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TÜRKİYE’DE BENZİNLERİN SIVI SİNTİLASYON TEKNİĞİ İLE 14C AKTİVİTESİNİN BELİRLENEREK BİYOETANOL ORANLARININ BELİRLENMESİ

Year 2019, Volume 31, Issue 1, 49 - 59, 26.06.2019

Abstract

Benzin-biyoetanol karışım oranının deneysel olarak tespit edilmesinde Sıvı Sintilasyon Sayım Tekniği (LSC) yaygın olarak kullanılmaktadır. Tekniğin ana prensibi atmosferde doğal yollarla oluşan ve zamanla bütün canlıların vücudunda bir dengeye gelen ve yarı ömrü 5730 yıl olan 14C izotopunun radyoaktivite seviyesinin ölçülmesidir. Benzin, milyonlarca yıl önce ölüp toprak altında kalmış olan canlıların ısı ve basınç etkisiyle dönüşmüş olduğu petrolden üretilmektedir. Biyoetanol ise şeker pancarı, şeker kamışı, mısır, tatlı sorgum gibi bitkilerin fermente edilmesi ile üretilen bir çeşit biyoyakıttır. Benzinde bulunan 14C radyoaktivite seviyesinin milyonlarca yıl içerisinde yarılanarak ölçülemeyecek seviyelere gerilemesi, biyoetanolün ise atmosferle denge halinde 14C seviyesine sahip olması benzin-biyoetanol karışım oranlarının belirlenmesine olanak sağlamaktadır.

Bu çalışmada sıvı sintilasyon sayımı ile ticari olarak temin edilebilen benzin ve biyoetanol karışımLarının karışım oranları belirlenmiştir.


References

  • 1) https://unfccc.int/documents
  • 2) Yunoki, S., Saito, M., 2009, A simple method to determine bioethanol content in gasoline using two-step extraction and liquid scintillation counting, Bioresource Technology, 100, 6125-6128.
  • 3) Directive 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 On the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources and amending and subsequently repealing directives 2001/77/EC and 2003/30/EC, 2009 Off J Eur Commun, L140 (2009), pp. 16-62
  • 4) https://www.iea.org/tcep/transport/biofuels/
  • 5) R. Idoeta, E. Pérez, M. Herranz, F. Legarda, 2014, Characteristic parameters in the measurement of 14C of biobased diesel fuels by liquid scintillation Appl Radiat Isot, 93, pp. 110-113.
  • 6) Dijs, I.J., Van Der Windt, E., Kaihola, E., Van Der Borg, E., 2006, Quantitative determination by 14C analysis of the biological component in fuels Radiocarbon, 48 (3), pp. 315-323.
  • 7) Edler, R., Kaihola, L., 2010, Differentiation between fossil and biofuels by liquid scintillation beta spectrometry-direct method, Nukleonika, 55 (1), pp. 127-131.
  • 8) Norton, G.A., Cline, A.M., Thompson, G.C., 2012, Use of radiocarbon analyses for determining levels of biodiesel in fuel blend – comparison with ASTM method D7371 for FAME, Fuel, 96, pp. 284-290.
  • 9) Kristof, R., Logar, J.K., 2013, Direct LSC method for measurements of biofuels in fuel, Talanta, 111, pp. 183-188
  • 10) Kristof, R., Hirsch, M., Logar, J.K., 2014, Implementation of direct LSC method for diesel samples on the fuel market Appl Radiat Isot, 93, pp. 101-105.
  • 11) Bronić, I.A., Barešić, J., Horvatinčić, N., Sironić, A., 2016, Determination of biogenic component in liquid fuels by the 14C direct LSC method by using quenching properties of modern liquids for calibration Radiat Phys Chem, 137, 248-253.
  • 12) http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2012/07/20120707-35.htm
  • 13) https://www.perkinelmer.com.cn/CMSResources/Images/46-73870SPC_1220Quantulus.pdf

DETERMINATION OF THE BIOETHANOL RATIO IN GASOLINE FROM 14C ACTIVITY CONCENTRATION BY LIQUID SCINTILLATION COUNTING IN TURKEY

