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Year 2019, Volume 3, Issue 2, 57 - 65, 30.09.2019

Abstract

References

  • Abdelrahman MM, Al-Karablieh EK (2002). Effect of vitamins AD3E injection on reproductive performance and net cash revenue of Awassi sheep raised under semiintensive system. J King Saud Univ, 14, 1, 15-22.Akbari MoghaddamKakhki R, Bakhshalinejad R, Shafiee M (2016). Effect of dietary zinc and α-tocopheryl acetate on broiler performance, immune responses, antioxidant enzyme activities, minerals and vitamin concentration in blood and tissues of broilers. Anim Feed Sci Technol, 221, 12-26. Ali SH, Abdel-Fattah YE, Shaimaa AM (2012). Biochemical, immunomodulatory and antioxidant properties of levamisole at different storage conditions and administration routes. Pak J BiolSci, 15, 20, 986-991.Aly SM, Abd-Allah O, Mahmoud A, Gafer H (2010).Efficiency of levamisole in improving the immune response of catfish (Clariasgariepenus) to Aeromonashydrophila vaccine: Clinico- pathological studies. MAJ, 1, 1, 8-17.Anonymous (2015). Sheep 201 A beginner’s Guide to Raising Sheep, Meat, milk, or wool.http://www.sheep101.info/201/meatwoolmilk.html. Date: 15.12.2015 20:40Anugu S, Petersson-Wolfe CS, Combs GF, Petersson KH (2013).Effect of vitamin E on the immune system of ewes during late pregnancy and lactation. Small Rumin Res, 111, 1-3, 83- 89.Baldassi L (2005). Clostridial Toxins - Potent Poisons, Potent Medicines. J Venom Anim Toxins Incl Trop Dis, 11, 4, 391-411.Bao B, Prasad AS, Beck FW, Snell D, Suneja A, Sarkar FH, Doshi N, Fitzgerald JT, Swerdlow P (2008). Zinc supplementation decreases oxidative stress, incidence of infection, and generation of inflammatory cytokines in sickle cell disease patients. Transl Res, 152, 2, 67-80.Başoğlu A (1998). Veteriner İç Hastalıklarında Klinik Muayene, Bahçıvanlar Basım, sayfa 129-136, Konya.Biberstein EL, Hirsh DC (1999).The Clostridia, chapter 44, in “Veterinary Microbiology” Editors, DC Hirsh and YC Zee, First Edition, Blackwell Science, Malden, US.Bisalla M, Adamu S, Ibrahim ND, Lawal IA, Esievo KA (2009). Effect of immunomodulation with levamisole on the course and pathogenesis of acute experimental Trypanosoma congolense infection in sheep. Afr J Biotechnol, 8, 5, 827-834.BlechaF (2001). Immunomodulators for prevention and treatment of infectious diseases in food-producing animals.Vet Clin North Am Food AnimPract, 17, 3, 621-633.Bokori-Brown M, Savva CG, Fernandes da Costa SP, Naylor CE, Basak AK, Titball RW (2011). Molecular basis of toxicity of Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin. FEBS J, 278, 23, 4589-4601.Bonaventura P, Benedetti, G, Albarède F, Miossec P (2015). Zinc and its role in immunity and inflammation. Autoimmun Rev, 14, 4, 277-285.Callahan GN, Yates RM (2014). Basic Veterinary Immunology, 1st Ed. University Press of Colorado, chapter 11, Boulder, US.Chandra RK (1997). Nutrition and the immune system: an introduction. Am J Clin Nutr, 66, 2, 460-463.Chandra RK, Kumari S (1994). Nutrition and immunity: an overview. J Nutr, 124, 8, 1433-1435.Chandy ML, Soman C, Kumar SP, Kurup S, Jose R (2016). Understanding molecular mechanisms in multivariant actions of levamisole as an anti-helminthic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-neoplastic and immunomodulatory drug. J Oral Maxillofac Surg Med Pathol, 28, 4, 354-357.Dalimi A, Motamedi GR, Farzan A (1999). The efficacy of combine application of levamisole and enterotoxemia vaccine in sheep. Arch RaziIns, 50.Day MJ, Schultz RD (2011). Veterinary immunology: Principles and Practice, 2nd Ed. Manson Publishing Ltd, chapter 2, London, UK.de la Rosa C, Hogue DE, Thonney ML (1997). Vaccination schedules to raise antibody concentrations against ε-toxin of Clostridium perfringens in ewes and their triplet lambs. J Anim Sci, 75, 9, 2328-2334.Dörücü M, İspir Ü, Türk C (2005). Levamisolün gökkuşağı alabalığı (Oncorhynchus