Year 2019, Volume 1 , Issue 1, Pages 1 - 5 2019-10-29

What to know about insulin treatment?

Şazi İMAMOĞLU [1]


Diabetes Mellitus is a chronic and complex disease with glycemic control at the center of its treatment and requires continuous monitoring and treatment of complications. Clinical studies such as DCCT/EDIC and UKPDS have shown that proper glycemic control is effective in preventing early and late complications of diabetes. Insulin therapy is a critical part of treatment for people with type 1 diabetes and also for many patients with type 2 diabetes.

type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, insulin
  • Nathan DM, Cleary PA, Backlund JY, Genuth SM, Lachin JM, Orchard TJ, Raskin P, Zinman B; Diabetes Control and Complications Trial/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (DCCT/EDIC) Study Research Group. Intensive diabetes treatment and cardiovascular disease in patients with type 1 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2005 Dec 22;353(25):2643-53.
  • Holman RR, Paul SK, Bethel MA, Matthews DR, Neil HA. 10-year follow-up of intensive glucose control in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2008 Oct 9;359(15):1577-89. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa0806470.
  • Giugliano D, Maiorino MI, Bellastella G, Chiodini P, Esposito K. Glycemic Control, Preexisting Cardiovascular Disease, and Risk of Major Cardiovascular Events in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Systematic Review With Meta-Analysis of Cardiovascular Outcome Trials and Intensive Glucose Control Trials. J Am Heart Assoc. 2019 Jun 18;8(12):e012356. doi: 10.1161/JAHA.119.012356.
  • Hayward RA, Reaven PD, Wiitala WL, Bahn GD, Reda DJ, Ge L, McCarren M, Duckworth WC, Emanuele NV; VADT Investigators. Follow-up of glycemic control and cardiovascular outcomes in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2015 Jun 4;372(23):2197-206. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1414266.
  • Skog O, Korsgren O. On the dynamics of the human endocrine pancreas and potential consequences for the development of type 1 diabetes. Acta Diabetol. 2019 Sep 13. doi: 10.1007/s00592-019-01420-8. [Epub ahead of print]
  • American Diabetes Association. 9. Pharmacologic Approaches to Glycemic Treatment: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes-2019. Diabetes Care. 2019 Jan;42(Suppl 1):S90-S102. doi: 10.2337/dc19-S009.
  • DeWitt DE, Hirsch IB. Outpatient insulin therapy in type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus: scientific review. JAMA. 2003 May 7;289(17):2254-64.
  • Home PD, Bergenstal RM, Bolli GB, Ziemen M, Rojeski M, Espinasse M, Riddle MC. New Insulin Glargine 300 Units/mL Versus Glargine 100 Units/mL in People With Type 1 Diabetes: A Randomized, Phase 3a, Open-Label Clinical Trial (EDITION 4). Diabetes Care. 2015 Dec;38(12):2217-25. doi: 10.2337/dc15-0249.
  • Lane W, Bailey TS, Gerety G, Gumprecht J, Philis-Tsimikas A, Hansen CT, Nielsen TSS, Warren M; Group Information; SWITCH 1. Effect of Insulin Degludec vs Insulin Glargine U100 on Hypoglycemia in Patients With Type 1 Diabetes: The SWITCH 1 Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2017 Jul 4;318(1):33-44. doi: 10.1001/jama.2017.7115.
  • Tricco AC, Ashoor HM, Antony J, Beyene J, Veroniki AA, Isaranuwatchai W, Harrington A, Wilson C, Tsouros S, Soobiah C, Yu CH, Hutton B, Hoch JS, Hemmelgarn BR, Moher D, Majumdar SR, Straus SE. Safety, effectiveness, and cost effectiveness of long acting versus intermediate acting insulin for patients with type 1 diabetes: systematic review and network meta-analysis. BMJ. 2014 Oct 1;349:g5459. doi: 10.1136/bmj.g5459.
  • Bartley PC, Bogoev M, Larsen J, Philotheou A. Long-term efficacy and safety of insulin detemir compared to Neutral Protamine Hagedorn insulin in patients with Type 1 diabetes using a treat-to-target basal-bolus regimen with insulin aspart at meals: a 2-year, randomized, controlled trial. Diabet Med. 2008 Apr;25(4):442-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2007.02407.x.