Year 2019, Volume 31, Issue 1, 49 - 59, 26.06.2019

Abstract

Liquid Scintillation Counting (LSC) technique is commonly applied in determining the fraction of bioethanol-gasoline blending. The basic principle of the technique is to measure the radioactivity level of 14C isotope with the half-life of 5730 years, which is formed naturally and reaches to equilibrium in the bodies of all the living organisms. Gasoline is produced from petroleum, which is formed by the organisms that had died millions years ago and exposed to pressure and heat under the ground. In addition, bioethanol is a type of biofuel, obtained from fermentation of such crops like sugar beet, sugar cane, corn and sweet sorghum. Owing to the fact that the 14C radioactivity level in gasoline becomes to the unmeasurable levels within millions years and the bioethanol has 14C level in equilibrium with the atmosphere, it is possible to determine the blending ratios of gasoline and bioethanol.

In this study, the applicability of the determination of the ratio of biological additives in gasoline by the liquid scintillation counting technique was investigated. Gasoline-bioethanol mixture ratios were determined successfully in the commercially available gasoline and bioethanol mixtures.

References

  • 1) https://unfccc.int/documents
  • 2) Yunoki, S., Saito, M., 2009, A simple method to determine bioethanol content in gasoline using two-step extraction and liquid scintillation counting, Bioresource Technology, 100, 6125-6128.
  • 3) Directive 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 On the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources and amending and subsequently repealing directives 2001/77/EC and 2003/30/EC, 2009 Off J Eur Commun, L140 (2009), pp. 16-62
  • 4) https://www.iea.org/tcep/transport/biofuels/
  • 5) R. Idoeta, E. Pérez, M. Herranz, F. Legarda, 2014, Characteristic parameters in the measurement of 14C of biobased diesel fuels by liquid scintillation Appl Radiat Isot, 93, pp. 110-113.
  • 6) Dijs, I.J., Van Der Windt, E., Kaihola, E., Van Der Borg, E., 2006, Quantitative determination by 14C analysis of the biological component in fuels Radiocarbon, 48 (3), pp. 315-323.
  • 7) Edler, R., Kaihola, L., 2010, Differentiation between fossil and biofuels by liquid scintillation beta spectrometry-direct method, Nukleonika, 55 (1), pp. 127-131.
  • 8) Norton, G.A., Cline, A.M., Thompson, G.C., 2012, Use of radiocarbon analyses for determining levels of biodiesel in fuel blend – comparison with ASTM method D7371 for FAME, Fuel, 96, pp. 284-290.
  • 9) Kristof, R., Logar, J.K., 2013, Direct LSC method for measurements of biofuels in fuel, Talanta, 111, pp. 183-188
  • 10) Kristof, R., Hirsch, M., Logar, J.K., 2014, Implementation of direct LSC method for diesel samples on the fuel market Appl Radiat Isot, 93, pp. 101-105.
  • 11) Bronić, I.A., Barešić, J., Horvatinčić, N., Sironić, A., 2016, Determination of biogenic component in liquid fuels by the 14C direct LSC method by using quenching properties of modern liquids for calibration Radiat Phys Chem, 137, 248-253.
  • 12) http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2012/07/20120707-35.htm
  • 13) https://www.perkinelmer.com.cn/CMSResources/Images/46-73870SPC_1220Quantulus.pdf

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Physics, Applied
Journal Section Articles
Authors

İbrahim TÜKENMEZ>
Gazi University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering
Türkiye


Gençay GÜNDOĞDU This is me (Primary Author)
Turkish Atomic Energy Authority
Türkiye