mykiss, W)’nın bazı kan parametrelerine etkisinin araştırılması. Fırat Üniv Fen Müh Bil Derg, 17, 2, 405-411.El Hendy HA, Yousef MI, Abo El-Naga NI (2001). Effect of dietary zinc deficiency on hematological and biochemical parameters and concentrations of zinc, copper, and iron in growing rats. Toxicology, 167, 2, 163-170.Elgert KD (1996). Immunology: understanding the Immune System, 1st Ed. John Wiley and Sons Ltd, chapter 4, New York, US.Eze JI, Ayogu LC, Abonyi FO, Eze UU (2015). The beneficial effect of dietary zinc supplementation on anaemia and immunosuppression in Trypanosoma brucei infected rats. Exp Parasitol, 154, 87-92.Fan X, Liu S, Liu G, Zhao J, Jiao H, Wang X, Song Z, Lin H (2015). Vitamin A deficiency impairs mucin expression and suppresses the mucosal immune function of the respiratory tract in chicks. PLoS One, 10, 9, 1-16.Freedman JC, Theoret JR, Wisniewski JA, Uzal FA, Rood JI, McClane BA (2015). Clostridium perfringens type A-E toxin plasmids. Res Microbiol, 166, 4, 264-279.Gershwin LJ (1999). Immune responses to infectious agents,chapter 2, in “Veterinary Microbilogy” Editors, DC Hirsh and YC Zee, First Edition, Blackwell Science, Malden, US.Gershwin LJ (2008). Clinical veterinary immunology, chapter 6, in “Clinical Biochemistry of Domestic Animals” Editors, JJ Kaneko, JW Harvey and ML Bruss, Sixth Edition, Elsevier Science Publishing Co, San Diego, US.Gokbulut C, Yalinkilinc HS, Aksit D,Veneziano V (2014). Comparative pharmacokinetics of levamisole-oxyclozanide combination in sheep and goats following per os administration. Can J Vet Res, 78, 4, 316-320.Gopalakannan A, Arul V (2006). Immunomodulatory effects of dietary intake of chitin, chitosan and levamisole on the immune system of Cyprinuscarpio and control of Aeromonashydrophila infection in ponds. Aquaculture, 255, 1-4, 179-187.Greco G, Madio A, Buonavoglia D, Totaro M, Corrente M, Martella V, Buonavoglia C (2005). Clostridium perfringens toxin-types in lambs and kids affected with gastroenteric pathologies in Italy. Vet J, 170, 3, 346-350.Gürsoy O (2006). Economics and profitability of sheep and goat production in Turkey under new support regimes and market conditions. Small Rumin Res, 62, 3, 181-191.Guzman-Rivero M, Verduguez-Orellana A, Cordova M, Maldonado L, Medina M, Sejas E, Åkesson B (2014). Effect of zinc on immune functions in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Biomed PrevNutr, 4, 2, 245-250.Habib MA, Soofi S, Sheraz A, Bhatti ZS, Okayasu H, Zaidi SZ, Molodecky NA, Pallansch MA, Sutter RW,Bhutta ZA (2015). Zinc supplementation fails to increase the immunogenicity of oral poliovirus vaccine: A randomized controlled trial. Vaccine, 33, 6, 819-825.Kizil O, Gul Y (2008). Effects of vitamin AD3E and C on immune responses of cattle to trivalent foot and mouth disease vaccine. Rev Med Vet, 159, 12, 599-602.Krakowski L, KrzyzÇanowski J, Wrona Z, Siwicki AK (1999). The effect of nonspecific immunostimulation of pregnant mares with 1,3/1,6 glucan and levamisole on the immunoglobulin levels in colostrum, selected indices of nonspecific cellular and humoral immunity in foals in neonatal and postnatal period. Vet Immunol Immunopathol, 68, 1, 1-11.Layana JE, Fernandez Miyakawa ME, Uzal FA (2006). Evaluation of different fluids for detection of Clostridium perfringens type D epsilon toxin in sheep with experimental enterotoxemia. Anaerobe, 12, 4, 204-206.Lewis CJ (2007). 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The Effects of Immunostimulants (Zinc, Levamisole, Vitamin AD3E) Use Together With Enterotoxemia Vaccine on Immunoglobulins in Sheep

Year 2019, Volume 3, Issue 2, 57 - 65, 30.09.2019

Abstract

Objective:In this study, levamisole, zinc and vitamin AD3E were used with enterotoxemia vaccine in sheep, in order to investigate their immunostimulant activities and also to make a comparison among them regarding their immunostimulatory properties.