  • Ivers NM, Jiang M, Alloo J, Singer A, Ngui D, Casey CG, Yu CH. Diabetes Canada 2018 clinical practice guidelines: Key messages for family physicians caring for patients living with type 2 diabetes. Can Fam Physician. 2019 Jan;65(1):14-24.
  • Castellano E, Attanasio R, Giagulli VA, Boriano A, Terzolo M, Papini E, Guastamacchia E, Monti S, Aglialoro A, Agrimi D, Ansaldi E, Babini AC, Blatto A, Brancato D, Casile C, Cassibba S, Crescenti C, De Feo ML, Del Prete A, Disoteo O, Ermetici F, Fiore V, Fusco A, Gioia D, Grassi A, Gullo D, Lo Pomo F, Miceli A, Nizzoli M, Pellegrino M, Pirali B, Santini C, Settembrini S, Tortato E, Triggiani V, Vacirca A, Borretta G; all on behalf of Associazione Medici Endocrinologi (AME). The basal to total insulin ratio in outpatients with diabetes on basal-bolus regimen. J Diabetes Metab Disord. 2018 Oct 1;17(2):393-9. doi: 10.1007/s40200-018-0358-2.
  • Peters A, Van Name MA, Thorsted BL, Piltoft JS, Tamborlane WV. postprandial dosing of bolus insulin in patients with type 1 diabetes: A cross-sectional study using data from the T1D exchange registry. Endocr Pract. 2017 Oct;23(10):1201-9. doi: 10.4158/EP171813.OR.
  • Yeh HC, Brown TT, Maruthur N, Ranasinghe P, Berger Z, Suh YD, Wilson LM, Haberl EB, Brick J, Bass EB, Golden SH. Comparative effectiveness and safety of methods of insulin delivery and glucose monitoring for diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med. 2012 Sep 4;157(5):336-47.
  • Bell KJ, Toschi E, Steil GM, Wolpert HA. Optimized Mealtime Insulin Dosing for Fat and Protein in Type 1 Diabetes: Application of a Model-Based Approach to Derive Insulin Doses for Open-Loop Diabetes Management. Diabetes Care. 2016 Sep;39(9):1631-4. doi: 10.2337/dc15-2855.
  • Davies MJ, D'Alessio DA, Fradkin J, Kernan WN, Mathieu C, Mingrone G, Rossing P, Tsapas A, Wexler DJ, Buse JB. Management of Hyperglycemia in Type 2 Diabetes, 2018. A Consensus Report by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD). Diabetes Care. 2018 Dec;41(12):2669-701. doi: 10.2337/dci18-0033.
  • Ewers B, Vilsbøll T, Andersen HU, Bruun JM. The dietary education trial in carbohydrate counting (DIET-CARB Study): study protocol for a randomised, parallel, open-label, intervention study comparing different approaches to dietary self-management in patients with type 1 diabetes. BMJ Open. 2019 Sep 3;9(9):e029859. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2019-029859.
  • Brunton S. Pathophysiology of Type 2 Diabetes: The Evolution of Our Understanding. J Fam Pract. 2016 Apr;65(4 Suppl). pii: supp_az_0416.
  • Bennett WL, Maruthur NM, Singh S, Segal JB, Wilson LM, Chatterjee R, Marinopoulos SS, Puhan MA, Ranasinghe P, Block L, Nicholson WK, Hutfless S, Bass EB, Bolen S. Comparative effectiveness and safety of medications for type 2 diabetes: an update including new drugs and 2-drug combinations. Ann Intern Med. 2011 May 3;154(9):602-13. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-154-9-201105030-00336.
  • Monami M, Marchionni N, Mannucci E. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists in type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Eur J Endocrinol. 2009 Jun;160(6):909-17. doi: 10.1530/EJE-09-0101.
  • Singh S, Wright EE Jr, Kwan AY, Thompson JC, Syed IA, Korol EE, Waser NA, Yu MB, Juneja R. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists compared with basal insulins for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2017 Feb;19(2):228-38. doi: 10.1111/dom.12805.
  • Porcellati F, Lucidi P, Cioli P, Candeloro P, Marinelli Andreoli A, Marzotti S, Ambrogi M, Bolli GB, Fanelli CG. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of insulin glargine given in the evening as compared with in the morning in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2015 Mar;38(3):503-12. doi: 10.2337/dc14-0649.
