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YIELD FORMATION CAPACITY, SOIL WATER CONSUMPTION PROPERTY, AND PLANT WATER USE EFFICIENCY OF WHEAT UNDER WATER-SAVING CONDITIONS IN NORTH CHINA PLAIN

Year 2018, Volume 23, Issue 2, 107 - 116, 15.12.2018
https://doi.org/10.17557/tjfc.471446

Abstract

The drastically reduced underground water and shortage of the water resource have caused limitation for the winter wheat (T. aestivum) production in North China Plain. In this study, using a drought-tolerant wheat cultivar Shimai 18 as material, we investigated the yield formation capacity, soil water consumption property, and the plant water use efficiency (WUE) of wheat under various irrigation treatments. Our results indicated that the yield capacities of wheat varied largely across irrigation treatments in three growth seasons with contrasting precipitation patterns. The wheat yields showed constant in growth season with more rainfall and lowered to some extent in seasons with regular or less rainfall under I1 (water-saving condition with one time of irrigation) compared with I3 (regular irrigation with three times of irrigation). Along with increase of the irrigation times, plant WUE lowered drastically in all of three growth seasons examined, together with significantly increased evapotranspiration (ET) amount and relative constant of soil water deposits. These results suggested that the water-saving management is feasible in the winter wheat production in North China Plain. Additionally, the plant leaf area index (LAI), dry matter accumulation, and biomass partitioning rate of vegetative tissues during late growth stage (from flowering to maturity) were consistent with the yield formation capacities of the wheat cultivar. Our investigation indicates that the water-saving management using drought tolerant cultivars is effective in production of winter wheat in North China Plain, which can drastically improve the plant WUE and maintain the sustainable wheat productivity under reduced irrigation conditions.