Materials and Methods: For this purpose 40 sheep were divided into 4 groups, each group consisted of 10 sheep. Group I only vaccinated against enterotoxemia. In groups II, III and IV besides enterotoxemia vaccine, levamisole, zinc and vitamin AD3E were used respectively. Blood samples were taken on days 0 and 35 of the experiment.  Serum levels of immunoglobulins (IgM, IgG, IgA and IgE) were determined using ELISA kits specific to sheep immunoglobulins. Hematological parameters and serum zinc levels were also determined. 

Results:Levamisole-treated group showed a significant increase in serum level of IgM, and zinc-treated group demonstrated a significant increase in serum IgG level (P<0.05). In day 35, serum IgM level was the highest in levamisole group (group II) based on its levels in groups III and IV (P<0.05) and also IgG level was highest in group II when compared to its levels in groups III and IV (P<0.01). In group II, statistically significant decrease in total WBC and lymphocyte counts and statistically significant increase in thrombocyte counts were determined on day 35 (P<0.05). In group III, statistically significant decrease in total WBC, neutrophil counts and hematocrit values were detected (P<0.05), although, these changes were within physiologically normal limits.

Conclusion:In conclusion, in this study levamisole stimulated the increase in IgM levels and zinc stimulated the increase in IgG levels without inducing adverse effect and the increase in antibody production resulted in the enhancement of humoral immune response to enterotoxemia vaccine. The use of levamisole and zinc as immunostimulant together with vaccination is recommended.