  • Yki-Järvinen H, Bergenstal RM, Bolli GB, Ziemen M, Wardecki M, Muehlen-Bartmer I, Maroccia M, Riddle MC. Glycaemic control and hypoglycaemia with new insulin glargine 300 U/ml versus insulin glargine 100 U/ml in people with type 2 diabetes using basal insulin and oral antihyperglycaemic drugs: the EDITION 2 randomized 12-month trial including 6-month extension. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2015 Dec;17(12):1142-9. doi: 10.1111/dom.12532.
  • Wysham C, Bhargava A, Chaykin L, de la Rosa R, Handelsman Y, Troelsen LN, Kvist K, Norwood P. Effect of Insulin Degludec vs Insulin Glargine U100 on Hypoglycemia in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: The SWITCH 2 Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2017 Jul 4;318(1):45-56. doi: 10.1001/jama.2017.7117.
  • Bolli GB, Riddle MC, Bergenstal RM, Ziemen M, Sestakauskas K, Goyeau H, Home PD; on behalf of the EDITION 3 study investigators. New insulin glargine 300 U/ml compared with glargine 100 U/ml in insulin-naïve people with type 2 diabetes on oral glucose-lowering drugs: a randomized controlled trial (EDITION 3). Diabetes Obes Metab. 2015 Apr;17(4):386-94. doi: 10.1111/dom.12438.
  • Riddle MC, Rosenstock J, Gerich J; Insulin Glargine 4002 Study Investigators. The treat-to-target trial: randomized addition of glargine or human NPH insulin to oral therapy of type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetes Care. 2003 Nov;26(11):3080-6.
  • Hermansen K, Davies M, Derezinski T, Martinez Ravn G, Clauson P, Home P. A 26-week, randomized, parallel, treat-to-target trial comparing insulin detemir with NPH insulin as add-on therapy to oral glucose-lowering drugs in insulin-naive people with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2006 Jun;29(6):1269-74.
  • Marso SP, McGuire DK, Zinman B, Poulter NR, Emerson SS, Pieber TR, Pratley RE, Haahr PM, Lange M, Brown-Frandsen K, Moses A, Skibsted S, Kvist K, Buse JB; DEVOTE Study Group. Efficacy and Safety of Degludec versus Glargine in Type 2 Diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2017 Aug 24;377(8):723-32. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1615692.
  • Eng C, Kramer CK, Zinman B, Retnakaran R. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist and basal insulin combination treatment for the management of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet. 2014 Dec 20;384(9961):2228-34. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61335-0.
  • Maiorino MI, Chiodini P, Bellastella G, Capuano A, Esposito K, Giugliano D. Insulin and Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 Receptor Agonist Combination Therapy in Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Diabetes Care. 2017 Apr;40(4):614-24. doi: 10.2337/dc16-1957.
  • Muskiet MHA, Tonneijck L, Huang Y, Liu M, Saremi A, Heerspink HJL, van Raalte DH. Lixisenatide and renal outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes and acute coronary syndrome: an exploratory analysis of the ELIXA randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2018 Nov;6(11):859-69. doi: 10.1016/S2213-8587(18)30268-7.
  • Marso SP, Bain SC, Consoli A, Eliaschewitz FG, Jódar E, Leiter LA, Lingvay I, Rosenstock J, Seufert J, Warren ML, Woo V, Hansen O, Holst AG, Pettersson J, Vilsbøll T; SUSTAIN-6 Investigators. Semaglutide and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2016 Nov 10;375(19):1834-44.
  • Verma S, Bain SC, Monk Fries T, Mazer CD, Nauck MA, Pratley RE, Rasmussen S, Saevereid HA, Zinman B, Buse JB. Duration of diabetes and cardiorenal efficacy of liraglutide and semaglutide: A post hoc analysis of the LEADER and SUSTAIN 6 clinical trials. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2019 Jul;21(7):1745-51. doi: 10.1111/dom.13698.