References

  • Asseng, S., P.D. Jamieson, B. Kimball, P. Pinter, K. Sayre, J.W. Bowden, S.M. Howden. 2004. Simulated wheat growth affected by rising temperature, increased water deficit and elevated atmospheric CO2. Field Crop Res. 85:85-102.
  • Cattivelli, L., F. Rizza, F. Badeck, E. Mazzucotelli, A. Mastrangelo, E. Francia, C. Marè, A. Tondelli, Stanca, A. 2008. Drought tolerance improvement in crop plants: an integrated view from breeding to genomics. Field Crops Res. 105:1-14.
  • Elliott, J., D. Deryng, C. Muller, K. Frieler, M. Konzmann, D. Gerten, M. Glotter, M. Florke, Y. Wada, N. Best. 2014. Constraints and potentials of future irrigation water availability on agricultural production under climate change. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 111:3239-3244.
  • Fang, Q.X., L. Ma, T.R. Green, Q. Yu, T.D. Wang, L.R. Ahuja. 2010. Water resources and water use efficiency in the North China Plain: current status and agronomic management options. Agric. Water Manage. 97:1102-1116.
  • Fulvia, R., G. Jaleh, M. Sylvie, M. Loredana, M.M. Anna, B. Franz-Werner. 2012.Constitutive differences in water use efficiency between two durum wheat cultivars. Field Crops Res.125:9-60.
  • Gao, Y., X. Shen, X. Li, Z. Meng, J. Sun, A. Duan. 2015. Effects of pre-sowing irrigation on crop water consumption, grain yield and water productivity of winter wheat in the North China Plain. Irrig. Drain. 3:765-766.
  • Hoekstra, A.Y., M.M. Mekonnen. 2012. The water footprint of humanity. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 109:3232-3237.
  • Hu, C.S., S.A. Saseendran, T.R. Green, L. Ma, X. Li, L.R. Ahuja. 2006.Evaluating nitrogen and water management in a double-cropping system using RZWQM. Plain using remote sensing technology. Agric. Water Manage. 95:1271-1278.
  • Hu, Y.K., J.P. Moiwo, Y.H. Yang, S.M. Han, Y.M. Yang. 2010. Agricultural water-saving and sustainable groundwater management in Shijiazhuang Irrigation District, North China Plain. J. Hydrol. 393:219-232.
  • IGSNRR (Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources). 2016. Thematic database for human-earth system. Available at:. ttp://www.data.ac.cn/index.asp (verified on 04.12.16).
  • Lan, L.W., D.X. Zhou. 1995. Studies on water-saving and high-yielding of winter wheat. China Agricultural University Press, Beijing, China (Chinese).
  • Li, J.M., S. Inanaga, Z.H. Li, A.E. Eneji. 2005. Optimizing irrigation scheduling for winter wheat in the North China Plain. Agric. Water Manag. 76:8-23.
  • Li, J.M., D.X. Zhou. 2000. Cultivation technological principles for improving water and fertilizer use efficiency in winter wheat. China Agricultural University Press, Beijing, China (Chinese).
  • Li, Q., M. Liu, J. Zhang, B. Dong, Q. Bai. 2009. Biomass accumulation and radiation use efficiency of winter wheat under deficit irrigation regimes. Plant Soil Environ. 55 (2):85-91.
  • Li, Q.Q., B.D. Dong, Y.Z. Qiao, M.Y. Liu, J.W. Zhang. 2010. Root growth, available soil water, and water-use efficiency of winter wheat under different irrigation regimes applied at different growth stages in North China. Agric. Water Manage. 97:1676-1682.
  • Li, Q.Q., X.B. Zhou, Y.H. Chen, S.L. Yu. 2012.Water consumption characteristics of winter wheat grown using different planting patterns and deficit irrigationregime. Agric. Water Manage. 105:8-12.
  • Liu, X., L. Shao, H. Sun, S. Chen, X. Zhang. 2013. Responses of yield and water use efficiency to irrigation amount decided by pan evaporation for winter wheat. Agric. Water Manag. 129:173-180.
  • Meng, Q., Q. Sun, X. Chen, Z. Cui, S. Yue, F. Zhang, V. Romheld. 2012. Alternative cropping systems for sustainable water and nitrogen use in the North China Plain. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 146:93-102.
