla and Bayar Muluk, Nuray} }
APA Kandemir, S. & Bayar Muluk, N. (2016). Koku fizyolojisi ve koku testleri: Derleme . Turkish Journal of Clinics and Laboratory , 7 (2) , 48-53 . DOI: 10.18663/tjcl.54874
MLA Kandemir, S. , Bayar Muluk, N. "Koku fizyolojisi ve koku testleri: Derleme" . Turkish Journal of Clinics and Laboratory 7 (2016 ): 48-53 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/tjcl/issue/24720/261456>
Chicago Kandemir, S. , Bayar Muluk, N. "Koku fizyolojisi ve koku testleri: Derleme". Turkish Journal of Clinics and Laboratory 7 (2016 ): 48-53
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Koku fizyolojisi ve koku testleri: Derleme AU - Süheyla Kandemir , Nuray Bayar Muluk Y1 - 2016 PY - 2016 N1 - doi: 10.18663/tjcl.54874 DO - 10.18663/tjcl.54874 T2 - Turkish Journal of Clinics and Laboratory JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 48 EP - 53 VL - 7 IS - 2 SN - -2149-8296 M3 - doi: 10.18663/tjcl.54874 UR - https://doi.org/10.18663/tjcl.54874 Y2 - 2022 ER -
EndNote %0 Turkish Journal of Clinics and Laboratory Koku fizyolojisi ve koku testleri: Derleme %A Süheyla Kandemir , Nuray Bayar Muluk %T Koku fizyolojisi ve koku testleri: Derleme %D 2016 %J Turkish Journal of Clinics and Laboratory %P -2149-8296 %V 7 %N 2 %R doi: 10.18663/tjcl.54874 %U 10.18663/tjcl.54874
ISNAD Kandemir, Süheyla , Bayar Muluk, Nuray . "Koku fizyolojisi ve koku testleri: Derleme". Turkish Journal of Clinics and Laboratory 7 / 2 (October 2016): 48-53 . https://doi.org/10.18663/tjcl.54874
AMA Kandemir S. , Bayar Muluk N. Koku fizyolojisi ve koku testleri: Derleme. TJCL. 2016; 7(2): 48-53.
Vancouver Kandemir S. , Bayar Muluk N. Koku fizyolojisi ve koku testleri: Derleme. Turkish Journal of Clinics and Laboratory. 2016; 7(2): 48-53.
IEEE S. Kandemir and N. Bayar Muluk , "Koku fizyolojisi ve koku testleri: Derleme", Turkish Journal of Clinics and Laboratory, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 48-53, Oct. 2016, doi:10.18663/tjcl.54874


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