References

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Sheep 201 A beginner’s Guide to Raising Sheep, Meat, milk, or wool.http://www.sheep101.info/201/meatwoolmilk.html. Date: 15.12.2015 20:40Anugu S, Petersson-Wolfe CS, Combs GF, Petersson KH (2013).Effect of vitamin E on the immune system of ewes during late pregnancy and lactation. Small Rumin Res, 111, 1-3, 83- 89.Baldassi L (2005). Clostridial Toxins - Potent Poisons, Potent Medicines. J Venom Anim Toxins Incl Trop Dis, 11, 4, 391-411.Bao B, Prasad AS, Beck FW, Snell D, Suneja A, Sarkar FH, Doshi N, Fitzgerald JT, Swerdlow P (2008). Zinc supplementation decreases oxidative stress, incidence of infection, and generation of inflammatory cytokines in sickle cell disease patients. Transl Res, 152, 2, 67-80.Başoğlu A (1998). Veteriner İç Hastalıklarında Klinik Muayene, Bahçıvanlar Basım, sayfa 129-136, Konya.Biberstein EL, Hirsh DC (1999).The Clostridia, chapter 44, in “Veterinary Microbiology” Editors, DC Hirsh and YC Zee, First Edition, Blackwell Science, Malden, US.Bisalla M, Adamu S, Ibrahim ND, Lawal IA, Esievo KA (2009). Effect of immunomodulation with levamisole on the course and pathogenesis of acute experimental Trypanosoma congolense infection in sheep. Afr J Biotechnol, 8, 5, 827-834.BlechaF (2001). Immunomodulators for prevention and treatment of infectious diseases in food-producing animals.Vet Clin North Am Food AnimPract, 17, 3, 621-633.Bokori-Brown M, Savva CG, Fernandes da Costa SP, Naylor CE, Basak AK, Titball RW (2011). Molecular basis of toxicity of Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin. FEBS J, 278, 23, 4589-4601.Bonaventura P, Benedetti, G, Albarède F, Miossec P (2015). Zinc and its role in immunity and inflammation. Autoimmun Rev, 14, 4, 277-285.Callahan GN, Yates RM (2014). 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Vaccination schedules to raise antibody concentrations against ε-toxin of Clostridium perfringens in ewes and their triplet lambs. J Anim Sci, 75, 9, 2328-2334.Dörücü M, İspir Ü, Türk C (2005). Levamisolün gökkuşağı alabalığı (Oncorhynchus mykiss, W)’nın bazı kan parametrelerine etkisinin araştırılması. Fırat Üniv Fen Müh Bil Derg, 17, 2, 405-411.El Hendy HA, Yousef MI, Abo El-Naga NI (2001). Effect of dietary zinc deficiency on hematological and biochemical parameters and concentrations of zinc, copper, and iron in growing rats. Toxicology, 167, 2, 163-170.Elgert KD (1996). Immunology: understanding the Immune System, 1st Ed. John Wiley and Sons Ltd, chapter 4, New York, US.Eze JI, Ayogu LC, Abonyi FO, Eze UU (2015). The beneficial effect of dietary zinc supplementation on anaemia and immunosuppression in Trypanosoma brucei infected rats. Exp Parasitol, 154, 87-92.Fan X, Liu S, Liu G, Zhao J, Jiao H, Wang X, Song Z, Lin H (2015). Vitamin A deficiency impairs mucin expression and suppresses the mucosal immune function of the respiratory tract in chicks. PLoS One, 10, 9, 1-16.Freedman JC, Theoret JR, Wisniewski JA, Uzal FA, Rood JI, McClane BA (2015). Clostridium perfringens type A-E toxin plasmids. Res Microbiol, 166, 4, 264-279.Gershwin LJ (1999). Immune responses to infectious agents,chapter 2, in “Veterinary Microbilogy” Editors, DC Hirsh and YC Zee, First Edition, Blackwell Science, Malden, US.Gershwin LJ (2008). Clinical veterinary immunology, chapter 6, in “Clinical Biochemistry of Domestic Animals” Editors, JJ Kaneko, JW Harvey and ML Bruss, Sixth Edition, Elsevier Science Publishing Co, San Diego, US.Gokbulut C, Yalinkilinc HS, Aksit D,Veneziano V (2014). Comparative pharmacokinetics of levamisole-oxyclozanide combination in sheep and goats following per os administration. Can J Vet Res, 78, 4, 316-320.Gopalakannan A, Arul V (2006). Immunomodulatory effects of dietary intake of chitin, chitosan and levamisole on the immune system of Cyprinuscarpio and control of Aeromonashydrophila infection in ponds. Aquaculture, 255, 1-4, 179-187.Greco G, Madio A, Buonavoglia D, Totaro M, Corrente M, Martella V, Buonavoglia C (2005). Clostridium perfringens toxin-types in lambs and kids affected with gastroenteric pathologies in Italy. Vet J, 170, 3, 346-350.Gürsoy O (2006). Economics and profitability of sheep and goat production in Turkey under new support regimes and market conditions. Small Rumin Res, 62, 3, 181-191.Guzman-Rivero M, Verduguez-Orellana A, Cordova M, Maldonado L, Medina M, Sejas E, Åkesson B (2014). Effect of zinc on immune functions in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Biomed PrevNutr, 4, 2, 245-250.Habib MA, Soofi S, Sheraz A, Bhatti ZS, Okayasu H, Zaidi SZ, Molodecky NA, Pallansch MA, Sutter RW,Bhutta ZA (2015). Zinc supplementation fails to increase the immunogenicity of oral poliovirus vaccine: A randomized controlled trial. Vaccine, 33, 6, 819-825.Kizil O, Gul Y (2008). Effects of vitamin AD3E and C on immune responses of cattle to trivalent foot and mouth disease vaccine. Rev Med Vet, 159, 12, 599-602.Krakowski L, KrzyzÇanowski J, Wrona Z, Siwicki AK (1999). The effect of nonspecific immunostimulation of pregnant mares with 1,3/1,6 glucan and levamisole on the immunoglobulin levels in colostrum, selected indices of nonspecific cellular and humoral immunity in foals in neonatal and postnatal period. Vet Immunol Immunopathol, 68, 1, 1-11.Layana JE, Fernandez Miyakawa ME, Uzal FA (2006). Evaluation of different fluids for detection of Clostridium perfringens type D epsilon toxin in sheep with experimental enterotoxemia. Anaerobe, 12, 4, 204-206.Lewis CJ (2007). 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Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Veterinary
Journal Section 2019 Volume 3 Number 2
Authors

Bakhtiyar Mohammed RASHID This is me
Ministry of Agriculture and Water Recourses, Veterinary Directorate in Sulaymaniyah, Iraq.
Iraq