  • Oweis, T., M. Pala, J. Ryan. 1998. Stabilizing rainfed wheat yields with supplemental irrigation and nitrogen in a Mediterranean climate. Agron. J. 90:672-681.
  • Oweis, T., H.P. Zhang, M. Pala. 2000. Water use efficiency of rainfed and irrigated bread wheat in a Mediterranean environment. Agron. J. 92:231-238.
  • Ramírez-Rodrigues, M.A., P.D. Alderman, L. Stefanova, C.M. Cossani, D. Flores, S. Asseng. 2016. The value of seasonal forecasts for irrigated, supplementary irrigated, and rainfed wheat cropping systems in northwest Mexico. Agric. Syst. 147: 76-86.
  • Rebetzke, G.J., D.G. Bonnett, M.P. Reynolds. 2016. Awns reduce grain number to increase grain size and harvestable yield in irrigated and rainfed spring wheat. J. Exp. Bot. 67:2573-2586.
  • Ridoutt, B.G., S.J. Eady, J. Sellahewa, L. Simons, R. Bektash. 2009. Water foot printing at the product brand level: case study and future challenges. J. Clean. Prod. 17:1228-1235.
  • Shao, L.W., X.Y. Zhang, S.Y. Chen, H.Y. Sun, Z.H. Wang. 2009. Effects of irrigation frequency under limited irrigation on root water uptake, yield and water use efficiency of winter wheat. Irrig. Drain. 58 (4): 393-405.
  • Sun, H.Y., Y.J. Shen, Q. Yu, N.F. Gerald, Y.Q. Zhang, C.M. Liu, X.Y. Zhang. 2010. Effect of recipitation change on water balance and WUE of the winter wheat–summer maize rotation in the North China Plain. Agric. Water Manage. 97 (8):1139-1145.
  • Wang Y., Y. Zhang, R. Zhang, J. Li, M. Zhang, S. Zhou, Z. Wang. 2018. Reduced irrigation increases the water use efficiency and productivity of winter wheat-summer maize rotation on the North China Plain. Sci. Total Environm. 618:112-120.
  • Wang, H.X., C.M. Liu, L. Zhang. 2002. Water–saving agriculture in China: an overview. Adv. Agron. 75:135-171.
  • Wang, Y., W. Xi, Z. Wang, B. Wang, X. Xu, M. Han, S. Zhou, Y. Zhang. 2016. Contribution of ear photosynthesis to grain yield under rainfed and irrigation conditions for winter wheat cultivars released in the past 30 years in North China Plain. J. Integr. Agric. 15: 2247-2256.
  • Wang, Z.M., P. Wang, L.W. Lan, D.X. Zhou. 2003. A water-saving and high-yielding cultivation system for bread wheat in Huang-Huai-Hai area of China. Chin. Agric. Sci. Bull. 19:22-43 (in Chinese).
  • Xia, J., M.Y. Liu, S.F. Jia. 2005. Water security problem in North China: research and perspective. Pedosphere 15:563-575.
  • Xu, C., H. Tao, B. Tian, Y. Gao, J. Ren, P. Wang. 2016. Limited-irrigation improves water use efficiency and soil reservoir capacity through regulating root and canopy growth of winter wheat. Field Crop Res. 196:268-275.
  • Zhang, J.Y., J.S. Sun, A.W. Duan, J.L. Wang, X.J. Shen, X.F. Liu. 2007. Effects of different planting patterns on water use and yield performance of winter wheat in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain of China. Agric. Water Manage. 92:41-47.
  • Zhang, X., S. Chen, H. Sun, D. Pei, Y. Wang. 2008. Dry matter, harvest index, grain yield and water use efficiency as affected by water supply in winter wheat. Irrig. Sci. 27:1-10.
  • Zhang, X., D. Pei, S. Chen. 2004. Root growth and soil water utilization of winter wheat in the North China Plain. Hydrol. Process. 18:2275-2287.
  • Zhang, X.Y., S.Y. Chen, D. Pei, M.Y. Liu, H.Y. Sun. 2005. Improved water use efficiency associated with cultivars and agronomic management in the North China Plain. Agron. J. 97: 783-790.
  • Zhang, Y., Y. Zhang, Z. Wang, Z. Wang. 2011. Characteristics of canopy structure and contributions of non-leaf organs to yield in winter wheat under different irrigated conditions. Field Crop Res. 123:187-195.
  • Zhao, D.D., J.Y. Shen, K. Lang, Q.R. Liu, Q.Q. Li. 2013.Effects of irrigation and wide-precision planting on water use, radiation interception, and grain yield of winterwheat in the North China Plain. Agric. Water Manag. 118:87-92.