  • Rosenfalck AM, Thorsby P, Kjems L, Birkeland K, Dejgaard A, Hanssen KF, Madsbad S. Improved postprandial glycaemic control with insulin Aspart in type 2 diabetic patients treated with insulin. Acta Diabetol. 2000 Mar;37(1):41-6.
  • Riddle MC, Yki-Järvinen H, Bolli GB, Ziemen M, Muehlen-Bartmer I, Cissokho S, Home PD. One-year sustained glycaemic control and less hypoglycaemia with new insulin glargine 300 U/ml compared with 100 U/ml in people with type 2 diabetes using basal plus meal-time insulin: the EDITION 1 12-month randomized trial, including 6-month extension. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2015 Sep;17(9):835-42. doi: 10.1111/dom.12472.
  • Mannucci E, Monami M, Marchionni N. Short-acting insulin analogues vs. regular human insulin in type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2009 Jan;11(1):53-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1463-1326.2008.00934.x.
  • Diamant M, Nauck MA, Shaginian R, Malone JK, Cleall S, Reaney M, de Vries D, Hoogwerf BJ, MacConell L, Wolffenbuttel BH; 4B Study Group. Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist or bolus insulin with optimized basal insulin in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2014 Oct;37(10):2763-73. doi: 10.2337/dc14-0876.
  • Marso SP, Daniels GH, Brown-Frandsen K, Kristensen P, Mann JF, Nauck MA, Nissen SE, Pocock S, Poulter NR, Ravn LS, Steinberg WM, Stockner M, Zinman B, Bergenstal RM, Buse JB; LEADER Steering Committee; LEADER Trial Investigators. Liraglutide and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Type 2 Diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2016 Jul 28;375(4):311-22. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1603827.
  • Oliver N, Gimenez M, Calhoun P, Cohen N, Moscardo V, Hermanns N, Freckmann G, Reddy M, Heinemann L. Continuous Glucose Monitoring in People With Type 1 Diabetes on Multiple-Dose Injection Therapy: The Relationship Between Glycemic Control and Hypoglycemia. Diabetes Care. 2019 Sep 17. pii: dc190977. doi: 10.2337/dc19-0977. [Epub ahead of print]
  • Saunders A, Messer LH, Forlenza GP. MiniMed 670G hybrid closed loop artificial pancreas system for the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus: overview of its safety and efficacy. Expert Rev Med Devices. 2019 Oct;16(10):845-53. doi: 10.1080/17434440.2019.1670639.
  • Bergenstal RM, Garg S, Weinzimer SA, Buckingham BA, Bode BW, Tamborlane WV, Kaufman FR. Safety of a Hybrid Closed-Loop Insulin Delivery System in Patients With Type 1 Diabetes. JAMA. 2016 Oct 4;316(13):1407-8. doi: 10.1001/jama.2016.11708.
  • Garg SK, Weinzimer SA, Tamborlane WV, Buckingham BA, Bode BW, Bailey TS, Brazg RL, Ilany J, Slover RH, Anderson SM, Bergenstal RM, Grosman B, Roy A, Cordero TL, Shin J, Lee SW, Kaufman FR. Glucose Outcomes with the In-Home Use of a Hybrid Closed-Loop Insulin Delivery System in Adolescents and Adults with Type 1 Diabetes. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2017 Mar;19(3):155-63. doi: 10.1089/dia.2016.0421.
  • Akturk HK, Snell-Bergeon JK, Rewers A, Klaff LJ, Bode BW, Peters AL, Bailey TS, Garg SK. Improved Postprandial Glucose with Inhaled Technosphere Insulin Compared with Insulin Aspart in Patients with Type 1 Diabetes on Multiple Daily Injections: The STAT Study. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2018 Oct;20(10):639-47. doi: 10.1089/dia.2018.0200.
Primary Language en
Subjects General and Internal Medicine
Journal Section Editorial
Authors

Orcid: 0000-0002-9610-5880
Author: Şazi İMAMOĞLU (Primary Author)
Institution: ULUDAG UNIVERSITY, FACULTY OF MEDICINE

Dates

Application Date : October 1, 2019
Acceptance Date : October 26, 2019
Publication Date : October 29, 2019

EndNote %0 Turkish Journal of Internal Medicine What to know about insulin treatment? %A Şazi İmamoğlu %T What to know about insulin treatment? %D 2019 %J Turkish Journal of Internal Medicine %P -2687-4245 %V 1 %N 1 %R %U