Nazmi YÜKSEK> (Primary Author)
Van Yüzüncü Yıl University, Institute of Health Sciences, Department of Internal Medicine
Türkiye

Supporting Institution Van Yüzüncü Yıl University Directorate of Scientific Research Projects
Project Number Project No: TYL-2016-5450
Thanks This study was supported by Van Yüzüncü Yıl University Directorate of Scientific Research Projects (Project No: TYL-2016-5450), and we thank them for their support.
Publication Date September 30, 2019
Submission Date May 6, 2019
Acceptance Date September 22, 2019
Published in Issue Year 2019, Volume 3, Issue 2

Cite

Bibtex @research article { tjvr561116, journal = {Turkish Journal of Veterinary Research}, eissn = {2602-3695}, address = {}, publisher = {Ebubekir CEYLAN}, year = {2019}, volume = {3}, number = {2}, pages = {57 - 65}, title = {The Effects of Immunostimulants (Zinc, Levamisole, Vitamin AD3E) Use Together With Enterotoxemia Vaccine on Immunoglobulins in Sheep}, key = {cite}, author = {Rashıd, Bakhtiyar Mohammed and Yüksek, Nazmi} }
APA Rashıd, B. M. & Yüksek, N. (2019). The Effects of Immunostimulants (Zinc, Levamisole, Vitamin AD3E) Use Together With Enterotoxemia Vaccine on Immunoglobulins in Sheep . Turkish Journal of Veterinary Research , 3 (2) , 57-65 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/tjvr/issue/48823/561116
MLA Rashıd, B. M. , Yüksek, N. "The Effects of Immunostimulants (Zinc, Levamisole, Vitamin AD3E) Use Together With Enterotoxemia Vaccine on Immunoglobulins in Sheep" . Turkish Journal of Veterinary Research 3 (2019 ): 57-65 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/tjvr/issue/48823/561116>
Chicago Rashıd, B. M. , Yüksek, N. "The Effects of Immunostimulants (Zinc, Levamisole, Vitamin AD3E) Use Together With Enterotoxemia Vaccine on Immunoglobulins in Sheep". Turkish Journal of Veterinary Research 3 (2019 ): 57-65
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - The Effects of Immunostimulants (Zinc, Levamisole, Vitamin AD3E) Use Together With Enterotoxemia Vaccine on Immunoglobulins in Sheep AU - Bakhtiyar MohammedRashıd, NazmiYüksek Y1 - 2019 PY - 2019 N1 - DO - T2 - Turkish Journal of Veterinary Research JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 57 EP - 65 VL - 3 IS - 2 SN - -2602-3695 M3 - UR - Y2 - 2019 ER -
EndNote %0 Turkish Journal of Veterinary Research The Effects of Immunostimulants (Zinc, Levamisole, Vitamin AD3E) Use Together With Enterotoxemia Vaccine on Immunoglobulins in Sheep %A Bakhtiyar Mohammed Rashıd , Nazmi Yüksek %T The Effects of Immunostimulants (Zinc, Levamisole, Vitamin AD3E) Use Together With Enterotoxemia Vaccine on Immunoglobulins in Sheep %D 2019 %J Turkish Journal of Veterinary Research %P -2602-3695 %V 3 %N 2 %R %U
ISNAD Rashıd, Bakhtiyar Mohammed , Yüksek, Nazmi . "The Effects of Immunostimulants (Zinc, Levamisole, Vitamin AD3E) Use Together With Enterotoxemia Vaccine on Immunoglobulins in Sheep". Turkish Journal of Veterinary Research 3 / 2 (September 2019): 57-65 .
AMA Rashıd B. M. , Yüksek N. The Effects of Immunostimulants (Zinc, Levamisole, Vitamin AD3E) Use Together With Enterotoxemia Vaccine on Immunoglobulins in Sheep. TJVR. 2019; 3(2): 57-65.
Vancouver Rashıd B. M. , Yüksek N. The Effects of Immunostimulants (Zinc, Levamisole, Vitamin AD3E) Use Together With Enterotoxemia Vaccine on Immunoglobulins in Sheep. Turkish Journal of Veterinary Research. 2019; 3(2): 57-65.
IEEE B. M. Rashıd and N. Yüksek , "The Effects of Immunostimulants (Zinc, Levamisole, Vitamin AD3E) Use Together With Enterotoxemia Vaccine on Immunoglobulins in Sheep", Turkish Journal of Veterinary Research, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 57-65, Sep. 2019