Year 2018, Volume 23, Issue 2, 107 - 116, 15.12.2018
https://doi.org/10.17557/tjfc.471446

Abstract

References

  • Asseng, S., P.D. Jamieson, B. Kimball, P. Pinter, K. Sayre, J.W. Bowden, S.M. Howden. 2004. Simulated wheat growth affected by rising temperature, increased water deficit and elevated atmospheric CO2. Field Crop Res. 85:85-102.
  • Cattivelli, L., F. Rizza, F. Badeck, E. Mazzucotelli, A. Mastrangelo, E. Francia, C. Marè, A. Tondelli, Stanca, A. 2008. Drought tolerance improvement in crop plants: an integrated view from breeding to genomics. Field Crops Res. 105:1-14.
  • Elliott, J., D. Deryng, C. Muller, K. Frieler, M. Konzmann, D. Gerten, M. Glotter, M. Florke, Y. Wada, N. Best. 2014. Constraints and potentials of future irrigation water availability on agricultural production under climate change. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 111:3239-3244.
  • Fang, Q.X., L. Ma, T.R. Green, Q. Yu, T.D. Wang, L.R. Ahuja. 2010. Water resources and water use efficiency in the North China Plain: current status and agronomic management options. Agric. Water Manage. 97:1102-1116.
  • Fulvia, R., G. Jaleh, M. Sylvie, M. Loredana, M.M. Anna, B. Franz-Werner. 2012.Constitutive differences in water use efficiency between two durum wheat cultivars. Field Crops Res.125:9-60.
  • Gao, Y., X. Shen, X. Li, Z. Meng, J. Sun, A. Duan. 2015. Effects of pre-sowing irrigation on crop water consumption, grain yield and water productivity of winter wheat in the North China Plain. Irrig. Drain. 3:765-766.
  • Hoekstra, A.Y., M.M. Mekonnen. 2012. The water footprint of humanity. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 109:3232-3237.
  • Hu, C.S., S.A. Saseendran, T.R. Green, L. Ma, X. Li, L.R. Ahuja. 2006.Evaluating nitrogen and water management in a double-cropping system using RZWQM. Plain using remote sensing technology. Agric. Water Manage. 95:1271-1278.
  • Hu, Y.K., J.P. Moiwo, Y.H. Yang, S.M. Han, Y.M. Yang. 2010. Agricultural water-saving and sustainable groundwater management in Shijiazhuang Irrigation District, North China Plain. J. Hydrol. 393:219-232.
  • IGSNRR (Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources). 2016. Thematic database for human-earth system. Available at:. ttp://www.data.ac.cn/index.asp (verified on 04.12.16).
  • Lan, L.W., D.X. Zhou. 1995. Studies on water-saving and high-yielding of winter wheat. China Agricultural University Press, Beijing, China (Chinese).
  • Li, J.M., S. Inanaga, Z.H. Li, A.E. Eneji. 2005. Optimizing irrigation scheduling for winter wheat in the North China Plain. Agric. Water Manag. 76:8-23.
  • Li, J.M., D.X. Zhou. 2000. Cultivation technological principles for improving water and fertilizer use efficiency in winter wheat. China Agricultural University Press, Beijing, China (Chinese).
  • Li, Q., M. Liu, J. Zhang, B. Dong, Q. Bai. 2009. Biomass accumulation and radiation use efficiency of winter wheat under deficit irrigation regimes. Plant Soil Environ. 55 (2):85-91.
  • Li, Q.Q., B.D. Dong, Y.Z. Qiao, M.Y. Liu, J.W. Zhang. 2010. Root growth, available soil water, and water-use efficiency of winter wheat under different irrigation regimes applied at different growth stages in North China. Agric. Water Manage. 97:1676-1682.
  • Li, Q.Q., X.B. Zhou, Y.H. Chen, S.L. Yu. 2012.Water consumption characteristics of winter wheat grown using different planting patterns and deficit irrigationregime. Agric. Water Manage. 105:8-12.
  • Liu, X., L. Shao, H. Sun, S. Chen, X. Zhang. 2013. Responses of yield and water use efficiency to irrigation amount decided by pan evaporation for winter wheat. Agric. Water Manag. 129:173-180.
  • Meng, Q., Q. Sun, X. Chen, Z. Cui, S. Yue, F. Zhang, V. Romheld. 2012. Alternative cropping systems for sustainable water and nitrogen use in the North China Plain. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 146:93-102.