Publication Date June 26, 2019
Published in Issue Year 2019, Volume 31, Issue 1

Cite

Bibtex @research article { tjns570975, journal = {Turkish Journal of Nuclear Sciences}, eissn = {2791-7185}, address = {Türkiye Atom Enerjisi Kurumu Mustafa Kemal Mahallesi Dumlupınar Bulvarı, No: 192 Çankaya / Ankara 06510}, publisher = {T.C. Türkiye Enerji, Nükleer ve Maden Araştırma Kurumu}, year = {2019}, volume = {31}, number = {1}, pages = {49 - 59}, title = {DETERMINATION OF THE BIOETHANOL RATIO IN GASOLINE FROM 14C ACTIVITY CONCENTRATION BY LIQUID SCINTILLATION COUNTING IN TURKEY}, key = {cite}, author = {Tükenmez, İbrahim and Gündoğdu, Gençay} }
APA Tükenmez, İ. & Gündoğdu, G. (2019). DETERMINATION OF THE BIOETHANOL RATIO IN GASOLINE FROM 14C ACTIVITY CONCENTRATION BY LIQUID SCINTILLATION COUNTING IN TURKEY . Turkish Journal of Nuclear Sciences , 31 (1) , 49-59 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/tjns/issue/46345/570975
MLA Tükenmez, İ. , Gündoğdu, G. "DETERMINATION OF THE BIOETHANOL RATIO IN GASOLINE FROM 14C ACTIVITY CONCENTRATION BY LIQUID SCINTILLATION COUNTING IN TURKEY" . Turkish Journal of Nuclear Sciences 31 (2019 ): 49-59 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/tjns/issue/46345/570975>
Chicago Tükenmez, İ. , Gündoğdu, G. "DETERMINATION OF THE BIOETHANOL RATIO IN GASOLINE FROM 14C ACTIVITY CONCENTRATION BY LIQUID SCINTILLATION COUNTING IN TURKEY". Turkish Journal of Nuclear Sciences 31 (2019 ): 49-59
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - DETERMINATION OF THE BIOETHANOL RATIO IN GASOLINE FROM 14C ACTIVITY CONCENTRATION BY LIQUID SCINTILLATION COUNTING IN TURKEY AU - İbrahimTükenmez, GençayGündoğdu Y1 - 2019 PY - 2019 N1 - DO - T2 - Turkish Journal of Nuclear Sciences JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 49 EP - 59 VL - 31 IS - 1 SN - -2791-7185 M3 - UR - Y2 - 2019 ER -
EndNote %0 Turkish Journal of Nuclear Sciences DETERMINATION OF THE BIOETHANOL RATIO IN GASOLINE FROM 14C ACTIVITY CONCENTRATION BY LIQUID SCINTILLATION COUNTING IN TURKEY %A İbrahim Tükenmez , Gençay Gündoğdu %T DETERMINATION OF THE BIOETHANOL RATIO IN GASOLINE FROM 14C ACTIVITY CONCENTRATION BY LIQUID SCINTILLATION COUNTING IN TURKEY %D 2019 %J Turkish Journal of Nuclear Sciences %P -2791-7185 %V 31 %N 1 %R %U
ISNAD Tükenmez, İbrahim , Gündoğdu, Gençay . "DETERMINATION OF THE BIOETHANOL RATIO IN GASOLINE FROM 14C ACTIVITY CONCENTRATION BY LIQUID SCINTILLATION COUNTING IN TURKEY". Turkish Journal of Nuclear Sciences 31 / 1 (June 2019): 49-59 .
AMA Tükenmez İ. , Gündoğdu G. DETERMINATION OF THE BIOETHANOL RATIO IN GASOLINE FROM 14C ACTIVITY CONCENTRATION BY LIQUID SCINTILLATION COUNTING IN TURKEY. Turkish Journal of Nuclear Sciences. 2019; 31(1): 49-59.
Vancouver Tükenmez İ. , Gündoğdu G. DETERMINATION OF THE BIOETHANOL RATIO IN GASOLINE FROM 14C ACTIVITY CONCENTRATION BY LIQUID SCINTILLATION COUNTING IN TURKEY. Turkish Journal of Nuclear Sciences. 2019; 31(1): 49-59.
IEEE İ. Tükenmez and G. Gündoğdu , "DETERMINATION OF THE BIOETHANOL RATIO IN GASOLINE FROM 14C ACTIVITY CONCENTRATION BY LIQUID SCINTILLATION COUNTING IN TURKEY", Turkish Journal of Nuclear Sciences, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 49-59, Jun. 2019