  • Oweis, T., M. Pala, J. Ryan. 1998. Stabilizing rainfed wheat yields with supplemental irrigation and nitrogen in a Mediterranean climate. Agron. J. 90:672-681.
  • Oweis, T., H.P. Zhang, M. Pala. 2000. Water use efficiency of rainfed and irrigated bread wheat in a Mediterranean environment. Agron. J. 92:231-238.
  • Ramírez-Rodrigues, M.A., P.D. Alderman, L. Stefanova, C.M. Cossani, D. Flores, S. Asseng. 2016. The value of seasonal forecasts for irrigated, supplementary irrigated, and rainfed wheat cropping systems in northwest Mexico. Agric. Syst. 147: 76-86.
  • Rebetzke, G.J., D.G. Bonnett, M.P. Reynolds. 2016. Awns reduce grain number to increase grain size and harvestable yield in irrigated and rainfed spring wheat. J. Exp. Bot. 67:2573-2586.
  • Ridoutt, B.G., S.J. Eady, J. Sellahewa, L. Simons, R. Bektash. 2009. Water foot printing at the product brand level: case study and future challenges. J. Clean. Prod. 17:1228-1235.
  • Shao, L.W., X.Y. Zhang, S.Y. Chen, H.Y. Sun, Z.H. Wang. 2009. Effects of irrigation frequency under limited irrigation on root water uptake, yield and water use efficiency of winter wheat. Irrig. Drain. 58 (4): 393-405.
  • Sun, H.Y., Y.J. Shen, Q. Yu, N.F. Gerald, Y.Q. Zhang, C.M. Liu, X.Y. Zhang. 2010. Effect of recipitation change on water balance and WUE of the winter wheat–summer maize rotation in the North China Plain. Agric. Water Manage. 97 (8):1139-1145.
  • Wang Y., Y. Zhang, R. Zhang, J. Li, M. Zhang, S. Zhou, Z. Wang. 2018. Reduced irrigation increases the water use efficiency and productivity of winter wheat-summer maize rotation on the North China Plain. Sci. Total Environm. 618:112-120.
  • Wang, H.X., C.M. Liu, L. Zhang. 2002. Water–saving agriculture in China: an overview. Adv. Agron. 75:135-171.
  • Wang, Y., W. Xi, Z. Wang, B. Wang, X. Xu, M. Han, S. Zhou, Y. Zhang. 2016. Contribution of ear photosynthesis to grain yield under rainfed and irrigation conditions for winter wheat cultivars released in the past 30 years in North China Plain. J. Integr. Agric. 15: 2247-2256.
  • Wang, Z.M., P. Wang, L.W. Lan, D.X. Zhou. 2003. A water-saving and high-yielding cultivation system for bread wheat in Huang-Huai-Hai area of China. Chin. Agric. Sci. Bull. 19:22-43 (in Chinese).
  • Xia, J., M.Y. Liu, S.F. Jia. 2005. Water security problem in North China: research and perspective. Pedosphere 15:563-575.
  • Xu, C., H. Tao, B. Tian, Y. Gao, J. Ren, P. Wang. 2016. Limited-irrigation improves water use efficiency and soil reservoir capacity through regulating root and canopy growth of winter wheat. Field Crop Res. 196:268-275.
  • Zhang, J.Y., J.S. Sun, A.W. Duan, J.L. Wang, X.J. Shen, X.F. Liu. 2007. Effects of different planting patterns on water use and yield performance of winter wheat in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain of China. Agric. Water Manage. 92:41-47.
  • Zhang, X., S. Chen, H. Sun, D. Pei, Y. Wang. 2008. Dry matter, harvest index, grain yield and water use efficiency as affected by water supply in winter wheat. Irrig. Sci. 27:1-10.
  • Zhang, X., D. Pei, S. Chen. 2004. Root growth and soil water utilization of winter wheat in the North China Plain. Hydrol. Process. 18:2275-2287.
  • Zhang, X.Y., S.Y. Chen, D. Pei, M.Y. Liu, H.Y. Sun. 2005. Improved water use efficiency associated with cultivars and agronomic management in the North China Plain. Agron. J. 97: 783-790.
  • Zhang, Y., Y. Zhang, Z. Wang, Z. Wang. 2011. Characteristics of canopy structure and contributions of non-leaf organs to yield in winter wheat under different irrigated conditions. Field Crop Res. 123:187-195.
  • Zhao, D.D., J.Y. Shen, K. Lang, Q.R. Liu, Q.Q. Li. 2013.Effects of irrigation and wide-precision planting on water use, radiation interception, and grain yield of winterwheat in the North China Plain. Agric. Water Manag. 118:87-92.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Agronomy
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Jianheng ZHANG This is me
China


Guiyan WANG This is me
China


Damai ZHOU This is me (Primary Author)
China


Kai XIAO This is me (Primary Author)
China

Publication Date December 15, 2018
Published in Issue Year 2018, Volume 23, Issue 2

Cite

Bibtex @research article { tjfc471446, journal = {Turkish Journal Of Field Crops}, issn = {1301-1111}, address = {}, publisher = {Society of Fields Crop Science}, year = {2018}, volume = {23}, pages = {107 - 116}, doi = {10.17557/tjfc.471446}, title = {YIELD FORMATION CAPACITY, SOIL WATER CONSUMPTION PROPERTY, AND PLANT WATER USE EFFICIENCY OF WHEAT UNDER WATER-SAVING CONDITIONS IN NORTH CHINA PLAIN}, key = {cite}, author = {Zhang, Jianheng and Wang, Guiyan and Zhou, Damai and Xıao, Kai} }
APA Zhang, J. , Wang, G. , Zhou, D. & Xıao, K. (2018). YIELD FORMATION CAPACITY, SOIL WATER CONSUMPTION PROPERTY, AND PLANT WATER USE EFFICIENCY OF WHEAT UNDER WATER-SAVING CONDITIONS IN NORTH CHINA PLAIN . Turkish Journal Of Field Crops , 23 (2) , 107-116 . DOI: 10.17557/tjfc.471446
MLA Zhang, J. , Wang, G. , Zhou, D. , Xıao, K. "YIELD FORMATION CAPACITY, SOIL WATER CONSUMPTION PROPERTY, AND PLANT WATER USE EFFICIENCY OF WHEAT UNDER WATER-SAVING CONDITIONS IN NORTH CHINA PLAIN" . Turkish Journal Of Field Crops 23 (2018 ): 107-116 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/tjfc/issue/47497/471446>
Chicago Zhang, J. , Wang, G. , Zhou, D. , Xıao, K. "YIELD FORMATION CAPACITY, SOIL WATER CONSUMPTION PROPERTY, AND PLANT WATER USE EFFICIENCY OF WHEAT UNDER WATER-SAVING CONDITIONS IN NORTH CHINA PLAIN". Turkish Journal Of Field Crops 23 (2018 ): 107-116
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - YIELD FORMATION CAPACITY, SOIL WATER CONSUMPTION PROPERTY, AND PLANT WATER USE EFFICIENCY OF WHEAT UNDER WATER-SAVING CONDITIONS IN NORTH CHINA PLAIN AU - Jianheng Zhang , Guiyan Wang , Damai Zhou , Kai Xıao Y1 - 2018 PY - 2018 N1 - doi: 10.17557/tjfc.471446 DO - 10.17557/tjfc.471446 T2 - Turkish Journal Of Field Crops JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 107 EP - 116 VL - 23 IS - 2 SN - 1301-1111- M3 - doi: 10.17557/tjfc.471446 UR - https://doi.org/10.17557/tjfc.471446 Y2 - 2018 ER -
EndNote %0 Turkish Journal Of Field Crops YIELD FORMATION CAPACITY, SOIL WATER CONSUMPTION PROPERTY, AND PLANT WATER USE EFFICIENCY OF WHEAT UNDER WATER-SAVING CONDITIONS IN NORTH CHINA PLAIN %A Jianheng Zhang , Guiyan Wang , Damai Zhou , Kai Xıao %T YIELD FORMATION CAPACITY, SOIL WATER CONSUMPTION PROPERTY, AND PLANT WATER USE EFFICIENCY OF WHEAT UNDER WATER-SAVING CONDITIONS IN NORTH CHINA PLAIN %D 2018 %J Turkish Journal Of Field Crops %P 1301-1111- %V 23 %N 2 %R doi: 10.17557/tjfc.471446 %U 10.17557/tjfc.471446
ISNAD Zhang, Jianheng , Wang, Guiyan , Zhou, Damai , Xıao, Kai . "YIELD FORMATION CAPACITY, SOIL WATER CONSUMPTION PROPERTY, AND PLANT WATER USE EFFICIENCY OF WHEAT UNDER WATER-SAVING CONDITIONS IN NORTH CHINA PLAIN". Turkish Journal Of Field Crops 23 / 2 (December 2018): 107-116 . https://doi.org/10.17557/tjfc.471446
AMA Zhang J. , Wang G. , Zhou D. , Xıao K. YIELD FORMATION CAPACITY, SOIL WATER CONSUMPTION PROPERTY, AND PLANT WATER USE EFFICIENCY OF WHEAT UNDER WATER-SAVING CONDITIONS IN NORTH CHINA PLAIN. Turkish Journal Of Field Crops. 2018; 23(2): 107-116.
Vancouver Zhang J. , Wang G. , Zhou D. , Xıao K. YIELD FORMATION CAPACITY, SOIL WATER CONSUMPTION PROPERTY, AND PLANT WATER USE EFFICIENCY OF WHEAT UNDER WATER-SAVING CONDITIONS IN NORTH CHINA PLAIN. Turkish Journal Of Field Crops. 2018; 23(2): 107-116.
IEEE J. Zhang , G. Wang , D. Zhou and K. Xıao , "YIELD FORMATION CAPACITY, SOIL WATER CONSUMPTION PROPERTY, AND PLANT WATER USE EFFICIENCY OF WHEAT UNDER WATER-SAVING CONDITIONS IN NORTH CHINA PLAIN", Turkish Journal Of Field Crops, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 107-116, Dec. 2018, doi:10.17557/tjfc.471446